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///  /  AND 


OF    THE 



JOHN  EVANS,  D.C.L.,  LL.D.,  TBEAS.R.S.,  P.S.A., 


BARCLAY  V.  HEAD,  D.C.L.,  PH.D., 





Factum  abiit — monumenta  manent. — Ov.  Fast. 





sar.  3 






Greek  Coins  acquired  by  the  British  Museum  in  1887.     By 

Warwick  Wroth,  Esq 1 

On  a  Hoard  of  Eoman  Coins  found  at  East  Harptree,  near 

Bristol.   By  John  Evans,  D.C.L.,  LL.D.,  F.E.S.,  P.S.A.       22 

Coins  of  the  Indo-Scythian  King  Miaiis,  or  Heraiis.  By 
Major-General  Sir  A.  Cunningham,  E.E.,  K.C.I.E., 
C.S.I 47 

Monnaies  grecques,  inedites  et  incertaines.     By  J.  P.  Six     .       97 

On  the  Jewish   "Lulab"    and   "Portal"   Coins.     By  Dr. 

Graetz.    Translated  by  H.  Montagu,  F.S.  A.    .        .        .165 

Coins  of  the  Indo-Scythians.     By  Major-General    Sir  A. 

Cunningham,  E.E.,  K.C.I.E.,  C.S.I 199 

The  Eastern  Capital  of  the  Seleucidse.     By  H.  H.  Howorth, 

M.P.,  F.S.A.,  M.E.A.S.   .......    293 

Germanicopolis  and  Philadelphia  in  Cilicia.     By  Barclay  V. 

Head,  D.C.L.,  Ph.D 300 

A  New  Type  of  Carausius.     By  C.  Oman,  M.A.,  F.S.A.        .    308 




Is  it  certain  that  the  Anglo-Saxon  Coins  were  always  struck 
at  the  Towns  named  on  them  ?  By  Samuel  Smith,  jun., 
Esq. 138 

English    Personal    Medals     from    1760.     By    Herbert    A. 

Grueber,  F.S.A 59,  249 

German  Medallists  of  the  Sixteenth  and  Seventeenth  Cen- 
turies. By  T.  Whitcombe  Greene,  B.C.L.  .  .  .145 

On  the  Half-noble  of  the  Third  Coinage  of  Edward  III.     By 

H.  Montagu,  F.S.A 310 

Medals  of  Scotland.    By  ft.  W.  Cochran-Patrick,  F.S.A.        .     316 
On  Swiss  Tir  Medals.     By  A.  Prevost,  Esq.   .  323 


.     325 




Beschreibung  der  antiken  Miinzen  (Konigliche  Museen  zu 

Berlin)      ..........     154 

Kleine  Beitrage  zur  antiken  Numisuiatik  Siidrusslands          .     156 
Revue  Numismatique     .......      158,  286 

Zeitschrift  fiir  Numismatik     ......      160,  285 

Bulletin  de  Numismatique      .......     289 

Eepertoire    des    Sources    imprimees    de    la  Numismatique 

e  ..........  289 

Trois  royaumes  de  1'Asie  Mineure.     T.  Reinach      .         .         .  364 

The  Coins  and  Tokens  of  the  Possessions  and  Colonies  of  the 

British  Empire.     By  James  Atkins          .         .  •      .         .  364 


Find  of  Stycas .  95 

Rare  and  Unpublished  Commonwealth 'Coins  .        .  96 

The  North  Borneo  Coinage 96 

Find  of  Roman  Coins  on  Great  Orme's  Head  .         .  .  163 

The  New  Coinage,  1887 v  .        .  290 

Fiud  of  Coins  at  Denby,  near  Barnsley,  Yorkshire  .         .  36(i 



I.  Acquisitions  of  the  British  Museum  in  1887. 

II.  Coins  from  the  Harptree  Hoard. 

III.  Coins  of  Miaiis  or  Heraiis,  Chief  of  the  Kushans. 

IV.  English  Personal  Medals. 
V.  Monnaies  grecques  inedites. 

VI.  Jewish  "Lulab"  and  "  Portal"  Coins. 
VII.  Indo- Scythians— Native  Legends. 
VIII.  Do.  Do. 

IX.  Do.  Monograms. 

X.  Bactriana,  Ariana,  North- West  India. 
XL  English  Personal  Medals. 
XII.  Scottish  Medals. 
XIII.  Coins  of  the  Durranis. 


SESSION  1887—1888. 

OCTOBER  20,  1887. 

JOHN  EVANS,  Esq.,  D.C.L.,  LL.D.,  F.R.S.,  P.S.A.,  President, 
in  the  Chair. 

Thomas  W.  Minton,  Esq.,  was  elected  a  Member  of  the  Society. 

The  following  presents  were  announced  and  laid  upon  the 
table  :— 

1.  Berliner  Philologische  Wochenschrift.    Nos.  21— 42, 1887. 
From  the  Publishers. 

2.  Sitzungsberichte    der     k.     Preussischen    Akademie    der 
Wissenschaften  zu  Berlin.     Parts  I— XVII,  and  XIX— XXXIX. 
1887.     From  the  Academy. 

3.  Aarboger  for  Nordisk  Oldkyndighed  og  Historie,   Bd.   II. 
Heft   I — III.      From   the    Society    of    Northern   Antiquaries, 

4.  Bulletin  historique  de  la  Societe   des   Antiquaires  de   la 
Morinie.     Livraison  142.     From  the  Society 

5.  Journal  of  the  Institute  of  Bankers.     Parts  VI— VII,  1887. 
From  the  Institute. 

6.  Annuaire   de   la    Societe   Fra^aise   de  Numismatique  et 
d'Archeologie.     May — August,  1887.     From  the  Society. 

7.  Revue  Beige  de  Numismatique.      Parts   III— IV,    1887. 
From  the  Society. 



8.  Bulletin   de   la   Societe    des     Antiquaires      de     1'Ouest. 
Parts  I— II,  1887.     From  the  Society. 

9.  Proceedings  of    the  Society  of    Antiquaries  of  London. 
Vol.  xi.     No.  3.     From  the  Society. 

10.  Monatsblatt  der  Numismatischen  Gesellschaft  in  Wien. 
Nos.  47—50,  1887.     From  the  Society. 

11.  Zeitschrift  fur  Numismatik.     Bd.  XV.     Part  I.     From 
the  Editor. 

12.  Journal   of  the    Royal    Historical    and    Archaeological 
Association  of  Ireland.     Vol.   viii.     Nos.   70 — 72.     From  the 

13.  Catalogue  of  Roman  Coins  in  the  Public  Museum,  Moscow. 
Part  II.     From  the  Museum. 

14.  Archa3ologia  Aeliana.     Part  XXXIII.     From  the  Society 
of  Antiquaries  of  Newcastle-upon-Tyne.     From  the  Society. 

15.  The  Journal   of  Hellenic    Studies.     Vol.    viii.     No.    1. 
Text  and  Plates.     From  the  Hellenic  Society. 

16.  Hints  to  Coin  Collectors  in  Southern  India.     Part  I.   By 
Captain  R.  H.  C.  Tufnell.     From  the  Author. 

17.  Somerset  Trade-tokens  of  the  seventeenth  century,   and 
from  1787— 1817.    By  W.  Bidgood.     From  the  Author. 

18.  Madras  Journal   of    Literature   and    Science,   1886—7. 
From  the  Editor. 

19.  Jahrbiicher    des   Vereins    von   Alterthumsfreunden    im 
Rheinlande.     Part  LXXXIII.     From  the  Society. 

20.  Kongl.  Vitterhets   Historie  och  Antiquitets  Academiens 
Monadsblad,  1878—1885.     From  the  Academy. 

21.  Zur  Miinzkunde  Grossgriechenlands,  Siciliens,Kretas,&c 
By  Dr.  F.  Imhoof-Blumer.    From  the  Author. 

22.  Monnaies  Lyciennes.   By  M.  J.  P.  Six.  From  the  Author 

23.  Anniversary  Address  to  the  Society  of  Antiquaries,  1887. 
From  the  President. 

24.  Catalogue  of  Greek    Coins    in    the    British    Museum 
Peloponnesus,  by  P.  Gardner,  and  Crete,  *..,  by  W.   Wroth; 
From  the  Trustees  of  the  British  Museum 


25.  Catalogue  of  English  Coins.  Anglo-Saxon  Series.  Vol.  i. 
By  C.  F.  Keary.  From  the  Trustees  of  the  British  Museum. 

Mr.  H.  Montagu  exhibited  twenty-eight  varieties  of  gold 
coins  of  James  I.  not  recorded  in  Kenyon's  recent  work  on  the 
Gold  Coins  of  England. 

Mr.  Deakin  exhibited  a  base  shilling  of  James  I,  counter- 
marked  with  a  castle  and  the  letter  K,  possibly  an  obsidional 
piece  of  Kilkenny,  1650 — 4,  of  which  city  the  arms  are  a  castle. 

The  Rev.  G.  F.  Crowther  exhibited  a  set  of  Newark  money, 
viz.,  a  half-crown  and  shilling  of  1645,  and  a  ninepence  and  six- 
pence of  1646. 

Mr.  Copp  exhibited  two  patterns  of  George  IV  with  obverses 
by  Pistrucci.  These  pieces  were  probably  intended  for  half- 
crowns,  though  larger  in  diameter  than  usual. 

The  Rev.  W.  G.  Searle  exhibited  a  rare  and  unpublished 
copper  denarius  of  Constantine  the  Great,  struck  in  London 
shortly  before  he  was  proclaimed  emperor,  25th  of  July, 
A.D.  306  :  Obv.,  FL.  VAL.  CONSTANTINVS  NOB.  C. ;  rev., 
VIRTVS  AVGG.  ET  CAESS.  NN. ;  exergue,  P.L.N.  Type, 
emperor  on  horseback  spearing  prostrate  foe. 

Professor  P.  Gardner  read  a  paper  on  some  unpublished 
coins  of  Bactria  and  India,  the  most  remarkable  of  which  was 
a  decadrachm,  having  on  the  obverse  a  Greek  horseman  pur- 
suing an  elephant  on  whose  back  are  two  apparently  Scythian 
warriors,  and  on  the  reverse  a  standing  figure  of  Alexander 
the  Great  holding  the  thunderbolt  of  Zeus.  This  important 
coin,  which  was  found  two  or  three  years  ago  at  Khullum, 
in  Bokhara,  has  been  purchased  by  Mr.  A.  W.  Franks,  and 
generously  presented  by  him  to  the  Department  of  Coins  in 
the  British  Museum. 

Mr.  A.  J.  Evans  read  a  paper  "  On  a  Coin  of  a  Second  Car- 
ausius,  Caesar  in  Britain  in  the  Fifth  Century."  (This  paper  is 
printed  in  vol.  vii,  p.  191.) 


NOVEMBER  17,  1887. 
JOHN  EVANS,  Esq.,  D.C.L.,  LL.D.,  F.R.S.,  P.S.A.,  President, 

in  the  Chair. 

J.  Harris  Gibson,  Esq.,  and  Major  H.  Trotter,  C.B.,  were 
elected  Members  of  the  Society. 

The  following  presents  were  announced  and  laid  upon  the 
table  :— 

1.  Berliner  Philologische  Wochenschrift.  Nos.  43— 46.  1887. 
From  the  Publishers. 

2.  Zeitschrift  fur  Numismatik.  Bd.  XV.  Parts  II,  III.  From 
the  Editor. 

3.  Bulletins  de  1'Academie  Royale  des  Sciences  de  Belgique. 
Tomes  9 — 13,  and  Annuaires  1886 — 7.     From  the  Academy. 

4.  Catalogue  des  livres  de   la  Bibliotheque   de   1'Academie 
Royale  des  Sciences,  &c.,  de  Belgique,  (i)  Lettres,  (ii)  Sciences. 
From  the  Academy. 

5.  Bulletin  historique  de  la  Societe  des  Antiquaires  de  la 
Morinie.     143me  livraison.     From  the  Society. 

6.  Monatsblatt  der  Numismatischen   Gesellschaft  in  Wien. 
No.  51.     From  the  Society. 

7.  Journal  of  the  Institute  of  Bankers.     Vol.  viii,  Part  VIII. 
From  the  Institute. 

The  Rev.  G.  F.  Crowther  exhibited,  on  behalf  of  Mr.  H. 
Symonds,  a  penny  of  Edward  III  struck  at  Durham,  with  mint- 
mark  crown  on  obverse  instead  of  the  usual  cross  patee  ;  also 
a  penny  of  Henry  VIII,  "  Cantor  "  second  coinage,  with  W-A 
at  sides  of  shield,  and  mint-mark  T  on  obverse  only. 

Mr.  L.  A.  Laurence  exhibited  a  gold  crown  of  Henry  VIII, 
with  the  reverse  inscription  on  both  sides. 
^  Mr.  H.  Montagu  exhibited  specimens  of  rare  or  unpublished 
sixpences  of  the  Commonwealth,  dated  1657  and  1659 

Mr.Krumbholz  exhibited  a  rare  half-crown  of  Charles  II, 

81,  with  elephant  and  castle  under  bust 


Mr.  Durlaclier  exhibited  a  half-guinea  of  George  II,  1730, 
young  head,  with  E.I.C.  under  bust,  no  gold  coins  having  been 
previously  known  of  that  year. 

Mr.  F.  W.  Pixley  exhibited  a  complete  set  of  the  Jubilee 

The  Rev.  G.  F.  Crowther  read  a  paper  "  On  Groats  of 
Henry  VII  with  the  arched  crown,  second  issue."  (See  vol.  vii, 
p.  316.) 

Mr.  B.  V.  Head  read  a  paper,  by  Prof.  P.  Gardner,  "  On  the 
Exchange  Value  of  Cyzicene  Staters,"  in  which  the  writer 
maintained  that  the  Cyzicene  and  the  Daric  were  of  the  same 
value,  and  passed  at  Athens  as  equivalent  to  28  Attic  drachms, 
in  the  Persian  dominions  to  25,  and  at  Panticapaeum  to  22. 
(See  vol.  vii,  p.  185.) 

Mr.  Head  fully  agreed  with  Prof.  Gardner's  conclusions,  and 
stated  that  he  hoped  to  be  able  to  lay  before  the  Society  at  an 
early  date  accurate  specific  gravities  of  a  series  of  early  electrum 
coins,  together  with  the  per-centages  of  gold  and  silver  con- 
tained in  each  specimen. 

DECEMBEK  15,  1887. 

JOHN  EVANS,  Esq.,  D.C.L.,  LLJ).,  F.R.S.,  P.S.A.,  President, 
in  the  Chair. 

M.  W.  Cockayne,  Esq.,  J.  L.  Henderson,  Esq.,  and  E.  F. 
Weber,  Esq.,  were  elected  Members  of  the  Society. 

The  following  presents  were  announced  and  laid  upon  the 
table  :— 

1.  Berliner  Philologische  Wochenschrift.  Nos.  47— 50.  1887. 
From  the  Publishers. 

2.  Kongl.  Vitterhets   Historic    och   Antiquitets   Academiens 
Monadsblad.     Stockholm,  1886.     From  the  Academy. 


3.  Histoire  Monetaire  de  Geneve,  1535—1792.  ByE.Demole. 
From  E.  Prevost,  Esq. 

4.  Monatsblatt    der  Numismatischen  Gesellschaft  in  Wien. 
From  the  Society. 

5.  Journal  of  the  Institute  of  Bankers.     Vol.  viii,  Part  IX. 
From  the  Institute. 

6.  Biographie  historique  de  1'arrondissement  de  St.  Omer. 
By  B.  Dard.     From  the  Societe  des  Antiquaires  de  la  Morinie. 

7.  De   Munten   der   frankische   en   deutsch   nederlandische 
Vorsten.     By  P.  0.  Van  der  Chijs.     From  Dr.  0.  Codrington. 

Mr.  B.  V.  Head  exhibited  an  electrotype  of  a  unique  coin  of 
the  town  of  Maronea  in  Thrace,  which  has  recently  been 
acquired  by  the  British  Museum.  It  is  a  tetradrachm  of  light 
Attic  weight,  having  on  the  obverse  a  very  fine  head  of  the 
youthful  Dionysus  wearing  an  ivy  wreath.  The  style  of  the 
work  resembles  that  of  some  of  the  beautiful  heads  of  Apollo  on 
the  coins  of  Chalcidice.  The  reverse,  instead  of  the  usual  vine 
with  four  or  more  bunches  of  grapes,  has  a  single  vine-branch 
with  a  large  bunch  of  grapes  occupying  the  whole  field  of  the 
coin.  Mr.  Head  fixed  the  date  of  the  coin  at  about  B.C.  400. 

Mr.  J.  G.  Hall  exhibited  a  thaler  of  Matthew  Schiner,  Bishop 
of  Sitten  (Sion),  Valais,  struck  in  A.D.  1501,  having  on  the 
obverse  St.  Theodolus  in  episcopal  robes,  and  by  his  side 
Satan  carrying  the  bell,  in  allusion  to  the  well-known  local 


Mr.  H.  Montagu  exhibited  a  noble  and  a  quarter-noble  of 
Edward  Ill's  second  coinage,  1344,  each  with  the  letter  L  (for 
London)  in  the  centre  of  the  reverse. 

Mr.  B.  A.  Hoblyn  exhibited  a  set  of  patterns,  proofs,  and 
currency  of  the  Kiichler  copper  coinages  for  Great  Britain  and 
•eland  struck  in  the  years  1799,  1805,  1806,  and  1807 

Mr.  Webster  read  an  account  of  an  ingenious  trick  by  which 
American  dollars,  probably  of  1801,  have  been,  by  some  former 
converted  into  dollars  of  1804  (the  rare  date),  the  figure  1 
bavmg  been  effaced,  and  a  new  figure  4  laid  on  with  silver 


solder  in  such  a  perfect  manner  that  the  junction  was  invisible. 
(See  vol.  vii,  p.  340.) 

Mr.  Evans  read  a  paper  on  an  important  and  extensive  hoard 
of  Koman  silver  coins  recently  discovered  at  East  Harptree,  in 
Somersetshire.  The  hoard  covered  the  period  between  the 
reigns  of  Constantine  the  Great  and  Gratian.  It  consisted  of 
1,476  specimens,  for  the  most  part  in  fine  condition,  and 
included  some  rarities.  (See  vol.  viii,  p.  22.) 

A  vote  of  thanks  was  passed  to  Mr.  Kettlewell,  the  owner  of 
the  coins,  for  his  kindness  in  placing  the  hoard  in  Mr.  Evans's 
hands  for  examination. 

JANUARY  19,  1888. 
R.  S.  POOLE,  Esq.,  LL.D.,  Vice-President,  in  the  Chair. 

Captain  A.  H.  Warren,  G.  J.  Crosbie-Dawson,  Esq.,  the  Rev. 
F.  Binley-Dickinson,  and  Messrs.  J.  P.  Lambros  and  J.  H. 
Pinches,  were  elected  Members  of  the  Society. 

The  following  presents  were  announced  and  laid  upon  the 
table  :— 

1.  Bulletins  de  la  Societe  des  Antiquaires  de  1'Ouest.     1887. 
Part  III.     From  the  Society. 

2.  Berliner  Philologische  Wochenschrift.    Nos.  51,  52, 1887, 
and  Nos.  1,  2,  1888.     From  the  Publishers. 

3.  Revue   Beige    de    Numismatique.      lre   livraison,    1888. 
From  the  Society. 

4.  Monatsblatt  der   Numismatischen    Gesellschaft   in   Wien. 
No.  53.     From  the  Society. 

5.  Annuaire    de  la  Societe  Franchise  de   Numismatique  et 
d'Archeologie,  Nov.,  Dec.,  1887.     From  the  Society. 

6.  Journal    of  the  Institute  of  Bankers.     Vol.   ix,  Part  I. 
From  the  Institute. 


7.  Jahrbiicher    des    Vereins    von    Alterthumsfreunden    im 
Rheinlande.     Heft  84.     From  the  Society. 

8.  Catalogue  of  the  Coins  of  the  Shahs   of  Persia   in    the 
British  Museum.     By  K.  S.  Poole,  LL.D.     From  the  Trustees 
of  the  British  Museum 

9.  Catalogue  of  Greek  Coins  in  the  British  Museum—  Attica 
-Megaris—  Aegina.     By  B.  V.   Head,  D.C.L.,  Ph.D.      From 
the  Trustees  of  the  British  Museum. 

10.  Bronze  medal  commemorating  the  Colonial  and  Indian 
reception  at  the  Guildhall,  25th  June,  1886.     From  the  Corpo- 
ration of  the  City  of  London. 

The  Rev.  G.  F.  Crowther  exhibited  a  penny  of  Cnut  (Hilde- 
brand,  type  G  ;  Hawkins,  213),  a  variety  without  the  sceptre, 
struck  at  York  ;  also  a  penny  of  Edward  the  Confessor  (Hilde- 
brand,  G,  variety  a),  a  combination  type  with  obverse  of  Haw 
kins's  228  and  reverse  of  222,  struck  by  the  moneyer  Thorr  at 

Mr.  Hall  exhibited  a  gold  coin  of  the  Emperor  Postumus, 

A.D.  258-267,   of  rude   style,   said  to   have   been   found    at 

iter,  with  the  inscription  ROMAE  AETEBNAE    (Cohen 

voL  vi.  327,  new  edition),  weight  104  grains  ;  also  .  gold  coin 

Cannus  with  the  inscription  VICTORIA  AVG,  weight  69 

A.E.COPP         e   a  very  beautifn]Iy 


work  on  English  coins,  dedicated  to  Sir  George  Duckett,  and 
including  a  catalogue  of  his  coins. 

Admiral  T.  Spratt  communicated  a  paper  on  three  small  gold 
coins  procured  by  him  in  Crete,  near  the  site  of  the  Poly- 
rhenium.  (See  vol.  vii,  p.  309.) 

Mr.  C.  Roach  Smith  sent  an  account  of  a  discovery  of  Roman 
coins  at  Springhead,  near  Gravesend.  (See  vol.  vii,  p.  312.) 

Mr.  B.  V.  Head  read  a  paper  on  electrum  coins  recently 
acquired  by  the  British  Museum,  and  on  the  composition  of 
early  electrum  coins  calculated  from  their  specific  gravities. 
(See  vol.  vii,  p.  277.) 

FEBRUARY  16,  1888. 

JOHN  EVANS,  Esq.,  D.C.L.,  LL.D.,  F.R.S.,  P.S.A.,  President, 
in  the  Chair. 

G.  M.  Arnold,  Esq.,  was  elected  a  Member  of  the  Society. . 

The  following  presents  were  announced  and  laid  upon  the 
table  :— 

1.  Berliner  Philologische  Wochenschrift.     Nos.  3—6,  1888. 
From  the  Publishers. 

2.  Monatsblatt  der   Numismatischen  Gesellschaft   in   Wien. 
Nos.  54,  55.     From  the  Society. 

3.  Proceedings  of  the   Society  of  Antiquaries    of  London. 
Vol.  xi.  No.  4.     From  the  Society. 

4.  Les  Monnaies  de  Charlemagne.     By  M.  Carexhe.     From 
C.  Roach  Smith,  Esq. 

5.  Etudes  sur  les  Monnaies  de  Boulogne  et  Calais.     By  L. 
Deschamps  de  Pas.     From  C.  R.  Smith,  Esq. 

6.  On  the  Roman  Walls  of  Chester.     By  C.  R.  Smith,  Esq. 
From  the  Author. 

7.  Report  on  the  Marine  Fauna  of  Rameswararu  and  the 
Neighbouring  Islands.    By  Edgar  Thurston.    From  the  Author. 



8.  Memoires  de   la   Societe   d'Emulation  d'Abbeville.      3rd 
series,  vol.  iv.     From  the  Society. 

9.  Memoires  de  la  Societe  des  Antiquaires  de  1'Ouest.     Vol. 
ix.     From  the  Society. 

10.  Foreningen  til  Norske  Fortidsmindesmerkers    Bevaring 
1886.     Kunst  og  Haandverk  for  Norges  Fortid.  Vol.  vii.    From 
the  Musee  d'Archeologie  de  Christiania. 

11.  Journal  of  the  Institute  of  Bankers.     Vol.   ix.     Part  II. 
From  the  Institute. 

12.  Two  bronze  medals  of  William  Joseph  Taylor,  medallist, 
one  representing  him  as  a  young  man,  the  other  as  an  old  man. 
On  the  reverse  is  a  modeller  at  work.     From  W.  Taylor,  Esq. 

The  following  exhibitions  were  made  : — 

Mr.  Evans,  a  rare  aureus  of  Licinius  II,  with  full-faced  bust ; 
Mr.  H.  Montagu,  a  series  of  proofs  and  patterns  in  gold  and 
silver  of  Charles  I ;  the  Rev.  G.  F.  Crowther,  some  unpublished 
groats,  half-groats,  pennies,  and  halfpennies  of  Henry  VI,  Ed- 
ward IV,  and  Henry  VII ;  Dr.  Codrington,  two  rare  coins  of 
the  Moghuls  of  Persia,  viz.,  a  deenar  of  Arghun  and  a  dirhem 
of  Arpa,  the  latter  struck  at  Tebreez,  A.H.  736;  Mr.  J.  Clark, 
proofs  in  copper  of  the  double  sovereign  and  half-crown  of 
1824 ;  Mr.  Durlacher,  a  bronze  medal  of  the  Catch  Club  by 
Thomas  Pin  go ;  and  Mr.  A.  E.  Copp,  a  manuscript  volume  on 
English  coins  and  medals  dated  1826,  being  a  catalogue  of  the 
coins  in  the  collection  of  Sir  George  Duckett ;  it  was  compiled 
by  W.  Long. 

Mr.  S.  Smith,  jun.,  communicated  a  paper  on  a  penny  which 
ie  attributed  to  Magnus  the  Good,  King  of  Denmark,  but  hav- 
ing on  the  reverse  the  inscription  LEFVINE  ON  LINGO 
(Lincoln),  and  raised  the  question  whether  the  Anglo-Saxon 
coins  were  always  struck  at  the  towns  named  on  them  This 
paper  is  printed  in  vol.  viii.  p.  138. 

Mr  T  W  Greene  communicated  a  paper  on  German  medal- 
J*  *  the  sixteenth  and  seventeenth  centuries.  (See  vol.  viii, 


MARCH  15,  1888. 
B.  S.  Poole,  Esq.,  LL.D.,  Vice -President,  in  the  Chair. 

The  following  presents  were  announced  and  laid  upon  the 
table  :— 

1.  Berliner  Philologische  Wochenschrift.    Nos.  7—11,  1888. 
From  the  Publishers. 

2.  Memoires  de  la  Societe  royale  des  Antiquaires  du  Nord, 
1887.     From  the  Society. 

3.  Archaeologia  Cantiana.     Vol.  xviii.     From  the  Kent  Ar- 
chaeological Society. 

4.  ihe  Journal  of  Hellenic  Studies.     Vol.  viii.  No.  2.     Text 
and  Plates.     From  the  Hellenic  Society. 

5.  Laws  of  the  United  States  relating  to  Loans,  Currency, 
Coinage,  and  Banking.     From  H.  Phillips,  Esq.,  jun. 

6.  Journal  of   the  Institute  of   Bankers.     Vol.  ix.  Part  III. 
From  the  Institute. 

7.  Zeitschrift  fur  Numismatik.     Bd.  XV.  Part  IV.    From  the 

8.  Der  Sterlingfund  bei  Rebnitz.  By  H.  Dannenberg.     From 
the  Author. 

9.  The  Coinage    of  Scotland.     3  vols.     By  Edward  Burns. 
From  James  Coats,  Jun.,  Esq. 

The  Chairman  proposed,  and  Mr.  Montagu  seconded,  a  special 
vote  of  thanks  to  Mr.  James  Coats  for  his  valuable  donation  of 
Mr.  Burns's  work  on  Scottish  coins,  and  desired  to  express  on 
behalf  of  the  Society  its  appreciation  of  the  great  service 
rendered  to  the  study  of  Scottish  numismatics  by  the  produc- 
tion of  this  national  work. 

Mr.  J.  G.  Hall  exhibited  an  aureus  of  Trajan  Decius  (A.D. 
244—251)  having  for  reverse  type  VBERITAS  AVG.,  Fertility 
standing  holding  bag  and  cornucopias.  This  coin  came  from  the 
Belfort  collection. 

Sir  A.  Cunningham  communicated  a  paper  on  coins  of  the 
Indo-Scythian  king  Miaus  or  Heraiis.  (See  vol.  viii,  p.  47.) 


APRIL  19,  1888. 

JOHN  EVANS,  Esq.,  D.C.L.,  LL.D.,  F.R.S.,  P.S.A.,  President, 
in  the  Chair. 

M.  Hodgkinson  Bobart,  Esq.,  was  elected  a  Member  of  the 

The  following  presents  were  announced  and  laid  upon  the 
table  :— 

1.  Berliner  Philologische  Wochenschrift.  Nos.  11—15,  1888. 
From  the  Publishers. 

2.  Monatsblatt  der  Numismatischen  Gesellschaft   in    Wien. 
No.  56.     From  the  Society. 

3.  Journal  of  the  Royal  Historical  and  Archaeological  Asso- 
ciation of  Ireland.     Nos.  73—74.     From  the  Association. 

4.  Revue  Beige  de  Numismatique.    2me  livraison,  1888.  From 
the  Society. 

5.  Repertoire  des  Sources  Imprimees  de  la   Numismatique 
FranQaise.     By  A.  Engel  and  R.  Serrure.     Tom.  I.     From  the 

6.  Verzeichniss  der  Miinzsammlung  des  Schleswig-Holstein- 
schen  Museums  Vaterlandischen  Alterthiimer.     Bd.  I.    By  Drs. 
Hendelsmann  and  Klander.     From  the  Directors. 

7.  Journal  of  the  Institute  of  Bankers.     Vol.    ix.  Part  IV. 
From  the  Institute. 

8.  Sitzungsberichte     der    Roniglich-Preussichen    Akademie 
der  Wissenschaften   zu   Berlin.      Parts    40-44.     From    the 

9.  Bulletin  Historique  de  la  Societe  des  Antiquaires  de  la 
Monme.    145'Mivraison.     From  the  Society 

^  W^Eivista  Italiana    di  Numismatica.     Part  I.     From  the 

Heft  IVAar!rr  *      °rS    °l^»Ai^  °g  Historie.  Bd.  ii, 
.eft  IV.     From  the  Society  of  Northern  Antiquaries. 


12.  The    Coin   Collectors'    Journal.     No.   147.      From  the 

13.  Catalogue  des  Monnaies  Mussulmanes  de  la  Bibliotheque 
Nationale,  Paris.     (Khalifs  Orientaux.)     By  H.  Lavoix.     From 
the  Author. 

14.  Moneta   Novgoroda.     Moneti  Pskovskiya  and    Ruskiya 
Monetui.     By  G.  S.  Tolstoi.     From  the  Author. 

15.  Guide  to  the  Coins  of  Great  Britain  and  Ireland.  Second 
Edition.    Part  I.     By  the  late  Colonel  Thorburn.     From  the 

Mr.  B.  V.  Head  exhibited,  on  behalf  of  Mr.  J.  W.  Trist,  some 
very  clever  modern  forgeries  of  rare  Greek  coins,  the  originals 
of  which  are  nearly  all  in  the  British  Museum.  These  coins 
were  purchased  at  the  sale  of  a  well-known  collection  of  Greek 
coins  held  in  London  in  June  last,  and  now  notorious  for  the 
number  of  forgeries  it  contained.  The  coins  were  presented 
by  Mr.  Trist  to  the  Society  as  specimens  of  ingenious 

Mr.  Evans  exhibited,  on  behalf  of  Mr.  C.  H.  Drinkwater,  a 
barbarous  copy  of  a  Venetian  sequin  of  Aloysio  Mocenigo 
(1763 — 78),  struck  recently  for  circulation  in  North  Africa. 
On  the  obverse,  instead  of  the  Venetian  legend  SIT  .  T  . 
XPE  .  DAT  .  Q  .  TV  REGIS  ISTE  DVCA.,  are  the  words 
legend  contains  a  meaningless  imitation,  of  the  name  Mocenigo. 

Mr.  J.  G.  Hall  exhibited  an  aureus  of  Licinius  I,  struck  at 
Siscia,  probably  soon  after  A.D.  307,  the  bust  on  the  obverse  of 
which  bears  a  marked  resemblance  to  that  of  Diocletian. 

The  Rev.  G.  F.  Crowther  exhibited  some  unpublished  varie- 
ties of  coins  of  Charles  I,  viz.,  a  Shrewsbury  half-crown,  a 
York  threepence,  and  a  contemporary  forgery  of  the  Tower 
shilling  of  1638,  weighing  less  than  76  grains. 

Mr.  H.  Montagu  exhibited  a  number  of  rare  patterns  in  gold 
and  silver  of  Charles  II,  chiefly  by  Simon. 

Mr.  H.  Montagu  read  a  translation,  by  himself,  of  a  paper  by 


Dr.  Graetz,  of  Breslau,  on  the  Jewish  shekels  bearing  the  types 
of  the  Lulab  and  the  Portal,  the  latter  of  which  Dr.  Graet/ 
sought  to  prove  to  be  a  representation  of  a  facade  of  a  festival 
tabernacle.  The  writer  also  argued  that  no  genuine  shekels  of 
the  time  of  the  second  revolt  were  in  existence.  The  paper 
will  be  found  in  vol.  viii,  p.  165, 

MAY  17,  1888. 

JOHN  EVANS,  Esq.,  D.C.L.,  LL.D.,  F.R.S.,  P.S.A.,  President, 
in  the  Chair. 

Ernest  Baggallay,  Esq.,  M.A.,  Major  B.  Lowsley,  R.E.,  and 
M.  Arthur  Engel,  were  elected  Members  of  the  Society. 

The  following  presents  were  announced  and  laid  upon  the 
table : 

1.  Berliner  Philologische  Wochenschrift.  Nos.  16— 19,  1888. 
From  the  Publishers. 

2.  Bulletin  Mensuel  de  Numismatique  et  d'Archeologie.    5th 
year,  Nos.  8-9.     By  R.  Serrure.     From  the  Editor. 

3.  Catalogue    of    the    Coins    of    the    Government    Central 
Museum,  Madras.     No.  1,  Mysore.     By  E.  Thurston.     From 
the  Museum. 

4.  Proceedings  of  the   Society  of  Antiquaries   of  Scotland 
886—7.     From  the  Society. 

5.  Guide  to  the  Coins   of  Great  Britain   and  Ireland      By 
lonelThorburn.     Second  Edition.     Parts  II,  III.    From  the 


6  .  Monatsblatt  der  Numismatischen   Gesellschaft   in  Wien 
No.  68.    From  the  Society. 

7.  Journal  of  the  Institute  of  Bankers.      Vol    iy    Part  V 
From  the  Institute.  '  V- 


Mr.  Laurence  exhibited  a  penny  of  Edward  IV,  mint-mark 
pall,  with  quatrefoils  at  sides  of  neck,  struck  at  Canterbury  ; 
a  groat  of  Edward  IV,  mint-mark  on  obverse,  star  ;  on  reverse, 
crown  ;  also  a  penny  of  Mary  with  a  pomegranate  between 
words  of  legend  on  both  sides. 

Mr.  Hall  exhibited  a  cast  of  a  gold  coin  of  Constantino  the 
Great  struck  at  Siscia,  rev.  IOVI  CONSERVATOR!,  bearing, 
like  the  coin  of  Licinius  exhibited  by  Mr.  Hall  at  the  last 
meeting,  a  portrait  resembling  Diocletian. 

Mr.  Churchill  exhibited  a  penny  of  a  Danish  king,  probably 
Magnus  the  Good,  1042 — 1047,  with  the  name  of  the  English 
moneyer  LEFVINE  ON  LINCO  on  the  reverse. 

Mr.  Copp  exhibited  a  proof  or  pattern  sovereign  of  the  Sydney 
mint,  dated  1855,  with  a  head  of  the  Queen  on  the  obverse 
almost  identical  with  that  on  the  ordinary  English  sovereign, 

Mr.  B.  V.  Head  read  a  paper  by  M.  J.  P.  Six,  of  Amsterdam, 
on  some  rare  and  unpublished  Greek  coins.  (This  paper  is 
given  in  vol.  viii,  p.  97.) 

Mr.  Hall  read  a  paper  on  the  prices  realised  by  Roman 
Imperial  aurei  at  the  present  time  as  compared  with  the  prices 
realised  by  the  same  or  similar  coins  in  the  last  century,  and 
the  early  part  of  the  present  century. 


JUNE  21,  1888. 

JOHN  EVANS,  Esq.,  D.C.L.,  LL.D.,  F.R.S.,  P.S.A.,  President, 
in  the  Chair. 

The  Minutes  of  the  last  Anniversary  Meeting  were  read  and 

The  Report  of  the  Council  was  then  read  to  the  meeting  as 
follows : — 

GENTLEMEN, — The  Council  again  have  the  honour  to  lay 
before  you  their  Annual  Report  as  to  the  state  of  the  Numis- 
matic Society. 

With  great  regret  they  have  to  announce  their  loss  by  death 
of  the  five  following  ordinary  members  : 

Prince  Alfred  Emmanuel  de  Croy. 

A.  Harford  Pearson,  Esq. 

Richard  Popplewell  Pullan,  Esq.,  F.S.A.,  M.R.I.B.A. 

George  Sim,  Esq.,  F.S.A.Scot. 

George  B.  Simson,  Esq.,  F.S.A.Scot. 

And  of  the  following  Honorary  Members  :— 

M.  le  Vicomte  de  Ponton  d'Amecourt. 
M.  Ch.  Robert,  Membre  de  1'Institut. 

Also  by  resignation  of  the  following  five  Ordinary  Members  :- 

Robert  Blair,  Esq.,  F.S.A. 
Captain  C.  H.  I.  Hopkins. 

G.  J.  Rowland,  Esq. 

W.  C.  Pearson,  Esq. 
Mrs.  Priestley. 


The  name  of  one  Ordinary  Member  has  also  been  erased  from 
the  list. 

On  the  other  hand  the  Council  have  much  pleasure  in  record- 
ing the  election  of  sixteen  new  Members  : — 

G.  M.  Arnold,  Esq. 

Ernest  Baggallay,  Esq.,  M.A, 

Rev.  F.  Binley-Dickinson. 

M.  H.  Bobart,  Esq. 

M.  W.  Cockayne,  Esq. 

G.  J.  Crosbie-Dawson,  Esq. 

M.  Arthur  Engel. 

J.  Harris  Gibson,  Esq. 

J.  L.  Henderson,  Esq. 
M.  J.  P.  LambroF. 
Major  B.  Lowsley,  R.E. 
T.  W.  Minton,  Esq. 
J.  H.  Pinches,  Esq. 
Major  H.  Trotter,  C.B. 
Captain  A.  H.  Warren. 
E.  F.  Weber,  Esq. 

According  to  our  Secretary's  Report  our  numbers  are,  there- 
fore, as  follows : — 

Ordinary.       Honorary.         Total. 

June,  1886 242  36  278 

Since  elected  16  — 

Deceased      .... 

....         5 




Resigned      .... 

....         5 



....         1 


June,  1887 247  34  281 

The  Council  have  also  the  honour  to  report  that  the  copies 
of  the  Rules  of  the  Society  being  out  of  print,  they  have  care- 
fully revised  them,  and  have  incorporated  with  them  the 
regulations  already  sanctioned  by  the  Society.  They  have  also, 
after  due  consideration,  thought  fit  to  raise  from  Twelve  Guineas 
to  Fifteen  Guineas  the  sum  payable  by  Members  who  may  desire 
to  compound  for  their  Annual  Subscriptions. 

With  the  exception  of  these  additions,  which  will  be  found 



under  Sections  XV  and  XVI,  the  Kules  of  the  Society  remain 
essentially  unchanged. 

Copies  of  the  Rules  as  amended  by  the  Council,  will  lie  on 
the  table  for  the  approval  of  the  meeting. 

The  Council  have  further  the  honour  to  announce  that  they 
have  unanimously  awarded  the  Medal  of  the  Society  in  silver  to 
Dr.  F.  Imhoof-Blumer,  of  Winterthur,  for  his  distinguished 
services  to  the  Science  of  Numismatics  as  exemplified  by  his 
numerous  works  and  articles  on  Greek  coins. 

The  Treasurer's  Report  is  as  follows  : — 


0       33       P 

C~t~.  00 



.g  g  • 

&*£j  "Ai  Is  H! 

Mi?/*lir;^j;  *  "8*^8 

«  s 



At  the  conclusion  of  the  reading  of  the  Report  of  the  Council, 
the  President  addressed  Mr.  B.  V.  Head  as  follows  :— 

Mr.  Head,— I  much  regret  that  Dr.  Imhoof-Blumer  is  unable 
to  attend  here  this  evening  to  receive  the  medal  which  has  been 
awarded  to  him  by  the  Council  in  recognition  of  his  long  and 
valuable  services  to  numismatics,  especially  those  of  ancient 
Greece.  There  is,  however,  no  one  in  the  Society  who  can 
appreciate  more  fully  than  you  the  long-continued  and  suc- 
cessful labours  of  Dr.  Imhoof-Blumer,  and  I  am  sure  that  you 
will  be  able  to  transmit  to  him,  together  with  the  medal  which 
I  now  have  the  pleasure  of  placing  in  your  hands,  our  assur- 
ance of  the  high  esteem  in  which  his  works  are  held  in  this 
country,  and  of  our  sincere  satisfaction  in  being  able  to  pay  this 
small  tribute  of  respect  to  one  to  whom  numismatic  science  is 
so  deeply  indebted. 

When  I  look  at  the  list  of  the  numerous  essays  and  larger 
works  that  have  come  from  the  pen  of  Dr.  Imhoof-Blumer,  I 
am  almost  at  a  loss  which  of  them  to  select  for  mention  on 
an  occasion  like  the  present.  Their  issue  has  already  ex- 
tended over  a  period  of  twenty  years,  and  German,  French, 
and  English  numismatic  periodicals  have  all  been  favoured 
with  contributions  from  him.  But,  perhaps,  above  all  his 
separate  works,  that  on  Greek  Coins  and  on  those  of  the 
Dynasty  of  Pergamon,  and  lastly  the  Numismatic  Commentary 
on  Pausanias,  written  conjointly  with  our  countryman,  Prof. 
Percy  Gardner,  may  be  best  cited  as  proofs  of  his  learning  and 
industry.  In  conveying  this  medal  to  him  you  will  express  our 
fervent  hope  that  he  may  long  be  spared  to  continue  his  labours, 
and  that  future  years  may  show  that  much  as  he  has  already 
accomplished,  it  is  but  a  specimen  of  what  he  has  still  in  store 
for  historians  and  numismatists. 

In  reply  Mr.  Head  said, — 

Mr.  President,  it  is  with  unmingled  satisfaction  that  I  rise  to 
return  thanks  to  you  and  to  the  Council  of  this  Society  in  the 


place  of  my  friend  and  fellow- worker,  Dr.  Imhoof-Blumer,  for 
the  well-merited  honour  which  you  have  conferred  upon  him. 
Before  I  say  more  I  will,  with  your  permission,  read  a  portion 
of  a  letter  from  Dr.  Imhoof,  which  he  has  sent  to  me  in  reply 
to  my  announcement  that  our  medal  had  this  year  been  awarded 
to  him : — 

"  DEAR  MB.  HEAD, — 

"  When  your  letter  was  handed  me  this  morning  I 
thought  I  was  about  to  have  the  rare  opportunity  of  furnishing 
you  with  information  on  some  numismatic  question.  Instead 
of  this,  and  to  my  great  surprise,  your  letter  conveys  to  me  the 
announcement  that  the  Numismatic  Society  has  conferred  upon 
me  a  new  and  rare  mark  of  distinction  by  inviting  me  to  go 
and  receive  at  its  hands  the  medal  of  the  Society.  I  am 
deeply  touched  by  the  consideration  you  and  your  colleagues 
have  shown  to  the  works  of  a  foreigner,  and  as  I  have  never 
sought  for  recognition  of  any  kind,  I  feel  all  the  greater  pleasure 
when  it  comes  thus  unexpectedly  from  my  English  fellow- 
workers.  My  health,  I  am  sorry  to  say,  will  not  permit  me  to 
undertake  the  journey  to  London,  I  must  therefore  beg  that 
you  will  yourself  be  kind  enough  to  represent  me  at  the  general 
meeting,  and  to  express  my  most  grateful  thanks  both  to  the 
President  and  to  the  Society,  and  to  assure  them  of  my  desire 
to  prove  myself  in  the  future  worthy  of  the  high  honour  they 
have  conferred  upon  me.  *  *  *  * 

(Signed)     "  F.  IMHOOF-BLUMER." 

Now,  Sir,  before  I  sit  down  I  should  like  to  say  a  few  words 
on  my  own  account  with  regard  to  Dr.  Imhoof's  work  in  the 
past,  and  to  what  I  trust  we  may  look  forward  to  from  him  in 
the  future.  I  may  be,  perhaps,  allowed  to  do  this  for  the  sake 
of  those  present  this  evening,  if  there  be  any  such,  who,  having 
made  a  particular  study  of  modern  numismatics,  may  not  bo 
already  familiar  with  the  great  reputation  which  Dr.  Imhoof  has 
attained  as  a  Greek  numismatist. 


Dr.  Imhoof  began  his  numismatic  career  as  a  collector  of  fine 
and  rare  Greek  coins.  Little  by  little,  however,  as  his  collection 
increased  he  ceased  to  be  a  mere  amateur,  and  became  a 
scientific  student,  until  at  last  he  has  come  to  occupy  the 
foremost  position  in  Europe  as  an  authority  on  almost  every 
branch  of  Greek  numismatics. 

In  the  course  of  his  studies  he  has  visited  again  and  again 
all  the  great  coin  cabinets  in  Europe,  both  public  and  private, 
and  has  diligently  added  to  his  collection  of  originals  casts  of 
innumerable  specimens  selected  far  and  wide.  His  original 
specimens  alone  now  number  nearly  20,000,  and  I  am  afraid  to 
hazard  a  guess  what  the  number  of  his  casts  may  amount  to. 
Including  these  I  may  safely  say  that  the  Imhoof  cabinet  is  in 
many  respects  unrivalled  either  at  Paris,  London,  or  Berlin. 

Several  of  my  friends  who  have  visited  him  at  Winterthur 
tell  me  that  his  home  is  a  complete  museum  of  numismatics, 
and  that  he  himself  is  an  ideal  custodian,  who  is  always  ready 
to  place  his  wide  knowledge  at  the  disposal  of  the  student,  no 
matter  whence  he  comes. 

He  has  never  been  one  of  those  dog-in-the-manger  collectors 
whose  one  object  in  collecting  would  seem  to  be  the  pleasure 
they  derive  from  filling  their  trays  with  unpublished  specimens 
which  they  neither  make  known  themselves  nor  allow  others  to 
publish  for  them.  Dr.  Imhoof,  on  the  contrary,  has  always 
been  eager  to  advance  the  cause  of  science  by  the  publication 
of  his  treasures.  I  speak  from  experience,  for  when  I  was 
engaged  on  the  compilation  of  my  recent  work,  the  Historia 
Numorum,  it  was  brought  very  forcibly  home  to  me  that  my 
Manual  could  hardly  have  been  written  at  all  had  it  not  been 
for  the  ready  aid  which  Dr.  Imhoof  was  always  willing  to  afford 
me.  There  is  hardly  a  page  in  that  book  on  which  Dr.  Imhoof 
is  not  cited  as  an  authority,  and  I  shall  always  feel  that  without 
his  assistance  my  work  would  have  been  lacking  in  whatever 
scientific  value  it  may  now  possess. 

The  authority  of  Dr.  Imhoof  s  writings    on    Greek  numis- 


matics  is  now,  I  am  happy  to  say,  a  matter  of  general  recog- 
nition not  only  in  his  own  country  but  throughout  Europe. 

The  latest  evidence  of  this  recognition  is  the  fact  that  the 
Royal  Academy  of  Berlin  has,  on  the  recommendation  of  no 
less  a  person  than  the  venerable  Prof.  Mommsen,  selected  Dr. 
Imhoof  to  compile  a  universal  Corpus  of  Greek  Coins. 

This,  indeed,  is  a  grand  undertaking,  and  one  which  I  do  not 
hesitate  to  say  no  other  man  than  Dr.  Imhoof  could  have 
ventured  even  to  contemplate. 

My  own  labours  in  the  field  of  Greek  numismatics  enable  me 
to  speak  with  some  knowledge  of  the  enormous  difficulties  with 
which  even  Dr.  Imhoof  will  find  himself  confronted  in  the 
colossal  work  to  which,  under  great  pressure,  he  has  at  last 
made  up  his  mind  to  devote  the  remainder  of  his  life. 

I  fervently  trust  that  he  may  be  spared  to  see  this  great  and 
useful  work  brought  to  a  successful  termination,  and  I  am 
proud  this  evening  to  stand  here  in  his  name  and  receive  at  the 
hands  of  our  President  the  medal  which  I  hope  will  be  an 
earnest  of  the  more  lasting  reward  which  he  cannot  fail  to  reap 
as  the  editor  of  the  great  Corpus  Numorum  of  the  future. 

The  President  then  delivered  the  following  address  :— - 

The  time  has  again  come  round  when  it  becomes  my  duty  to 
offer  you  a  few  words  in  the  form  of  an  Annual  Address,  and  I 
may,  as  I  have  now  for  some  years  been  able  to  do,  con- 
gratulate the  Society  on  its  prosperous  condition.  As  you  have 
heard  from  the  Report  of  the  Council  our  losses  by  death  and 
other  causes  have  been  but  eleven,  while  sixteen  new  members 
have  been  elected,  so  that  at  the  present  time  the  Society 
numbers  247  exclusive  of  its  honorary  members. 

We  therefore  have  entered  upon  the  second  half  century  cf 
our  existence  in  a  highly  satisfactory  manner  so  far  as  numbers 
are  concerned,  and  our  Treasurer's  statement  shows  that  not- 


withstanding  the  heavy  call  upon  our  resources,  resulting  from 
the  issue  of  our  Jubilee  Medal,  the  finances  of  the  Society  are 
in  a  healthy  condition. 

Beyond  the  distribution  of  this  medal  among  the  members  of 
the  Society,  there  is  no  event  of  importance  in  our  career  to 
which  I  need  call  attention  on  the  present  occasion.  I  may, 
however,  mention  that  in  consequence  of  its  having  been  found 
necessary  to  reprint  the  Rules  of  the  Society,  the  Council  have 
taken  the  opportunity  of  revising  them,  with  the  view  of  making 
them  both  more  comprehensive  and  more  comprehensible,  and 
they  have  been  submitted  to  you  for  your  approval  at  this 
meeting.  The  alterations,  which  are  not  extensive,  have  already 
been  pointed  out  to  you,  and  will,  I  think,  have  commended 
themselves  to  your  judgment. 

The  medal  of  the  Society,  as  you  are  all  aware,  has  this  year 
been  bestowed  upon  one  of  our  most  distinguished  foreign 
members,  Dr.  Imhoof-Blumer.  I  am  sure  that  all  the  Society, 
and  especially  those  members  who  are  interested  in  Greek 
Numismatics,  will  cordially  concur  in  the  award  to  one  who 
has  done  so  much  to  advance  and  at  the  same  time  popu- 
larize our  science. 

I  must  now  dwell  for  a  short  time  upon  the  losses  which 
during  the  past  twelve  months  death  has  caused  in  our  ranks. 
Among  our  ordinary  members  they  have,  I  am  glad  to  say, 
been  fewer  in  number  than  usual,  but  among  those  who  have 
gone  from  among  us  there  are  some  whom  we  could  ill  afford  to 

Mr.  Richard  Popplewell  Pullan,  F.S.A.,  M.R.I.B.A.,  who 
had  been  a  member  of  our  body  since  the  year  1863,  died  at 
Brighton  on  the  80th  of  April  last.  He  was,  however,  better 
known  as  an  architect  and  an  antiquary  than  as  a  numismatist. 
In  the  former  capacity  he  published  jointly  with  Texier  a  work 
on  "  Byzantine  Architecture "  and  «  The  Principal  Ruins  of 
Asia  Minor,"  and  in  the  latter  he  assisted  Sir  C.  T.  Newton  in 
the  exploration  of  Halicarnassus,  and  more  recently  Sir  John 


Savile  Lumley  in  his  excavations  at  Lavinium  and  Lake  Nemi, 
an  account  of  which  has  appeared  in  the  Arch&ologia. 

Mr.  George  Sim,  F. S.A.Scot.,  had  for  very  many  years 
been  a  member  of  our  Society  and  a  contributor  to  the  pages  of 
the  Numismatic  Chronicle.  In  1861  he  communicated  to  the 
Society  a  short  paper,  in  which  he  showed  that  the  "  Lee 
Penny,"  which  in  a  recent  edition  of  Sir  Walter  Scott's  novels 
had  been  described  as  a  "  shilling"  of  Edward  I,  was  actually 
formed  of  a  groat  of  Edward  IV,  of  the  London  mint.1  From 
that  time  forward  he  was  in  the  habit  of  favouring  us  with 
notices  of  the  principal  discoveries  of  coins  that  took  place  in 
Scotland.  The  last  of  these  notices  referred  to  the  great  hoard 
found  at  Aberdeen,  consisting  of  no  less  than  12,236  coins,  the 
whole  of  which  were  examined  and  for  the  most  part  deter- 
mined by  Mr.  Sim.  Though  his  taste  lay  more  among  ancient 
than  mediaeval  coins,  he  was  no  mean  authority  on  the  latter, 
and  it  was  mainly  through  his  exertions  that  on  the  death  of 
Mr.  Edward  Burns  the  important  work  on  the  coinage  of 
Scotland,  which  he  had  undertaken  at  the  request  of  the  late 
Mr.  Thomas  Coats  of  Ferguslie,  was  completed  and  finally 
published,  though  Mr.  Sim  did  not  survive  to  see  it  issued  from 
the  press. 

Mr.  Sim's  private  collection  of  coins  was  very  extensive,  and 
comprised  at  least  12,000  coins,  of  which  about  2,000  were  in 
silver.  His  Greek  series  was  the  m'ost  important,  consisting 
of  nearly  8,500  coins,  of  which  many  are  of  great  rarity  and 
importance.  A  privately -printed  Catalogue  exists  of  which  100 
copies  only  were  struck  off  in  1879,  from  which  it  appears  that 
many  of  the  coins  are  the  identical  pieces  described  by  the  late 
Dr.  Scott  in  a  succession  of  papers  in  the  First  Series  of  the 
Numismatic  Chronicle. 

Personally  he  was  one  of  the  kindest  and  simplest  of  men, 
and  I  can  look  back  with  much  pleasure  to  a  long  series  of 

1  See  Proc.  Soc.  Ant.  Scot.,  vol.  iv,  p.  222. 


numismatic  and  antiquarian  gatherings  beneath  his  hospitable 
roof,  to  which  he  was  good  enough  to  invite  me  on  the  occasion 
of  my  annual  visits  to  Edinburgh. 

Among  our  Honorary  Members  we  have  lost  the  Vicomte 
de  Ponton  d'Amecourt,  elected  in  1878,  and  M.  1'Intendant 
General  Charles  Kobert,  Membre  de  1'Institut,  elected  in  1882. 

M.  de  Ponton  d'Amecourt  was  well  known  as  one  of  the 
founders  of  the  Societe  Francaise  de  Numismatique,  as  an 
accomplished  numismatist,  and  as  having  formed  almost,  if  not 
quite,  the  finest  private  collections  of  Roman  aurei  and  of 
Merovingian  coins  that  were  ever  brought  together.  Already 
in  1855,  an  essay  of  his  on  the  attribution  of  a  Gaulish  coin 
appeared  in  the  Revue  de  Numismatique,  and  shortly  afterwards 
he  began  to  devote  his  principal  attention  to  the  Merovingian 
and  Carlovingian  Series.  Of  the  former  his  cabinets  contained 
nearly  1,700  examples  at  the  time  of  his  decease.  By  the  year 
1863,  his  series  comprised  upwards  of  1,200  Merovingian  coins, 
and  his  Essai  sur  la  Numismatique  Mdrovingienne  comparee  a  la 
Geographie  de  Grfyoire  de  Tours,  which  appeared  in  that  year, 
proves  how  well  he  was  able  to  appreciate  the  information  to 
be  derived  from  the  coins.  For  the  list  of  his  other  works  in 
this  department  I  must  refer  to  the  memoir  of  d'Amecourt  from 
the  pen  of  M.  Caron,  which  will  be  found  in  the  Annuaire  de 
la  Societe  Frangaise  de  Numismatique  for  1888. 

His  collection  of  Roman  gold  coins  was  equally  remarkable. 
Those  who  visited  the  Exhibition  at  the  Trocadero  in  Paris  in 
1878,  must  have  been  struck  by  the  remarkable  series  of  between 
600  and  700  then  on  view,  but  the  collection  had  increased  to  a 
thousand  pieces  when  M.  d'Amecourt  determined  on  its  sale  by 
auction  in  the  spring  of  last  year.  The  Illustrated  Catalogue, 
then  prepared,  with  its  37  autotype  plates  of  the  coins,  forms  a 
real  handbook  for  the  collector  of  the  Roman  gold  series. 
Even  those  who  acquired  desiderata  at  this  sale  must  have 
felt  some  compunction  in  aiding  to  disperse  what  had  been 
brought  together  with  such  skill,  perseverance,  and  expense 


On  one  occasion  M.  Ponton  d'Amecourt  gave  this  Society  the 
benefit  of  his  intimate  acquaintance  with  the  Merovingian  coinage, 
having  in  1872  favoured  us  with  an  essay  on  the  remarkable 
hoard  of  gold  coins  found  at  Crondal,  Hants,2  which  set  at  rest 
many  questions  connected  with  the  coins,  and  afforded  grounds 
for  supposing  that  out  of  the  96  specimens  found,  nearly  one 
half  had  been  struck  in  this  country.  Not  a  few  of  the  attribu- 
tions of  the  earlier  pieces  described  in  Kenyon's  Gold  Coins  of 
England,  are  in  the  main  due  to  M.  d'Amecourt's  perspicacity. 

While  still  engaged  on  the  study  of  the  Merovingian  royal 
coinage  he  was  attacked  by  a  tedious  illness  which  resulted  in 
his  death,  on  the  20th  of  January  of  the  present  year,  in  the 
sixty-third  year  of  his  age. 

His  friend  and  colleague,  M.  Pierre  Charles  Eobert,  prede- 
ceased him  by  a  few  weeks  only,  but  he  had  already  entered  on 
his  seventy-sixth  year,  having  been  born  in  1812.  Having  studied 
at  Metz  and  at  the  Scole  Polytechnique,  he  became  a  Lieutenant 
of  Engineers  in  1834,  and  after  passing  through  successive 
grades  in  the  army  and  seeing  much  service,  he  finally  retired  in 
1877.  So  early  as  1842  M.  Robert  commenced  his  career  as  a 
numismatic  writer,  and  in  1844  one  of  his  important  mono- 
graphs, Recherches  sur  les  monnaies  des  eveques  de  Toul,  made  its 
appearance.  At  that  time  he  was  in  garrison  at  Lille,  and  was 
already  laying  the  foundations  of  two  other  important  works 
— the  Etudes  Numismatiques  sur  une.-partie  du  JSTord-est  de  la 
France,  and  the  JViimismatique  de  Cambrai,  which  were  pub- 
lished in  1852  and  1862  respectively.  Apart  from  these  a 
very  large  number  of  essays  and  monographs  relating  to 
Gaulish,  Roman,  Merovingian,  and  French  numismatics  came 
from  his  active  pen,  the  last  appearing  during  the  present  year. 
There  was  one  subject  in  Roman  numismatics  which  he  made 
especially  his  own — the  history  of  contorniate  medallions,  of 
which  he  possessed  one  of  the  finest  collections  ever  formed. 

2  Num.  Chron.,  N.S.,  vol.  xiii,  p.  72. 


Five  of  his  essays  upon  this  subject  appeared  in  various 
periodicals.  He  was  also  a  devoted  antiquary  and  student  of 
epigraphy,  and  at  one  time  was  President  of  the  Society  of 
Antiquaries  of  France.  In  1871  he  became  a  member  of  the 
Institute,  and  took  an  active  part  in  the  proceedings  of  the 
Academie  des  Inscriptions. 

To  give  some  idea  of  the  extent  of  his  numismatic  labours,  I 
may  mention  that  appended  to  a  memoir  of  him  by  M.  Raymond 
Serrure,3  to  which  I  am  much  indebted,  there  is  appended  a  list 
of  no  less  than  sixty-five  works  and  articles  in  this  department 
of  archaeology  alone.  As  the  centre  of  a  large  circle  of  friends, 
whom  he  was  ever  ready  to  serve,  his  loss  will  be  widely  felt 
in  France,  and  by  not  a  few  on  this  side  of  the  Channel. 

There  are  three  other  names  which  I  think  that  I  ought  to 
mention,  though  they  are  not  those  of  numismatists  who  at  the 
time  of  their  decease  were  members  of  our  body.  I  mean 
those  of  the  Rev.  C.  W.  King,  M.  Paul  Lambros,  and  Admiral 
Spratt.  Mr.  King  was  better  known  as  our  first  authority  on 
ancient  gems  than  as  a  writer  on  numismatics  ;  but  a  love  and 
knowledge  of  coins  is  essential  to  any  one  who  would  wish  to 
appreciate  the  art,  the  portraiture,  or  the  classical  and  mytho- 
logical allusions  to  be  found  on  engraved  gems.  Of  his  works 
on  Antique  Gems  and  Rings,  The  Gnostics  and  their  Remains, 
his  Horace,  and  numerous  other  publications,  I  need  hardly 
speak  ;  but  I  may  call  attention  to  his  treatise  on  Early  Christian 
Numismatics,  to  a  paper  in  the  Archceological  Journal  on  the 
true  nature  of  the  Contorniate  Medals,  and  to  a  letter  from  him 
in  the  Numismatic  Chronicle  for  1845  on  a  coin  with  the  mint- 
mark  L ON,  and  on  another  of  Carausius.4  For  the  last  fifty 
years,  except  during  occasional  absence  in  Italy,  he  resided  at 
Trinity  College,  Cambridge,  of  which  he  was  the  Senior  Fellow. 

Another  name  that  I  will  cite  is  that  of  M.  Paul  Lambros,  who 
died  at  Athens  on  the  llth  October  last,  at  the  age  of  sixty-eight 

3  Ann.  de  la  Soc.  Franc,  de  Num.,  1888,  t>    100 

4  Vol.  xviii,  1871,  p.  210. 


years.  He  was  born  in  Epirus  in  1819,  and  at  an  early  age, 
having  lost  his  father  under  the  Turkish  domination,  had  to 
emigrate  to  Corfu,  where  he  received  his  education,  and  soon 
developed  a  special  taste  for  Numismatics.  He  subsequently 
established  himself  at  Athens,  where  he  became  an  active  worker 
in  public  life,  and  gained  for  himself  a  high  character  not  only  as  a 
dealer  in  coins  and  antiquities,  but  as  a  writer  on  Numismatic 
subjects.  His  knowledge  of  mediaeval  coins,  and  especially 
those  of  the  dynasties  of  the  Crusaders,  was  most  extensive  and 
accurate,  and  M.  G.  Schlumberger  acknowledges  with  gratitude 
the  great  assistance  rendered  to  him  by  M.  Paul  Lambros  in 
the  preparation  of  his  great  work,  the  Numismatique  de  V Orient 
Latin.  His  published  works  and  papers  exceed  twenty  in 
number,  and  relate,  not  only  to  mediaeval,  but  to  ancient  coins. 
His  treatise  on  the  coins  of  the  Island  of  Amorgos  forms  the 
basis  of  an  article  in  the  Numismatic  Chronicle  for  1873.5  One 
of  his  latest  works  includes  a  notice  of  the  coins  and  medals 
struck  for  the  Ionian  Islands  while  under  British  rule. 

In  Admiral  Spratt,  who,  within  the  last  twelve  months, 
communicated  to  us  a  paper  on  some  gold  coins  from  Crete, 
the  world  has  lost  an  ardent  antiquary  and  excellent  geographer, 
and  many  of  us  a  sincere  friend. 

In  looking  back  upon  our  meetings  during  the  past  year,  I 
think  that  I  may  safely  say  that  on  an  average  they  have  been 
more  fully  attended  than  in  former  years,  and  that  the  various 
exhibitions  and  papers  that  have  been  laid  before  us  have  not 
been  less  than  usually  interesting.  The  Numismatic  Chronicle 
has,  I  think,  been  quite  up  to  its  usual  standard,  both  in  the 
importance  and  the  variety  of  its  contents,  and  I  shall  proceed 
to  pass  in  review  the  principal  subjects  to  which  our  attention 
has  been  called  in  its  pages. 

The  electrum  coinage  of  Cyzicus,  on  which  such  an  exhaustive 
paper  was  communicated  by  Canon  Greenwell  to  the  last  volumo 
of  our  Chronicle,  has  continued  to  occupy  the  attention  of  the 

5  Num.  Chron.  N.S.,  vol.  xiii,  p.  125. 


Society,  and  papers  upon  it  have  appeared  from  the  pens  of 
Professor  Gardner  and  Mr.  B.  Y.  Head.  The  former  has  dis- 
cussed the  exchange  value  of  the  Cyzicene  stater,  and  concludes 
that  in  all  probability  the  Cyzicene  and  the  Daric,  notwith- 
standing the  argument  to  the  contrary  derived  from  the  Oration 
of  Demosthenes  against  Phormio,  were  equivalent.  Judging 
from  the  specific  gravity  it  would  appear  that  in  the  Cyzicene 
the  proportion  of  silver  to  gold  is  about  54  per  cent.,  and 
taking  the  proportionate  value  of  gold  to  silver  as  about  14 
to  1,  the  resulting  values  of  the  Cyzicene  of  electrum  and  the 
Daric  of  gold  very  closely  agree.  The  rate  of  exchange  between 
Attic  drachms  and  the  staters  of  Cyzicus  varied  even  more  than 
would  be  the  case  with  similar  currencies  at  the  present  day,  in 
accordance  with  geographical  position  and  means  of  intercourse. 

Mr.  Head,  reverting  to  a  subject  that  he  dealt  with  in  1875, 
has  gone  more  fully  into  the  details  of  the  ancient  coins  of 
electrum,  giving  in  the  first  place  particulars  of  such  coins  recently 
acquired  for  the  British  Museum,  both  as  regards  types  and 
weight,  and  in  the  second,  tables  showing  the  composition  of 
early  electrum  coins  calculated  from  their  specific  gravities.  It 
would  appear  from  these  tables  that  there  is  a  great  range  in 
the  colour  of  the  metal,  and  in  the  proportion  of  gold  that  they 
contain,  which  varied  from  5  to  80  per  cent.  The  question  is, 
however,  much  complicated  by  the  probability  of  there  being  a 
small  percentage  of  copper  in  some  of  the  coins,  inasmuch  as 
this  metal  would  affect  the  colour,  and  also  the  specific  gravity 
as  being  less  heavy  than  silver.  It  is,  moreover,  to  be  observed 
that  most  of  the  coins  here  dealt  with  are  either  of  the  Phoenician 
or  of  the  Euboic  standard,  and  not  of  the  Phocaic,  which  is 
that  of  the  Cyzicenes.  The  few  coins  of  this  class  that  were 
examined  give  a  somewhat  larger  percentage  of  gold  than 
those  cited  by  Professor  Gardner,  perhaps  because  they  belong 
to  an  earlier  period. 

I  have  already  briefly  mentioned  the  paper  on  three  gold  coins 
from  Crete  communicated  to  us  by  the  late  Admiral  Spratt,  F.R.S., 
F.S.A.  It  was  but  a  few  years  ago  that  gold  coins  struck  in 


this  island  were  almost  unknown,  not  a  single  specimen  being 
mentioned  in  the  British  Museum  Catalogue  published  so  recently 
as  1886.  Since  that  date,  however,  a  few  specimens,  besides 
those  acquired  by  Admiral  Spratt,  have  made  their  appearance,6 
and  probably  future  excavations  will  make  us  acquainted  with 
many  more.  Their  small  size  and  light  weight  seems  indi- 
cative of  gold  having  been  very  scarce  in  the  island. 

Mr.  Warwick  Wroth  has  given  us  an  account  of  the  Greek 
coins  acquired  by  the  British  Museum  in  1887,  among  which 
may  be  noted  a  fine  and  unique  tetradrachm  of  Maronea,  and  a 
Jewish  shekel  of  the  year  5.  A  stater  of  Abydos  with  the  name 
of  Metrodoros  ;  a  tetradrachm  of  Antiochus  IX,  and  a  coin 
of  Polemo  II,  of  Pontus,  with  the  name  of  his  mother  Antonia 
Tryphaena  on  the  reverse,  are  also  remarkable  coins.  Some 
other  additions  to  the  Museum  Series  of  the  Greek  and  Scythic 
Kings  of  India  have  been  described  by  Professor  Gardner.  Fore- 
most among  these  stands  out  a  unique  and  most  interesting  deca- 
drachm,  for  which  the  nation  is  indebted  to  the  liberality  of  Mr. 
A.  W.  Franks.  On  it  are  represented  a  Macedonian  horseman 
attacking  two  warriors  who  are  mounted  on  an  elephant,  and  on 
the  other  side  a  king  with  the  attributes  of  Zeus.  An  accom- 
panying monogram  may  be  that  of  Alexander  the  Great.  There 
can  be  little  doubt  that  this  medal — for  so  we  may  venture  to 
call  it — commemorates  a  victory  of  some  Graeco-Bactrian  king 
over  a  horde  of  Scythic  invaders,  but  it  is  unfortunate  that  those 
who  struck  it  forgot  that  after -ages  might  not  be  so  well  ac- 
quainted with  the  historical  events  of  the  second  century  B.C.  as 
those  who  lived  in  it ;  and  that  glorious  and  never-to-be-for- 
gotten victories  over  which  a  whole  kingdom  rejoiced,  might 
pass  into  the  realms  of  oblivion.  Among  the  Bactrian  additions 
to  the  Museum  collection  are  hitherto  unpublished  examples  of 
thejcoinage  of  Diomedes,  Strato  and  Agathocleia,  Philoxenus, 
and  Hermaeus. 

Sir  A.   Cunningham  has  given  us  a  paper  on  the  coins  of 

6  See  Num.  Chron.  1888,  pp.  13,  14. 


the  Indo-Scythian  King  Miaiis  or  Heraiis— showing  cause  why 
the  former  reading  on  some  coins  with  rather  obscure  legends 
should  be  preferred.  Instead  of  attributing  these  pieces  to 
Heraiis,  King  of  the  Sakas,  he  assigns  them  to  Miaiis,  a  ruler 
of  the  Kushans,  and  fixes  their  date  in  the  latter  half  of  the  first 
century  B.C.  Some  curious  extracts  from  Chinese  records  are 
cited  in  corroboration  of  his  views.  Of  all  living  authorities 
on  the  Graco-Indian  coinage,  Sir  A.  Cunningham  ranks  the 
highest,  and  we  have  only  to  turn  to  the  pages  of  the  Numis- 
matic Chronicle  to  bring  home  to  our  minds  the,  value  and  extent 
of  his  services  to  that  branch  of  Numismatics.  The  choicest  of 
his  coins  of  Alexander's  successors  in  the  East  he  has,  with  great 
liberality,  offered  for  purchase  by  the  Trustees  of  the  British 
Museum,  who,  however,  owing  to  the  unprecedented  manner 
in  which  the  grant  for  purchases  has  been  cut  down  by  the 
Treasury,  have  no  funds  at  their  command.  It  remains  to  be 
seen  whether  an  application  to  the  Government  for  a  special 
grant  to  purchase  these  memorials  of  our  great  precursors  as 
European  rulers  in  the  East  will  be  successful,  or  whether  a 
series  of  coins  of  the  highest  national  interest  to  Englishmen 
will,  owing  to  mistaken  parsimony,  either  be  dispersed,  or  find 
a  resting  place  in  one  of  the  Continental  Cabinets. 

But  to  return  to  our  own  Proceedings.  Our  honorary  member, 
M.  J.  P.  Six,  of  Amsterdam,  has  sent  us  a  long  and  interesting 
paper  on  some  unpublished  Greek  coins,  including  some  which 
he  attributes  to  Phlius,  Pheneus,  Thaliadse,  Issos,  and  Cyprus. 
He  also  describes  some  interesting  coins  of  Tissaphernes, 
Baalram,  and  Baalmelek  II,  Kings  of  Citium,  and  of  Sabaces, 
Satrap  of  Egypt  under  Darius.  The  paper  is  one  of  considerable 
importance,  and  the  transference  of  the  unique  coin  recently 
attributed  by  Mr.  Head  to  ^gina  to  Phlius,  and  of  the  archaic 
coins  with  what  may  be  termed  totems  on  the  obverse,  such  as 
the  Germans  call  Wappenmunzen,  to  the  cities  of  Peloponnesus 
rather  than  to  those  of  Eubcea,  will  probably  lead  to  further 


A  paper  on  the  Jewish  coinage,  by  Dr.  Graetz  of  Breslau, 
has  been  kindly  translated  and  communicated  to  the  Society  by 
Mr.  Montagu.  It  has  not  as  yet  been  printed,  but  it  will  be 
found  to  contain  some  curious  illustrations  of  Jewish  manners 
and  customs,  and  some  suggestions  well  worthy  of  consider- 
ation, though  the  author  is  evidently  better  acquainted  with 
history  and  literature  than  with  actual  coins  and  their  cha- 

In  Roman  numismatics  we  have  had  a  few  papers,  one  of 
them  by  Mr.  C.  Roach  Smith,  on  a  hoard  of  Roman  coins 
found  at  Springhead,  Kent,  and  mainly  of  the  time  of  Postumus, 
though  including  specimens  of  Tetrieus  II.  It  belongs  to  a 
troubled  period  when  many  such  hoards  were  deposited  for  safe 
keeping  in  the  ground. 

Another  paper  by  my  son,  Mr.  Arthur  Evans,  relates  to  a 
coin  which,  though  evidently  an  imitation  of  a  familiar  piece  of 
Constans  or  Constantius  II,  bears  on  the  obverse  the  legend 
DOMINO  CARAVSIO  CES,  and  on  the  reverse  DOMIN  .  .  . 
CONTA  .  .  .  NO.  The  suggestion  of  the  author  is  that  the 
legend  on  the  reverse  refers  to  the  Emperor  Constantine  III, 
who  had  dominion  in  Britain  in  the  early  years  of  the  fifth 
century,  and  that  the  Carausius  of  the  obverse  was  a  Caesar 
appointed  by  him.  That  the  name  of  Carausius  still  survived 
in  Britain  is  proved  by  the  monumental  inscription  at  Pen- 
machno,  Caernarvonshire,  in  which  the  ligatures  and  forms  of 
the  letters  singularly  approximate  to  those  on  the  coin.  There 
is,  however,  no  necessity  for  identifying  the  Carausius  of  the 
coin  with  the  person  of  the  same  name  recorded  on  the  sepul- 
chral slab.  It  will  require  further  evidence  to  establish  beyond 
all  doubt  the  existence  of  a  Carausius  the  Second,  but  the 
legend  on  the  coin  gives  the  name  clearly  and  accompanied  by 
titles  which  do  not  belong  to  Carausius  the  First ;  and  whether 
we  accept  the  author's  conclusions  or  reserve  our  judgment,  all 
will  acknowledge  the  interest  and  value  of  his  historical  dis- 


The  only  other  paper  relating  to  the  Roman  period  is  one  in 
which  I  have  given  an  account  of  a  hoard  of  silver  coins  found 
at  East  Harptree,  near  Bristol.  It  consisted  of  nearly  1,500 
coins,  extending  from  the  time  of  Constantine  the  Great  to  that 
of  Gratian.  Among  these  were  several  of  rarity  and  interest, 
which  by  the  liberality  of  Mr.  Kettlewell,  on  whose  property  the 
hoard  was  found,  have  been  presented  to  the  British  Museum. 

Turning  to  the  Saxon  coinage,  I  find  that  Mr.  Nathan  Hey- 
wood  has  given  us  a  woodcut  of  a  styca,  which  he  attributes, 
with  good  show  of  reason,  to  Elfwald  II  of  Northumbria.  He 
has  also  favoured  us  with  an  account  of  a  small  hoard  of  stycas, 
including  one  in  silver  of  Vigmund. 

Mr.  Samuel  Smith,  junior,  has  again  raised  the  question 
whether  the  Anglo-Saxon  coins  were  always  struck  at  the  towns 
named  on  them.  Certain  it  is  that,  like  the  coin  of  Magnus  of 
Denmark  that  he  adduces,  there  are  many  Danish  coins  which 
purport  to  have  been  struck  by  English  moneyers  at  English 
towns,  and  though  the  use  of  surnames  was  in  the  eleventh 
century  hardly  established,  yet  it  seems  possible  that  the 
moneyers  who  went  over  to  Denmark,  and  such  there  appa- 
rently were,  retained  as  a  sort  of  surname  the  name  of  the 
town  whence  they  came.  Even  then  the  use  of  the  word  ON, 
which  signifies  in,  instead  of  OF,  is  remarkable.  Both  the  late 
Archdeacon  Pownall  and  Mr.  Ernest  Willett  have  had  some- 
thing to  say  on  this  question.  If  the  view  of  the  latter  be 
correct  that  in  some  cases  the  moneyers  were  itinerant,  and  the 
name  of  the  town  gave  the  place  where  they  happened  to  be 
working,  and  was  changed  from  time  to  time  as  they  moved 
from  one  town  to  another,  an  additional  difficulty  is  raised  in 
regarding  the  town  name  as  a  sort  of  permanent  surname.  In 
whatever  way  we  are  to  account  for  the  abnormal  appearance 
of  the  names  of  English  moneyers  and  towns  on  Danish  and 
Irish  coins,  I  think  that,  looking  at  the  constitution  of  the 
English  mints,  we  must  hesitate  before  we  can  accept  any  view 
which  implies  that  the  name  of  a  town  when  it  appears  on  an 


English   coin  is   not   indicative   of   the   place   where   it   was 

Perhaps  this  will  be  the  proper  place  for  mentioning  the 
interesting  paper  by  Dr.  Hans  Hildebrand  on  the  earliest 
Scandinavian  coinage,  obligingly  abridged  for  us  by  Mr.  Keary. 
The  modifications  which  the  Dorstat  coins  of  Charlemagne 
underwent  in  their  transmission  northwards  afford  another 
instance  of  the  manner  in  which  a  type  may  entirely  lose  its 
original  meaning,  of  which  the  ancient  British  coinage  affords 
such  good  instances. 

The  papers  relating  to  the  English  coinage  have  not  been  of 
very  high  importance,  but  Mr.  Crowther  has  written  a  valuable 
paper  on  the  groats  of  the  second  coinage  of  Henry  VII,  in 
which  he  has  gone  far  towards  establishing  the  true  sequence  of 
the  different  mint-marks.  Mr.  Montagu  has  called  our  attention 
to  a  number  of  unpublished  gold  coins  of  James  I,  and  to  some 
of  the  Commonwealth ;  Mr.  Symonds  to  a  penny  of  Henry  VIII ; 
Mr.  Walter  Andrew  to  a  passage  in  de  Taxter's  Chronicle 
relating  to  the  issue  of  the  short -cross  coinage  ;  Mr.  Webster  to 
an  ingenious  falsification  of  an  American  dollar,  and  Mr.  Pixley 
to  the  North  Borneo  coinage. 

A  paper  relating  to  some  peculiar  Milanese  types  has  been 
communicated  to  us  by  Mr.  Hall,  who  has  illustrated  the  type 
of  St.  Ambrose  charging  on  horseback  with  his  triple  scourge 
from  a  sixteenth- century  painting,  probably  by  Giovenone  of 
Vercelli,  in  his  own  possession. 

With  regard  to  medallic  art,  a  paper  by  Mr.  J.  Whitcombe 
Greene,  giving  a  resume  of  M.  Adolph  Erman's  Essay  op  the 
German  medallists  of  the  sixteenth  and  seventeenth  centuries, 
will  be  read  with  interest ;  while  those  by  Mr.  Grueber  on 
English  Personal  Medals  from  1760,  will  be  found  to  contain 
much  illustrative  historical  matter. 

It  only  remains  for  me  to  notice  Part  VI  of  the  Fasti  Arabici, 
by  Mr.  Stanley  Lane  Poole,  which  gives  notices  of  rare  Arabian 
and  other  coins  from  the  collections  of  Colonel  Gosset,  Major 


Trotter,  and  Mr.  Avent,  which  will,  as  usual,  be  found  to 
contain  information  of  value  to  the  Oriental  numismatist. 

Of  separate  numismatic  publications  that  have  appeared 
within  the  last  year,  there  do  not  seem  to  be  many  that  require 
special  notice.  The  British  Museum  Catalogue  of  Greek  coins 
has,  however,  received  an  important  addition  in  respect  of  the 
coins  of  Attica,  Megaris,  and  Aegina,  which  have  been  described 
by  Mr.  Head.  The  introduction,  which  extends  over  nearly 
sixty  pages,  gives  an  exhaustive  account  of  the  present  state  of 
our  knowledge  with  regard  to  these  three  important  coinages, 
and  adds  most  materially  to  the  value  of  the  Catalogue.  The 
illustrations  as  usual  consist  of  autotype  plates,  which  in  this 
volume  are  twenty- six  in  number.  Admirably  as  photographic 
processes  serve  for  the  reproduction  of  well-preserved  coins,  or  of 
those  in  gold  and  silver  which  are  only  subject  to  abrasion,  and 
not  like  those  in  copper  and  its  alloys  to  corrosion,  yet  it  must 
be  acknowledged  that  for  these  latter  it  is  at  times  eminently 
unsatisfactory.  A  legend  or  type  which  on  the  original  coin 
may  be  fairly  legible  or  visible,  becomes  often  almost  imper- 
ceptible in  a  cast,  and  disappears  in  a  photograph.  To  appre- 
ciate this  we  have  only  to  compare  some  of  the  figures  in  the 
plates,  such,  for  instance,  as  PI.  XVII.  1,  with  the  description  in 
the  text.  In  such  cases  a  representation  by  an  engraver,  even 
if  less  accurate  than  that  by  a  photographer,  gives,  on  the 
whole,  a  more  faithful  idea  of  the  coin.  The  great  difficulty  in 
this  country  is  to  find  an  engraver  with  any  appreciation  of  a 
coin,  but  I  hope  that  difficulty  may  be  overcome. 

Mr.  K.  Stuart  Poole,  who  is  the  official  editor  of  these  cata- 
logues, has  himself  compiled  and  issued  one  on  the  coins  of  the 
Shahs  of  Persia  from  A.D.  1502  to  the  present  day.  In  this 
volume  also  the  introduction  forms  an  important  feature,  and 
embodies  the  first  attempt  at  any  exact  chronology  of  the  reigns 
of  the  Persian  Shahs  that  is  to  be  found  in  any  European  work. 

Among  recently  published  foreign  works  I  may  mention  the 
first  volume  of  the  Catalogue  of  the  Greek  Coins  in  the  Berlin 


Cabinet,  which  has  been  drawn  up  on  much  the  same  lines  as 
our  own  Museum  catalogues.  It  conclusively  shows  how  im- 
portant the  collection  is,  and  how  great  has  been  the  zeal  and 
assiduity  of  late  years  in  adding  to  it.  towards  which  the  Ger- 
man Government  has  contributed  with  no  stinted  liberality. 

I  may  also  say  a  few  words  on  the  completion  of  M.  Ernest 
Babelon's  Description  Historique  et  Chronologique  des  Monnaies 
de  la  Republique  Romaine,  which,  though  to  some  extent  a 
second  edition  of  Cohen's  Medailles  Consulaires,  and  embodying 
his  plates  in  the  form  of  cuts  inserted  in  the  text,  treats  of  the 
history  and  chronology  of  the  coins  in  a  far  more  exhaustive 
and  scientific  manner.  The  labours  of  Cavedoni,  Borghesi,  and 
Mommsen,  have  done  much  to  illustrate  the  interesting  series 
of  coins  of  which  M.  Babelon  treats,  and  he  has  conscientiously 
availed  himself  of  all  that  they  have  done,  so  that  his  work  may 
be  regarded  as  embodying  the  whole  of  our  present  knowledge 
in  this  department.  It  is  in  consequence  indispensable  to  the 
student  of  Eoman  numismatics. 

I  have  little  more  to  add.  The  interest  taken  in  this  country 
in  numismatic  pursuits  is  abundantly  manifested  by  the  high 
prices  that  coins  have  realised  at  the  numerous  and  important 
sales  that  have  taken  place  during  the  past  year.  The  zeal  for 
collecting  is  in  itself  commendable,  and  eventually  advantageous 
to  knowledge,  but  I  trust  that  it  will  ever  be  borne  in  mind  that 
the  true  value  and  interest  of  coins  -consist  in  the  light  that 
they  throw  on  contemporary  history,  art,  and  literature.  Some 
slight  variations  in  a  detail  in  the  die  of  a  modern  engraver  are 
of  interest,  as  showing  the  phases  through  which  his  mind 
must  have  passed  during  the  period  he  was  carrying  out  some 
principal  idea  ;  but  it  is  a  question  that  has  occasionally  crossed 
my  mind  whether  the  pecuniary  value  which  attaches  to  these 
variations  in  the  case  of  modern  coins,  is  a  real  criterion  of 
their  actual  value  and  importance.  However  this  may  be,  it  is 
gratifying  to  find  that  the  number  of  coin-collectors  is  appa- 
rently on  the  increase,  and  I  make  but  little  doubt  that  this 


circumstance  will  tend  both  to  the  preservation  of  coins  from 
destruction  and  to  the  advancement  of  that  knowledge  to  pro- 
mote which  this  Society  was  founded. 

It  only  remains  for  me  now  to  express  my  thanks  to  the 
Council  and  the  Society  for  their  cordial  co-operation  with  me 
during  the  past  year,  and  for  the  kind  manner  in  which  they 
have  listened  to  me  on  the  present  occasion. 

The  Meeting  then  proceeded  to  ballot  for  the  Officers  of  the 
ensuing  year,  when  the  following  gentlemen  were  elected  : — 


JOHN  EVANS,  ESQ.,  D.C.L.,  LL.D.,  F.R.S.,  P.S.A., 

Vice- Presidents. 

H.  MONTAGU,  ESQ.,  F.S.A. 




Foreign  Secretary. 



Members  of  the  Council. 



ARTHUR  J.  EVANS,  ESQ.,  M.A.,  F.S.A. 


J.  G.  HALL,  ESQ. 

R.  A.  HOBLYN,  ESQ. 

C.  F.  KEARY,  ESQ.,  M.A.,  F.S.A. 

F.  W.  PIXLEY,  ESQ. 

J.  W.  TRIST,  ESQ.,  F.S.A. 



OF    THE 



DECEMBEE,  1888. 




DECEMBER,  1888. 

Asterisk  prefixed  to  a  name  indicates  that  the  Member  has  compounded 
for  his  annual  contribution. 

*ALEX£IEFF,    M.  GEORGE  DE,  Chambellau    de    S.M.   1'Empereur   do 

Russie,  Ekaterinoslaw  (par  Moscou),  llussie  Meridionale. 
ANDRE,  J.  H.,  ESQ.,  127,  New  Bond  Street,  W. 
ANDREW,  W.  J.,  ESQ.,  Moss  Side,  Ashton-uuder-Lyne. 
ANDREWS,  R.  THORNTON,  ESQ.,  Castle  Street,  Hertford. 
ARNOLD,  G.  M.,  ESQ.,  Milton  Hall,  Gravesend,  Kent. 
ARNOLD,  W.  T.,  ESQ.,  Guardian  Office,  Manchester. 

BACKHOUSE,  J.  E.,  ESQ.,  The  Rookery,  Middleton  Tyas,  Rich- 
mond, Yorks. 

BAGGALLAY,  ERNEST,  ESQ.,  106,  Elm  Park  Gardens,  S.W. 

BAGNALL-OAKELEY,  MRS.,   Newland,  Coleford,  Gloucestershire. 

BAKER,  W.  R,  ESQ.,  Bayfordbury,  Hertford. 

BARRETT,  T.  B.,  ESQ.,  20,  Victoria  Terrace,  Welshpool,  Mont- 

BASCOM,  G.  J.,  ESQ.,  109,  Lexington  Avenue,  New  York,  U.S.A. 

*BIEBER,  G.  W.  EGMONT,  ESQ.,  The  Platanes,  Champion  Hill,  S.E.  • 

BIGGE,  FRANCIS  E.,  ESQ.,  Hennafryn,  Torquay. 

BIRD,  W.  S.,  ESQ.,  74,  New  Oxford  Street,  W.C. 

BLACKETT,  JOHN  STEPHENS,  ESQ.,  C.E.,  Southerton,  Kirkcaldy. 

4  LIST    OF    MEMBERS, 

BLACKMORE,  H.  P.,  ESQ.,  M.D.,  Blackmore  Museum,  Salisbury. 
*BLiss,  THOMAS,  ESQ.,  Coningsburgh,   Bethune  Eoad,  Amlierst 

Park,  N. 

*  BOBART,  M.  HODGKINSON,  ESQ.,  The  Yews,  Alvaston,  Derby. 
BOM,  M.  ADRIAAN,  Spuistraat,  135,  Amsterdam. 
BLUNDELL,  J.  H.,  ESQ.,  157,  Cheapside,  E.G. 
*BRIGGS,  ARTHUR,  ESQ.,  Cragg  Royd,  Rawden,  Leeds. 
BROWN,  G-.  D.,  ESQ.,  63,  Albert  Street,  Eegent's  Park,  N.W. 
BROWN,    JOSEPH,    ESQ.,    Q.C.,    54,    Avenue    Road,     Eegent's 

Park,  N.W. 

BUCHAN,  J.  S.,  ESQ.,  15,  Barrack  Street,  Dundee. 
BUICK,  DAVID,  ESQ.,  LL.D.,  Sandy  Bay,  Lame  Harbour,  Ireland. 
BULL,  EEV.  HERBERT  A.,  Wellington  House,  Westgate-on-Sea. 
BUNBURY,  SIR  EDWARD  H.,  BART.,  M.A.,  F.G.S.,  35,  St.  James's 

Street,  S.W. 
BURSTAL,  EDWARD  K,  ESQ.,  Sinclair  House,  Holy  well  Street, 


BUSH,  COLONEL  J.  TOBIN,  29,  Rue  de  1'Orangerie,  le  Havre,  France. 
BUTLER,  CHARLES,  ESQ.,  F.E.G.S.,  Warren  Wood,  Hatfield. 
BUTLER,  JOHN,  ESQ.,  Alexandra  Mill,  Bolton. 
*BUTTERY,  W.,  ESQ.  (not  known.) 

CALDECOTT,  J.  B.,  ESQ.,  12,  Croom's  Hill,  Greenwich,  S.E. 

CALVERT,  EEV.  THOS.,  15,  Albany  Villas,  Hove,  Brighton. 

CARFRAE,  ROBERT,  ESQ.,  E.S.A.Scot.,  77,  George  Street,  Edinburgh. 

CAVE,  LAURENCE  TRENT,  ESQ.,  13,  Lowndes  Square,  S.W.  ;      ^  f 

CHURCHILL,  Wm.  S.,  ESQ.,  24,  Birch  Lane,  Manchester. 

*CLARK,  JOSEPH,  ESQ.,  14,  Mount  Place,  Whitechapel  Eoad,  E. 

*CLARKE,  HYDE,  ESQ.,  F.E.H.S.,  32,  St.  George's  Square,  S.W. 

COCKAYNE,  MORTON  W.,  ESQ.,  Exeter  House,  Eoehampton,  S.W. 

COCKBURN,  JOHN,  ESQ.,  Abbotsdene,  Greenside,  Eichmond. 

CODRINGTON,  OLIVER,  ESQ.,  M.D.,  M.E.A.S.,  35,  Upper  Eich- 
mond Eoad,  Putney,  Librarian. 

*Copp,  ALFRED  E.,  ESQ.,  M.E.A.S.,  Hatherley,  Wimbledon  Hill, 
and  37,  Essex  Street,  Strand,  Treasurer. 

COTTON,  W.  A.,  ESQ.,  High  Street,  Bromsgrove,  Worcestershire. 



CREEKE,  MAJOR  ANTHONY  BUCK,  Ashleigh,  Burnley. 
*CROMPTON-EOBERTS,   CHAS.  M.,    ESQ.,    16,  Belgrave    Square, 


CROWTHER,  EEV.  G.  F.,  M.A.,  25,  Bloomsbury  Square,  W.O. 
*CROY,  PRINCE  ALFRED  EMMANUEL  DE,  Chateau  du  Rceulx,  Hainaut, 


CUMING,  H.  SYER,  ESQ.,  F.S.A.Scot.,  63,  Kennington  Park  Road. 
CUNNINGHAM,   MAJOR-GENERAL    SIR  A.,    E.E.,    K.C.I.E.,    C.S.I., 

96,  Gloucester  Eoad,  South  Kensington,  S.W. 

DAMES,  M.  LONGWORTH,  ESQ.,  C.S.,  M.E.A.S.,  Dera  Ismail  Khan, 

Panjab,  India. 

DAVIDSON,  J.  L.  STRACHAN,  ESQ.,  M.A.,  Balliol  College,  Oxford. 
DAVIES,  WILLIAM  RUSHER,  ESQ.,  Overthorpe  House,  Walliugford. 
DAVIS,  WALTER,  ESQ.,  23,  Suffolk  Street,  Birmingham. 
DAWSON,  G.  J.  CROSBIE,  ESQ.,  Winton  Square,  Stoke-upon-Trent. 
DEAKIN,  GEO.,  ESQ.,  238,  Camden  Eoad,  N. 
*DEWICK    EEV.  E.  S.,  M.A.,  26,  Oxford  Square,  Hyde  Park,  W. 
DICKINSON,  EEV.  F.  BINLEY,  M.A.,  Manor  House,  Ottery  St.  Mary. 
DORMAN,  JOHN  WM.,  ESQ.,  B.A.,  C.E,,  Kinsale. 
DOUGLAS,  CAPTAIN  R.  J.  H.,  Junior  United  Service  Club,  Charles 

Street,  St.  James's,  S.W. 

DOULTON,  J.  DUNEAU,  ESQ.  8,  Eaton  Gardens,  Brighton. 
DRYDEN,  SIR  HENRY,  BART.,  Canon's  Ashby,  Byfield,  Northampton. 
DURLACHER,  A.,  ESQ.,  15,  Old  Burlington  Street,  W. 
DURRANT,  EEV.  CHRISTOPHER  EAWES,  Freston  Eectory,  Ipswich. 

EADES,  GEORGE,  ESQ.,  The  Abbey,  Evesliam,  Worcestershire. 

ENGEL,  M.  ARTHUR,  29,  Eue  Marignan,  Paris. 

ERHARDT,  H.,  ESQ.,  9,  Bond  Court,  Walbrook,  E.C. 

EVANS,  ARTHUR  J.,  ESQ.,  M.A.,  F.S.A.,  Ashmolean  Museum,  Oxford. 

EVANS,  JOHN,  ESQ.,  D.C.L.,  LL.D.,  F.R.S.,  P.S.A.,  Corr.  de  1'Inst, 
Nash  Mills,  Hemel  Hempstead,  President. 

EVANS,  SEBASTIAN,  ESQ.,  LL.D.,  10,  Eosary  Gardens,  South  Ken- 
sington, S.W. 

FAY,  DUDLEY  B.,  ESQ.,  37,  Franklin  Street,  Boston,  Massachusetts, 

6  LIST    OF    MEMBERS. 

FSWSTER,  C.  E.,  ESQ.,  Hornsea,  near  Hull,  Yorks. 

FORD,  JOHN  WALKER,  ESQ.,  Chase  Park,  Enfield. 

FRANKS,  AUGUSTUS  WOLLASTON,  ESQ.,  M.A..  F.E.S.,  F.S.A.,  British 


FREMANTLE,  THE  HON.  0.  W.,  C.B.,  Eoyal  Mint. 
FRENTZEL,  RUDOLPH,  ESQ.,  20,  New  Broad  Street,  E.G. 
*FRESHEIELD,  EDWIN,  ESQ.,  LL.D.,  F.S.A.,  5,  Bank  Buildings, 


GARDNER,  PROF.  PERCY,  Litt.D.,  F.S.A.,  31,  Norham  Eoad,  Oxford. 

GEORGE,  A.  DURANCE,  ESQ.,  112,  Bishopsgate  Street  Within,  E.G. 

GIBSON,  J.  HARRIS,  ESQ.,  73,  Eenshaw  Street,  Liverpool. 

GILL,  HENRY  SEPTIMUS,  ESQ.,  Tiverton. 

GILLESPIE,  W.  J.,  ESQ.,  Whitehall,  Foxrock,  co.  Dublin,  Ireland. 

GOODMAN,  T.  W.,  ESQ.,  Clifton  Lodge,  155,  Haverstock  Hill,  N.W. 

GOSSET,  COL.  MATTHEW  W.  E.,  care  of  Messrs.  Cox  &  Co.,  Craig's 

Court,  Charing  Cross,  S.W. 

GRANT,  ALEXANDER,  ESQ.,  C.I.E.,  16,  Lypratt  Terrace,  Cheltenham. 
GREENE,  T.  W.,  ESQ.,  B.O.L.,  Newlands,  Salisbury. 
GREENWELL,  REV.  CANON,  M.A.,  F.E.S.,  F.S. A.,  Durham. 
GRUEBER,  HERBERT  A.,  ESQ.,  F.S. A.,  British  Museum,  Secretary. 

HALL,  J.  Q-.,  ESQ.,  1,  Masbro'  Eoad,  Hammersmith,  W. 
HALL,  ROBERT,  ESQ.,  Albert  Cottage,  Victoria  Eoad,  Button,  Surrey. 
HARVEY,   WILLIAM  G.  L.,   ESQ.,   22,  Mersey  Road,  Aigburth, 

HAVELOCK,   COL.  ACTON  C.,  23,  Charleville  Eoad,  West  Ken- 
sington, W. 

HEAD,  BARCLAY  VINCENT,  ESQ.,  D.C.L.,   Ph.D.,  British  Museum, 

HENDERSON,   JOHN    L.,   ESQ.,  14,  Athole  Gardens,  Kelvinside, 


7,  Hampstead  Hill  Gardens,  N.W. 
HEYWOOD,  NATHAN,  ESQ.,  3,  Mount  Street,  Manchester. 
HOBLYN,  RICHARD  A.,  ESQ.,  Hollywood,  79,  Priory  Eoad,  West 

Hampstead,  N.W. 

LIST    OP    MEMBERS.  7 

HODGKIN,  T.,  ESQ.,  D.C.L.,  F.S.A.,  Benwelldene,  Newcastle. 

*HOFFMANN,  M.  H.,  1,  Eue  du  Bac,  Paris. 

Ho  WORTH,  H.  H.,  ESQ.,  M.P.,  F.S.A.,  M.E.A.S.,  Bentcliff,  Eccles, 

HUBBARD,   WALTER   E.,  ESQ.,    9,  Broomhill  Avenue,    Partick, 


HUGEL,  BARON  F.  YON,  4,  Holford  Eoad,  Hampstead,  N.W. 
HUMPHRIES,  GEO.  H.,  ESQ.,  Thanet  Lodge,  Norbiton. 
HUNT,  J.  MORTIMER,  ESQ.,  4,  Airlie  Gardens,  Campden  Hill,  W. 

*!ONIDES,  CONSTANTINE  ALEX.,  ESQ.,   8,  Holland  Villas  Eoad, 
Kensington,  W. 

JAMES,  J.  HENRY,  ESQ.,  Kingswood,  Watford. 
JENNINGS,  JOHN,  ESQ.,  Lagrange  House,  Newmarket. 
*JEX-BLAKE,  EEV.  T.  W.,  D.D.,  Alvechurch,  Eedditch. 
JOHNSTON,   J.   M.   0.,   ESQ.,   The  Yews,   Grove  Park,  Caniber- 

well,  S.E. 

JONES,  JAMES  COVE,  ESQ.,  F.S.A.,  Loxley,  Wellesbourne,  Warwick. 
JONES,  THOMAS,  ESQ.,  Eglwyseg  Manor  House,  Llangollen,  North 

Wales  ;  and  2,  Plowden  Buildings,  Temple. 

KAY,  HENRY  CASSELLS,  ESQ.,  11,  Durham  Villas,  Kensington,  W. 
KEARY,  CHARLES  FRANCIS,  ESQ.,  M.A.,  F.S.A.,  200,  Cromwell  Eoad, 


*KENYON,  R.  LLOYD,  ESQ.,  M.A.,  Pradoe,' West  Felton,  Shrops. 
KING,  L.  WHITE,  ESQ.,  Bengal  Civil  Service,  Bannu,  or  Edwards- 

abad,  Panjab,  India. 
KITCHENER,  COLONEL  H.  H.,  E.E.,  care  of  Messrs.  Cox  &  Co., 

Craig's  Court,  Charing  Cross,  S.W. 
*KiTT,  THOS.  W.,  ESQ.,  Auckland,  New  Zealand. 
KRUMBHOLZ,  E.  C.,  ESQ.,  38,  Great  Pulteney  Street,  W. 

*LAGERBERG,  M.  ADAM  MAGNUS  EMANUEL,  Chamberlain  of  H.M. 
the  King  of  Sweden  and  Norway,  Director  of  the  Numismatic 
Department,  Museum,  Gottenburg,  and  Eada,  Sweden. 

*LAMBERT,  GEORGE,  ESQ.,  F.S.A.,  10,  Coventry  Street,  W. 

8  LIST    OF    MEMBERS. 

*LAMBROS,  M.  J.  P.,  Athens,  Greece. 

*LANG,  ROBERT   HAMILTON,    ESQ.,   Pila   Lodge,   South  Norwood 

Park,  S.E. 

LATCHMORE,  F.,  ESQ.,  High  Street,  Hitchin. 
LAWRENCE,  F.  G.,  ESQ.,  Birchfield,  Mulgrave  Eoad,  Sutton,  Surrey. 
*LAWRENCE,  L.  A.,  ESQ.,  Trehurst,  35,  Maresfield  Gardens,  N.W. 
LAWRENCE,  W.  F.,  ESQ.,  M.P.,  Cowesfield  House,  Salisbury. 
*LAWRENCE,  EICHARD  HOE,  ESQ.,  31,  Broad  Street,  New  York. 
*LAWSON,  ALFRED  J.,  ESQ.,  Imperial  Ottoman  Bank,  Smyrna. 
LEADER,  J.D.,  ESQ.,  F.S.A.,  Moor  End,  Sheffield. 
LEES,  W.,  ESQ.,  44,  Queen  Street,  Horncastle,  Lincolnshire. 
LEGGETT,  E.,  ESQ.,  Kurrachee,  India  (care  of  Mr.  E.  C.  Poulter, 

4 A,  Middle  Temple  Lane). 
*LEWIS,  REV.    SAMUEL    SAVAGE,  F.S.A.,    Corpus    Christi    College, 


LINCOLN,  FREDERICK  W.,  ESQ.,  69,  New  Oxford  Street,  W.C. 
LONGSTAFFE,  W.  HILTON  DYER,  ESQ.,  F.S.A.,  4,  Catherine  Terrace, 


Low,  LYMAN  H.,  ESQ.,  853,  Broadway,  New  York,  U.S.A. 
LOWSLEY,  MAJOR  B.,  E.E.,  Eoyal  Engineers'  Offices,  Limerick, 

*LYELL,  A.  H.,  ESQ.,  21,  Sumner  Place,  Onslow  Square,  S.W. 

MACKERELL,  C.  E.,  ESQ.,  Dunningley,  Balham  Hill,  S.W. 
MADDEN,  FREDERIC  WILLIAM,  ESQ.,  M.E.A.S.,  Hilton  Lodge,  Sude- 

ley  Terrace,  Brighton. 

MARSDEN,  REV.  CANON,  B.D.,  Great  Oakley  Rectory,  Harwich,  Essex. 
MARTIN,  ALFRED  TRICE,  ESQ.,  10,  Upper  Belgrave  Eoad,  Clifton, 


MASON,  JAS.  J.,  ESQ.,  Maryfield  Cottage,  Victoria  Eoad,  Kirkcaldy. 
*MATJDE,  EEV.  S.,  Needham  Market,  Suffolk. 
MclNTYRE,  ^NEAS  J.,  ESQ.,   Q.C.,   1,   Park    Square,  Eegent's 
Park,  N.W. 

MCLACHLAN,  R.  W.,  ESQ.,  55,  St.  Monique  Street,  Montreal. 
MIDDLETON,  PROF.  JOHN  H,  M.A.,  F.S.A.,  King's  College,  Cam- 


MINTON,  Tiros.  W.,  ESQ.,  Congleton,  Cheshire. 

MITCHELL,  E.  0.,  ESQ.,  Meppadi  S.  Wynaad,  Madras  Pres.,  India 

(care  of  Messrs.  H.  S.  King  &  Co.,  65,  Cornhill). 
MONTAGU,  H.,  ESQ.,  E.S.A.,  34,  Queen's  Gardens,  Hyde  Park,  W., 

Vice-  President. 

MONTAGUE,  L.  A.  D.,  ESQ.,  Penton,  near  Crediton,  Devon. 
MOORE,  GENERAL,  Junior  U.S.  Club,  Charles  St.,  St.  James's,  S.W. 
MORRIESON,  LIEUT.  H.  WALTERS,  E.A.,  care  of  Mr.  J.  Bumpus, 

350,  Oxford  Street,  W. 
MURDOCH,  JOHN  GLOOG,  ESQ.  ,  Huntingtower,  The  Terrace,  Camden 

Square,  N.W. 
MYERS,  WALTER,  ESQ.,  F.S.A.,  21,  Queensborough  Terrace,  Hyde 

Park,  W. 

NASH,  CHARLES  HENRY,  ESQ.,  Elmhurst,  South  Norwood  Park, 

NECK,  J.  F.,  ESQ.,  care  of  Mr.  F.  W.   Lincoln,  69,  New  Oxford 

Street,  W.C. 

NELSON,  EALPH,  ESQ.,  55,  North  Bondgate,  Bishop  Auckland. 
*NUNN,  JOHN  JOSEPH,  ESQ.,  Downham  Market. 
NUTTER,   MAJOR,  W.    Eough  Lee,   Accrington,   and  Cleveley's, 


OLIVER,  E.  EMMERSON,  ESQ.,  M  E.A.S.,  M.Inst.C.E.,  Holly  Oak, 

Simla,  India. 
OMAN,  C.  W.  C.,  ESQ.,  M.A.,  F.S.A.,  All  Souls  College,  Oxford. 

PACKE,  ALFRED  E.,  ESQ.,  1,  Stanhope  Place,  Hyde  Park,  W. 
*PATRICK,  ROBERT  W.  COCHRAN,  ESQ.,  F.S.A.,  Beith,  Ayrshire. 
*PEARCE,  SAMUEL  SALTER,  ESQ.,  Bingham's  Melcombe,  Dorchester. 
PEARSE,  GEN.  G.  G.,  C.B.,  E.H.A.,  Godfrey  House,  Cheltenham. 

*PECKOVER,  ALEX.,  ESQ.,  F.S.A.,  F.L.S.,  F.E.G.S.,  Bank  House, 


*PERRY,  MARTEN,  ESQ.,  M.D.,  Spalding,  Lincolnshire. 
PHILLIPS,  HENRY,  ESQ.,  JUN.,  A.M.,  Ph.D.,  Numismatic  Society 

of  Philadelphia,  U.S.A. 

10  LIST    OF   MEMBERS. 

PINCHES,  JOHN  HARVEY,  ESQ.,  27,  Oxenden  Street,  Haymarket. 

PIXLEY,  FRANCIS  W.,  ESQ.,  23,  Linden  Gardens,  W. 

POLLEXFEN,  REV.  JoHNH.,  M.A.,  F.S.A.,  Middleton  Tyas,  Richmond, 

POOLE,  REGINALD  STUART,  ESQ.,  LL.D.,  Corr.  de  1'Institut,  British 
Museum,  Vice- President. 

POOLE,  STANLEY  E.  LANE,  ESQ.,  M.R  A.S.,  Birling  House,  East- 
dean,  Eastbourne. 

POWELL,  SAMUEL,  ESQ.,  Ivy  House,  Welshpool. 

PREVOST,  AUGUSTUS,  ESQ.,  79,  Westbourne  Terrace,  W. 

PRIDEAUX,  LIEUT.-COL.,  W.  E.,  F.R.G.S.,  M.R.A.S.,  2,  Sidlaw 
Terrace,  Bognor,  Sussex. 

RANSOM,  W.,  ESQ.,  F.L.S.,  Fairfield,  Hitchin,  Herts. 
RASHLEIGH,  JONATHAN,  ESQ.,  3,  Cumberland  Terrace,  Regent's 

Park,  N.W. 

21,  Charles  Street,  Berkeley  Square,  W. 
READY,  W.  TALBOT,  ESQ.,  55,  Rathbone  Place,  W. 
REED,  P.  R.,  ESQ.,  Rusholme,  Grove  Road,  Surbiton.  * 

RICHARDSON,  A.   B.,   ESQ.,   F. S.A.Scot.,  16,    Coates    Crescent, 


*ROBERTSON,  J.  D.,  ESQ.,  M.A.,  Caen  Leys,  Ashtead,  Surrey. 
RODGERS,  C.  J.,   ESQ.,  Archaeological  Surveyor,    Panjab  Circle, 

Amritsar,  India. 
ROSTRON,  SIMPSON,  ESQ.,  1,  Hare  Court,  Temple. 

*SALAS,  MIGUEL  T.,  ESQ.,  247,  "Florida  Street,  Buenos  Ayres. 
*SANDEMAN,    LIEUT.-COL.   JOHN   GLAS,    24,  Cambridge  Fquare, 

Hyde  Park,  W. 
SCHINDLER,  GENERAL  A.  H.,  care  of  Messrs.  W.  Dawson  and  Son, 

121,  Cannon  Street,  E.G. 

SCHLUMBERGER,  M.  G.,  140,  Faubourg  St.  Honord,  Paris. 
SELBORNE,  THE  RIGHT  HON.  THE  EARL  OF,  F.R.S.,  Blackmoor, 

Selborne,  Hants. 

SHORTHOUSE,  E.,  ESQ.,  5,  Charlotte  Road,  Edgbaston,  Birmingham. 
SMITH,  H.  P.,  ESQ.,  269,  West  52nd  Street,  New  York. 

LIST    OF    MEMBERS.  11 

SMITH,  R.  HOBART,  ESQ.,  70,  Broadway,  New  York. 

SMITH,  SAMUEL,  ESQ.,  Wisbech,  Cambridgeshire. 

SMITH,    SAMUEL,    ESQ.,  JUN.,    25,    Croxteth    Road,   Prince's   Park, 

SMITHS,  J.  DOYLE,  ESQ.,   F.G.S.,  National  Church  Club,    135, 

New  Bond  Street,  W. 

SOAMES,  REV.  CHARLES,  Mildenhall,  near  Marlborough,  Wilts. 
SPENCE,  ROBERT,  ESQ.,  4,  Rosella  Place,  North  Shields. 
SPICE  R,  FREDERICK,  ESQ.,  Catteshall,  Godalming,  Surrey. 
SPINK,  C,  F.,  ESQ.,  2,  Gracechurch  Street,  E.G. 
STEPHEN,  C.,  ESQ.,  District  Judge,  Tullundur,  Panjab,  India. 
*STREATFEILD,  REV.  GEORGE  SIDNEY,  Vicarage,  Streatham  Common, 

*STUBBS,  MAJOR-GEN,  F.  W.,  R.A.,  M.R.A.S.,  Dromiskin  House, 

Castle  Bellingham,  co.  Louth,  Ireland. 
STUDD,  E.  EAIRFAX,  ESQ.,  Oxton,  Exeter. 
STULPNAGEL,  DR.  C.  R.,  Govt.  College,  Lahore,  Panjab,  India. 
SUGDEN,  JOHN,  ESQ.,  Dockroyd,  near  Keighley. 
SYMONDS,  HENRY,  ESQ.,  Oakdale,  Farquhar  Road,  Edgbaston. 

TABLEY,  THE  RIGHT  HON.  LORD  DE,  F.S.A.,  62,  Elm  Park  Road, 

Chelsea,  S.W. 
TALBOT,  MAJOR  THE  HON.  MILO  GEORGE,  R.E.,  2,  Paper  Buildings, 


TALBOT,  THE  HON.  REGINALD,  LL.B.,  2,  Paper  Buildings,  Temple. 
TATTON,  THOS.,  ESQ.,  Wythenshawe,  Northenden,  Cheshire. 
TAYLOR,  W.  H.,  ESQ.,  Ivy  Yiew,  Erdington,  near  Birmingham. 
THAIRLWALL,  T.  J.,  ESQ.,  12,  Upper  Park  Road,  Haverstock  Hill, 


^THEOBALD,  W.,  ESQ.,  Budleigh  Salterton,  S.  Devon. 
THURSTON,  E.,  ESQ.,  Central  Government  Museum,  Madras. 
TREVOR,  HON.  GEORGE  HILL,  25,  Belgrave  Square,  S.W. 
TRIST,  J.  W.,  ESQ.,  F.S.A.,  62,  Old  Broad  Street,  E.G. 
TROTTER,  MAJOR  HENRY,  C.B.,  British  Embassy,  Constantinople. 
TUFNELL,    CAPT.   R.   H.    C.,    8,   High  Road,    Nungumbankum, 

Madras,  India. 
TUNMER,  H.  G.,  ESQ.,  38,  Tacket  Street,  Ipswich. 

12  LIST    OF    MEMBERS. 

VERITY,  JAMES,  ESQ.,  Earlsheaton,  Dewsbury. 

VIRTUE,  JAMES  SPRENT,  ESQ.,  294,  City  Road,  E.G. 

VIZE,  GEORGE  HENRY,  ESQ.,  4,  Loraine  Eoad,  Holloway,  N. 

*WADDINGTON,  MONSIEUR  W.  H.,  Membre  de  1'Institut,  31,  Eue 

Dumont  Durville,  Paris. 

WAKEFORD,  GEORGE,  ESQ.,  Knightrider  Street,  Maidstone. 
WALKER,  E.  K,  ESQ.,  M.A.,  Trin.  Coll.  Dub.,   9,   St.  James's 

Terrace,  Miltown,  Co.  Dublin,  Ireland. 
WARREN,  CAPT.  A.  E.,  Hillside,  Marischal  Eoad,  Lee,  S.E. 
WEBB,  HENRY,  ESQ.,  11,  Argyll  Street,  Regent  Street,  W. 

*  WEBER,  EDWARD  F.,  ESQ.,  58,  Alster,  Hamburg,  Germany. 
*WEBER,  FREDERIC   P.,  ESQ.,  10,  Grosvenor  Street,  Grosvenor 

Square,  W. 

*  WEBER,  HERMANN,  ESQ.,  M.D.,  10,  Grosvenor  Street,  Grosvenor 

Square,  W. 

WEBSTER,  W.  J.,  ESQ.,  1,  Bloomsbury  Place,  Bloomsbury  Square, 

WHELAN,  F.  E.,  ESQ.,  61,  Great  Eussell  Street,  Bloomsbury,  W.C. 

WHITE,  GEORGE,  ESQ.,  Bank  of  England,  E.C. 

*WIGRAM,  MRS.  LEWIS,  Woodlawn,  Bickley,  Kent. 

WILKINSON,  JOHN,  ESQ.,  E.S.A.,  13,  Wellington  Street,  Strand,  W.C. 

WILLETT,  ERNEST  H.,  ESQ.,  F.S.A.,  6,  Fairneld  Eoad,  Croydon,  S.E. 

WILLIAMSON,  GEO.  C.,  ESQ.,  Dunstanbeorh,  Church  Hill,  Guild- 
ford,  Surrey. 

WINSEII,  THOMAS  B.,  ESQ.,  81,  Shooter's  Hill  Eoad,  Blackheath,  S.E. 

WOOD,  HUMPHREY,  ESQ.,  Chatham. 

WORMS,  BARON  GEORGE  DE,  F.E.G.S.,E.S.A.,  M.E.S.L.,  E.G.S.,D.L., 
J.P.,  17,  Park  Crescent,  Portland  Place,  Regent's  Park,  W. 

WRIGHT,  COL.  CHARLES  I.,  The  Bank,  Carlton  Street,  Nottingham. 

WRIGHT,  EEV.  WILLIAM,  D.D.,  The  Avenue,  Beulah  Hill,  Upper 
Norwood,  S.E. 

WROTH,  W.  W.,  ESQ.,  British  Museum,  Foreign  Secretary. 

WYON,  ALLAN,  ESQ.,  2,  Langham  Chambers,  Portland  Place,  W. 

YOUNG,  ARTHUR  W.,  ESQ.,  12,  Hyde  Park  Terrace,  W. 

LIST    OF    MEMBERS.  13 


ADRIAN,  DR.  J.  D.,  Giessen. 

BARTHfiLEMY,  M.  A.  BE,  39,  Rue  d' Amsterdam,  Paris. 
BERGMANN,  J.  BITTER  vo^,  Vienna. 



CHABOUILLET,  M.  A.,  Bibliotheque  Nationale,  Paris. 
CHALON,  M.  RENIER,  113,  Rue  du  Trone,  Brussels. 
COLSON,  DR.  ALEXANDRE,  Noyon  (Oise),  France. 


GONZALES,  CAV.  CARLO,  Palazzo  Ricasoli,  Via  delle  Terme,  Florence. 
GROTE,  DR.  H.,  Hanover. 
GUIOTH,  M.  LEON,  Liege. 

HART,  A.  WELLINGTON,  ESQ.,  16,  Ex  Place,  New  York. 
HEISS,  M.  ALOISS,  48,  Rue  Ckarles-Laffitte,  Neuilly,  Seine. 
HERBST,  HERR  C.  F.,  Director  of  the  Museum  of  Northern  Anti- 
quities and  Inspector  of  the  Coin  Cabinet,  Copenhagen. 
HILDEBRAND,  DR.  HANS,  Riksantiquarien,  Stockholm. 
HTJCHER,  M.  E.,  Le  Mans. 

IMHOOF-BLUMER,  DR.  F.,  Winterthur,  Switzerland. 
KENNER,  DR.  F.,  K.  K.  Museum,  Vienna. 

LEEMANS,  DR.  CONRAD,  Direct,  du  Musee  d' Antiquity's,  Leyden. 
LEITZMANN,  HERR  PASTOR  J.,  Weissensee,  Thiiringen,  Saxony. 
Lis  Y  RIVES,  SE^OR  DON  V.  BERTRAN  DE,  Madrid. 



MULLER,  DR.  L.,  Insp.  du  Cab.  des  Medailles,  Copenhagen. 


R.  ALFRED  VON,  Konigliche  Museen,  Berlin. 

14  LIST    OP^    MEMBERS. 

Six,  M.  J.  P.,  Amsterdam. 

SMITH,  AQUILLA,  EsQ.,M.D.,  M.K.I.A.,  121,  Baggot  Street,  Dublin. 
SMITH,  C.  ROACH,  ESQ.,  F.S.A.,  Temple  Place,  Strood,  Kent. 
STICKEL,  PROFESSOR  DR.  J.  G.,  Jena,  Germany. 

TIESEXHAUSEX,  PROF.  W.,  Pont  de  la  Police,  17,  St.  Petersburg. 

VALLEUSANI,  IL  PROF.,  Florence. 
VERACiiTtfR,  M.  FREDERICK,  Antwerp. 

WEIL,  DR.  RUDOLF.  Komgliche  Museen,  Berlin. 

WITTE,  M.  LE  BARON  DE.  5.  Rue  Fortin,  Faubourg  St.  Honore,  Paris. 



IN  1887. 

DURING  the  year  1887  the  Department  of  Coins  in  the 
British  Museum  has  acquired  176  coins  of  the  Greek  class, 
8  of  which  are  in  gold,  58  in  silver,  84  in  bronze,  and  26 
in  billon.  A  description  of  the  most  noteworthy  of  these 
acquisitions  is  given  in  the  following  pages. 


Obv.  —  Head   of  Apollo   1.,    laur.  ;    behind,    thunderbolt  : 
border  of  dots. 

Rev.  —  5YPAK  OSiniSI.     Tripod-lebes  :  plain  border. 
Eiectrum.     Size  '6.     Weight  55'5  grains. 

Of  the  period  B.C.  345  —  317.  It  is  similar  to  the  specimen 
described  in  the  Brit.  Mus.  Cat.,  Sicily,  "  Syracuse,"  p.  183, 
No.  253,  and  photographed  in  Head,  Syracuse,  JN\C.  xiv. 
PI.  VI.,  2,  but  has  a  new  symbol,  the  thunderbolt. 

AEROPUS,  KING  OF  MACEDONIA,  B.C.  396  —  392. 
Obv.  —  Head  of  young  Herakles  r.  in  lion's  skin. 

Wolf's  head  r.  ;  beneath,  club  :  the  whole 
in  slight  incuse  square. 
JR.  Size  -3.     Weight  7  grs.     [PI.  I.  7.] 



Hitherto  Aeropus  was  only  known  to  have  issued  bronze 
money.1  The  present  coin  is  identical,  except  as  regards 
the  inscription,  with  a  half  obol  struck  by  Archelaus  I., 
the  predecessor  of  Aeropus  (B.C.  413—399),  and  engraved 
in  Brit  Mus.  Cat.,  Macedonia,  p.  165,  No.  11. 

Oh\ — Head  of  Hermes  r.  in  pileus. 

jR6^.— AINI.     Goat  r. ;  in  field  r. ;  dog  r.  :  the  whole  in 

incuse  square. 
^R.     Size  1.     Weight  253'5  grs. 

The  symbol  on  the  reverse  is  not  mentioned  in  Mionnet, 
nor  in  the  Historia  Numorum  (p.  213).  The  treatment  of 
the  head  is  somewhat  softer  and  less  archaic  than  on  some 
of  the  other  coins  of  Aenus  of  the  same  period  (B.C. 

Obv. — Head  of  young  Dionysos  1.,  wreathed  with  ivy. 

Rev.— MAPflNI  TEQN 2  Within  square  com- 
partment, vine-branch  from  which  hangs  a  large 
bunch  of  grapes  with  leaves  and  tendrils  ;  on  r. 
of  compartment,  thyrsus  filleted  :  the  whole  in 
incuse  square. 
M.  Size -45.  Weight  249 -5  grs.  [PI.  I.  11.] 

A  fine  tetradrachm   of  light  Attic   weight,  probably 
struck  shortly  before  B.C.  400.3     A  few  other  specimens 

1  Cp.  Head,    Hist.    Num.,   p.    194 ;    Imhoof,   Portratkopfe, 
p.  13, 

*  Magistrate's  name, nearly  obliterated:  traces  of  AOHl. .  .  (?). 
8  Cp.  Head,  Hist.  Num.,  p.  216. 

GREEK    COINS    ACQUIRED    BY    THE    BRITISH    MUSEUM          3 

with  similar  though  not  identical  types  have  already  been 
published  as  follows  :  — 

1.  Obv.  —  Head  of  young  Dionysos  1.,  wreathed  with  ivy. 

Rev.—  MAPI1  NITON  EPIA  0HNEH.  Within 
square  compartment,  vine-branch  from  which 
hang  four  small  bunches  of  grapes  :  the  whole  in 
incuse  square. 

M.  Mionnet's  size  6£.     Described  in  Mion- 
net,  i.  p.  389,  No.  164. 

The  head  (judging  from  Mionnet's  sulphur  cast)  is  of 
careless  workmanship. 

2.  Obv.  —  Caput  Bacchi  hedera  coronatum  ad  s. 

Rev.—  MAPflNITEflN  EHI  HPCWIAOY.  Vitis 
botris  gravida  intra  quadrum  et  quadratum  in- 

JR.    Described   in  Sestini,   Mus.  Hedervar., 
Europe  i.  p.  57,  No.  5. 

A  specimen  with  the  same  magistrate's  name  (Rev.  vine- 
branch  with  four  small  bunches  of  grapes)  came  to  the 
British  Museum  with  the  Woodhbuse  collection.  It  is 
certainly  a  modern  forgery. 

3.  Obv.  —  Head  of  young  Dionysos  1.,  wreathed  with  ivy. 

!MHTP[O4>A]  NEO^. 

Within  square  compartment,  vine-branch  from 
which  hang  four  small  bunches  of  grapes  :  the 
whole  in  incuse  square. 

JR..  Mionnet's  size  6.  Described  in  Mionnet  i. 

p.  389,  No.  165.     (A  sulphur  cast  of  it 

in  the  Brit.  Mus.) 


The  head  is  treated  in  a  soft  and  pleasing  style,  and 
differs  a  good  deal  from  the  head  on  the  coin  lately 
acquired  by  the  British  Museum.  The  latter  head, 
though  of  fine  style,  is  less  ideal  and  more  portrait-like. 

.  4.  Qtom — Head  of  young  Dionysos  1.,  wreathed  with  ivy. 

I?*?.— MAPfiNI  TEHN  EP  I  MHTPO4>  AN  EOS. 

Within  square  compartment,  vine-branch,  from 
which  hang  four  small  bunches  of  grapes ;  beneath 
vine-branch  a  Silenus-head  :  the  whole  in  incuse 

M.  Size  25m.  Weight  16 '20  grammes. 
Collection  of  Dr.  Imhoof-Blumer :  see 
Zeit.f.  N.  iii.  p.  286,  PI.  VI.  18. 

The  head  is  of  the  same  character  as  that  on  No.  3, 
but  is  more  beautifully  rendered.  A  specimen  (weight 
261*7  grains)  with  similar  types,  though  inferior  on  the 
obverse,  was  acquired  by  the  British  Museum  in  1839. 
It  was  not  described  in  the  Museum  Catalogue,  Tauric 
Chersonese  .  .  .  Thrace,  &c.,  as  its  genuineness  was  sus- 
pected. Though  the  obverse  is  not  in  a  very  satisfactory 
condition,  I  do  not  myself  see  any  pressing  reason  for 
doubting  the  coin.  Mr.  P.oole  and  Mr.  Head  are  also  now 
inclined  to  believe  it  genuine. 

5.  Obv. — "  Head  of  a  bacchante  to  the  left,  bound  with  a 
crown  composed  of  ivy  leaves  and  fruits."  [i.e. 
Head  of  young  Dionysos  1.,  wreathed  with  ivy.] 

tf™.— MAPHNITEnN  ER I  0EOAOTO.  "Vine 
with  large  bunches  of  grapes  within  a  square 
described  by  four  equilateral  bars  in  relief ;  out- 
side these  bars  is  the  above  legend  and  a  thyrsus: 
the  whole  within  a  flat  sunk  square." 

-ffi.     Mionnet's  size  7.     Weight  255is0-  grs. 


Formerly  in  the  collection  of  Mr.  H.  P.  Borrell.  It  was 
described  by  him  in  the  Num.  Chron.  iii.  (1841)  p.  110, 
No.  9.  The  thyrsus  also  occurs  on  the  new  specimen  in 
the  British  Museum. 

OLBIA.     (After  circ.  B.C.  850.) 

Obv. — Bearded  and  horned  male  head  1.  (River-god 
Borysthenes  ?). 

Rev. — oABIo.     Axe,  and  bow  in  case  ;  in  field,  MH. 

JE.     Size  -85. 

A  variety  of  the  specimens  already  described  in  Brit. 
Mus.  Cat.,  Tauric  Chersonese,  &c.,  p.  11,  Nos.  4 — 12. 
(Cp.  Burachkov,  Coins  of  Olbia,  &c.  (Odessa,  1884),  vol.  i., 
p.  45  ;  Koehne,  Mus.  Kotsvhoubey,  i.,  p.  43,  No.  31  ; 
von  Sallet,  Beschreibung  der.  ant.  Munzen  (Berlin)  i.  p.  24, 
No.  102.) 

Obv. — Horseman  wearing  causia  and  chlamys,  riding  1. 

Rev. — P  EAI  NNAIfl.  Draped  female  figure,  wearing 
wreath  and  veil,  standing  r.  and  opening  casket 
with  her  right  hand. 

M.     Size  -7.     [PI.  I.  8.] 

This  specimen  belongs  to  the  period  B.C.  300 — 190  of  the 
coinage  of  Pelinna.  Several  others  with  similar  types  are 
known,  of  which  one  is  in  the  National  Collection  at 
Athens  (Postolaca,  No/*.  eV  r.  10.  Movo-.,  1885,  PL  I.  1 ; 
p.  232).  A  horseman,  and  a  warrior  armed  with  a  spear 
are  common  types  at  Pelinna.  The  reverse  type  is 
curious,  and  recalls  the  toilet- scenes  in  the  vase  paint- 
ings where  an  attendant  holds  or  opens  a  casket.  Per- 
haps the  veiled  female  figure  on  this  coin  is  a  priestess  of 


some  local  goddess,  or  possibly  the  goddess  herself.  On 
copper  coins4  of  Pelinna  of  the  same  period  a  veiled 
female  head  occurs  as  the  obverse  type.  Professor 
Gardner  has  described  the  head  as  that  of  a  queen,  but 
perhaps  it  is  the  same  local  priestess  or  goddess  who  is 
seen  opening  the  casket. 


Obv. — Head  of  Demeter  1.,  veiled  and    wreathed    with 
corn  :  border  of  dots. 

Eev.— 0HBAin[NJ.  Horse  r. ;  beneath,  X  (monogram 
of  the  Achaeans  of  Phthiotis). 
M.    Size  -7. 

Belongs  to  the  period  B.C.  302—286.  A  similar  specimen 
in  the  Berlin  Cabinet  is  described  in  Zeitschnft  far 
Num.  i.,  p.  175. 

Obv.— Head  of  Zeus  of  Dodona  1.,  laureate. 

Rev.— Thunderbolt ;  above  it,   ME  ;    below  it,    HAN  : 
the  whole  in  oak-wreath. 
M.     Size  -85. 

Of  the  period  B.C.  238—168.  The  specimen  with  the 
same  types  already  in  the  British  Museum  (Cat., 
Thessaly—Actolia,  p.  109,  PL  XXXII.,  9)  has  an  inscrip- 
tion (AflAC)  on  the  obverse  and  (apparently)  no  letters 
above  the  thunderbolt. 

Tkessahj—Aetolia>  P-  38»  Nos.  6,  7.     [PI. 


DELPHI  (Pnocis). 
Obv. — Head  of  negro  (Delphos  ?)  r.  :  border  of  dots. 

Rev. — T  thrice  repeated. 

M.     Size  -4.     Weight  9  grs.     [PI.  I.  2.] 

A  tritartemorion,5  probably  of  the  beginning  of  the 
fourth  century  B.C.  It  is  not  described  in  Head's  Ilistoria 

Obv. — Breotian  shield. 

Rev. — O   E.     Head  of  bearded  Herakles  in  lion's  skin, 
facing  :  the  whole  in  incuse  square. 

M.     Size  -9.     Weight  186  grs.     [PI.  I.  5.] 

A  rare  stater  (unfortunately  somewhat  rubbed  on  the 
reverse)  of  the  period  B.C.  426—395.  (Cp.  B.  V.  Head, 
Coins  of  Bceotia,  N.C.  1881,  p.  211,  where  this  type  is  de- 
scribed.) It  is  remarkable  for  the  rugged  treatment  of  the 
full-face  head  of  Herakles.  A  specimen  with  similar  types 
is  in  the  Berlin  Museum,6  and  another  with  a  head  of 
Herakles  of  slightly  different  style  is  photographed  in 
the  Num.  Zeitschrift1  from  the  original  in  the  Naples 

(Period  of  Hadrian  and  the  Antonines.) 

Obv. — Bust   of  Athena  r.,   wearing  crested   Corinthian 

5  Cp.   Head,  CataL   Central  Greece,  p.  xxxii.,  and  Gardner, 
Catal.  Peloponnesus,  p.  xviii. 

6  From  the  Fox  Collection  :  see  Fox,  Engravings  of  Unedited, 
$c.,  Supplemental  Plate,  No.  12. 

7  Vol.  ix.  (1877),  PI.  II.,  No.  129  ;  p.  42,  No.  129. 


Bev.— A0HN.  .  .  N      Athena    standing    r.,    wearing 
crested   Corinthian    helmet,    long    chiton    with 
diplois  and  aegis  ;  she  holds  in  r.  spear,  and  on  1. 
arm,  shield ;  before  her,  serpent. 
JE.     Size  -8. 

Acquired  since  the  publication  of  Mr.  Head's  Cat. 
Attica.  It  is  a  variety  of  p.  94,  No.  680  (without  serpent) 
in  that  work,  and  the  reverse  (and  obverse  ?)  is  similar  to 
Imhoof-Blumer  and  Gardner,  Num.  Comm.  on  Pausanias, 
PL  A  A,  No.  IX.  (from  the  Loebbecke  coll.). 


Obv. — Bust  of  Athena  r.,  wearing  crested  Corinthian 

Rev. — A0HNA  I.QN  Athena  standing  1.,  wearing 
crested  Corinthian  helmet,  chiton  and  peplos ; 
her  raised  r.  resting  on  spear ;  behind  her,  ser- 
pent and  shield. 

M.    Size  *8. 

Not  in  Cat.  Attica,  A  similar  reverse- type  is  described 
and  photographed  in  Imhoof  and  Gardner,  op.  cit.,  p.  134, 
PI.  A  A,  No.  VII.,  but  the  serpent  has  not  been  noted. 

Obv.  —  Head  of  bearded  Herakles  r.,  bare. 

AYZIATTATPEniSI  (round  the 
coin)  ;  in  field  r.,  JJJJ2.  Pallas  wearing  helmet  and 
chiton  with  diplois  advancing  r.  ;  in  r.  spear  ; 
in  1.  shield. 

M.    Size  -9. 

Belongs  to  the  series  of  coins  of  Patrae,  assigned  by  Pro- 
fessor Gardner,  in  his  catalogue  of  Peloponnesus,  p.  23,  to 


B.C.  146  —  32.     It  has  been  acquired  since  the  publication 
of  that  work.8 

Obv.  —  Zeus  HomagyrhiH  standing  1.  ;  in  r.  Nike  ; 

in  1.,  sceptre  :  border  of  dots. 

[KAAAir|TATAN      Demeter   Pal>achaea  (or 
Achaia  personified  ?)  seated  1.  ;  in  r.  ,  wreath  ;  in  1., 
sceptre  :  border  of  dots. 
M.    Size  -7. 

This  rare  coin  has  been  acquired  since  the  publication 
of  the  Brit.  Mus.  Cat.,  Peloponnesus.  A  similar  speci- 
men, in  the  Turin  collection,  is  engraved  in  the  Zeit.fur 
Num.  for  1882  (vol.  ix.,  p.  258),  and  is  attributed  by  Dr. 
Weil  to  a  town  Callista,  not  otherwise  known,  but  probably 
situated  in  Arcadia. 


Obv. — Head  of  Apollo  r.,  laureate  :  border  of  dots. 

F     A 

Rev. — I,     p    Zeus,  naked,  striding  r. ;  in  r.,  thunderbolt ; 

on  1.,  eagle  ;  in  field  r.,  wreath. 
JE.     Size  '8. 

Struck  after  B.C.  191.  It  has  been  acquired  since  the 
publication  of  Cat.  Peloponnesus.  (Cp.  Gardner,  Coins  of 
Elis,  N.C.  1879,  p.  267.)  The  wreath,  presumably  of  olive, 
appears  as  a  type  on  other  coins  of  Elis,  which  are  later  in. 
style  than  the  present  specimen. 

8  A  similar  specimen  is  described  in  Mionnet,  Sup.  vol.  iv., 
p.  134,  No.  905. 



ABGOS.     (B.C.  228—146.) 

Obv. — Forepart  of  wolf  r. 

Ifo;.— A  ;  beneath  it,  thunderbolt ;  in  field,   I         O  :  the 

2.  X  I  A 
whole  in  shallow  incuse  square. 

M.     Size  -6.     Weight  36'9  grs. 

Obv. — Forepart  of  wolf  r. 

A  EY 

ficv.—/\  ;  beneath  it,  term  ;  in  field,    K  I  :  the  whole 

o  Z 
in  shallow  incuse  square. 

.St.     Size  -6.     Weight  36'9  grs. 

Obv. — Head  of  Argive  Hera  r.,  wearing  Stephanos. 

^.—Quiver  ;  in  field,  ©lo  AE;  in  field  1.,  helmet ;  in 
field  r.,  Q. 

JE.     Size  -6. 

Not  described  in  the  Cat.  Peloponnesus.  "With  the  bronze 
compare  the  specimen  described  in  Num.  Zeitschrift,  iii. 
p.  403,  No.  30  (with  GO  AE). 

THE  ARCADIANS.9     (Circ.  B.C.  480—417.) 

Obv. — Zeus  Aphesius,  wearing  himation,  seated  1.  ;  on 
back  of  seat,  eagle  perched  1. ;  in  r.  of  Zeus, 

Rev. — Head  of  Artemis  r.,  in  net:  incuse  square. 

M.    Size  '6.     Weight  46  grs.     [PI.  I.  6.] 

Obv. — Zeus  Aphesius,  wearing  himation,  seated  r. ;  in  r., 
eagle,  with  wings  closed,  r.  ;  in  1.,  sceptre. 

Rev. — Head  of  Artemis  r.,  in  net :  incuse  square. 
M.     Size  -6.     Weight  40-8  grs. 

These  are  not  described  in  the  Cat.  Peloponnesus. 

9  Cp.  Gardner,  Cat.  Peloponnesus,  p.  Ivii.  f,  and  the  reff.  to 
Imhoof  and  Weil  there  given. 



The  Museum  has  lately  acquired  an  example  of  the 
bronze  coin  of  Alea  with  obv.,  Head  of  Artemis  r.  Rev.  A  A 
Strung  bow,10  described  in  Imhoof,  Monnaies  grecques}p.  186, 
No.  165,  and  figured  in  Revue  Numismatique,  PL  YL,  10 
(Soutzo  coll.)  and  Cat.  Lcmme,  1872,  PI.  I.,  157. 

TEGEA  (ARCADIA).     (B.C.  431—370.) 
Obv.  —  Head  of  Pallas  r.,  wearing  crested  helmet. 

Rev.—TErE     Cock  r. 

M.     Size  -5.     [PI.  I.  12.] 

Not  in  Brit.  Mm.  Cat.,  Peloponnesus. 

A  similar  specimen  is  engraved  by  Dr.  Imhoof-Blurner 
in  his  Choix,  PI.  III.  No.  85  (cp.  his  Monn.  grecques, 
p.  209,  No.  279).  He  suggests  that  the  cock  may  be  an 
agonistic  symbol,  alluding  to  the  games  celebrated  at 
Tegea  in  honour  of  Athene  Alaia. 

Axus  (CRETE). 
Obv.  —  Head  of  Apollo  r.,  laureate. 

Aw.—  FAIE  inN     Tripod. 

M.    Size  -75.     Weight  77  grs.     [PI.  I.  1.] 

Probably  issued  B.C.  350  —  300.  A  similar  specimen  is 
engraved  in  Num.  Zeit.,  vol.  viii.  PL  I.  4,  and  several 
examples  are  known  (see  Kenner  in  Num.  Zeit.y  viii. 
p.  17)." 

10  Cp.  the  M  coin  of  Alea  in  Cat.  Peloponnesus,  p.  177. 

11  For  the  types,  cp.  Wroth,   Cat.  Crete  and  Aegean 
PI.  III.  15. 


The  coins  attributed  in  the  Brit.  Mus.  Cat,  Crete,  to 
the  Cretan  town  Naxos  (p.  59,  cp.  p.  xxxviii.)  belong 
to  Axos,  as  Halbherr  (Mitth.  d.  arch.  Inst.  in  Athen. 
xi.,  84),  has  now  shown.12 


Obv.— Europa,  wearing  Stephanos  and  peplos  over  lower 
limbs,  seated  r.  (head  facing)  in  tree;  in  1., 
sceptre  surmounted  by  bird;  her  r.  caresses 

Eev.— Bull  r.,  looking  back  :  border  of  dot?. 
JR.     Size  1.     Weight  175'6  grs.     [PI.  I.  8.] 

This  fourth  century  didrachm  with  the  Hera- like  figure 
of  Europa 13  has  been  acquired  since  the  publication  of  the 
Catalogue  of  Crete,  &c.  It  is  from  the  same  die  as  the 
specimen  described  by  Mionnet  (ii.  p.  279,  No.  171),  and 
photographed  (from  one  of  Mionnet's  casts)  by  Gardner 
in  his  Types  (PL  IX.  18,  obv.  only).  Several  similar 
specimens  are  known,  e.g.  one  engraved  in  Descrip.  Mus. 
Hunter,  PL  28,  No.  22  (with  fly  under  bull). 

Obv. — Head  of  Apollo  r.,  laureate. 

12 1  take  this  opportunity  of  making  two  corrections  in  my  Cat. 
Crete,  &c.  The  head  on  No.  6,  p.  2  [PI.  I.  4],  described  as 
"  Antonia  ?  "  is,  doubtless,  as  M.  J.  P.  Six  has  suggested  to  me, 
the  head  of  Livia,  the  grandmother  of  Claudius.  The  copper 
coin,  p.  5,  No.  80  [PI.  I.  12] ,  with  a  nearly  illegible  inscription 
in  the  exergue,  is — as  M.  Svoronos  has  kindly  pointed  out — a 
coin  of  Alexandria.  I  may  also  notice  that  the  coin  No.  27, 
p.  85  [PL  VII.  7],  of  Prof.  Gardner's  valuable  catalogue, 
Peloponnesus,  attributed  to  Phlius,  belongs  to  Gortyna,  and  is 
similar  to  Cat.  Crete,  PI.  XI.  13.  The  inscription  on  the  speci- 
men bad  unfortunately  become  illegible. 

13  Cp.  Gardner,  Types,  p.  165. 


Eev. — Head  and  neck  of  bull  r.,  in  circular  incuse  depres- 

-ffl.     Size  -7.     Weight  86'6  grs.     [PI.  I.  15.] 

A  coin 14  of  the  latter  part  of  the  fourth  century,  B.C. 
In  its  fabric  and  reverse-type  it  closely  resembles  the 
specimen  photographed  in  Brit.  Mus.  Cat.,  Crete,  &c., 
PL  XI.  No.  2.  The  head  of  Apollo  is  of  commonplace 
style  and  resembles  the  head  on  silver  coins  of  Cnossus 
(Cat.  Crete,  PI.  Y.  13). 

LATUS  (CRETE).     (B.C.  200—67.) 

Obv. — Head  of  Artemis  1.  [wearing  stephane] ;  hair  tied 
in  knot  behind  :  border  of  dots. 

Eev. — A  A  Draped  bust  of  Hermes  1.,  wearing  petasus  ; 
at  his  shoulder,  caduceus ;  the  whole  in  incuse 

M.     Size  -4. 

Not  in  the  Museum  Cat.  Crete  (cp.  p.  54).  A  similar 
specimen  (without  the  caduceus  ?)  is  described  by  Dr. 
Imhoof-Blumer  (Monn.  Gr.  p.  217)  from  his  own  collec- 

Lisus  ?  (CBETE): 

Obv. — |  4  Eagle  flying  r. ;  two  linear  borders  united 
by  crossing  bars. 

Jtei>.— AAEEA    NAPo   Y    Eagle  flying  r. :  border  of 

N.  Size  -45.    Weight  15«7  grs.    [PI.  I.  13.] 

Belongs  to  a  series  of  very  thin  gold  coins,  of  which  seve- 
ral types  and  varieties  are  known  (see  Spratt,  Travels  in 

14  Not  published  in  Brit.  Mus.  Cat.,  Crete,  &c. 


Crete,  ii.  p.  215,  and  his  paper  in  Num.  Chron.,  1887, 
p.  309;  Margaritis  in  Rev.  Num.,  1886,  p.  20).  The 
Cretan  provenance  of  the  specimens  is  certain.  They  all 
bear  an  eagle  on  one  side  and  sometimes  on  both ;  this 
type  and  the  presence  of  the  letters  Y  A  on  some  of 
the  pieces  have  led  numismatists  to  suppose  that  they  were 
issued  at  Lyttus.  The  eagle  and  border  of  dots  on  the 
specimen  now  before  us  resemble  those  on  a  copper  coin  of 
Lyttus  photographed  in  my  Cat.  of  Crete,  &c.,  PL  XIV.  8, 
and  there  assigned  to  B.C.  300 — 220.  The  inscription  seems 
to  be  I  4,  for  what  appear  at  first  sight  to  be  additional 
letters  are  merely  striations  in  the  metal.  M.  Svoronos  has 
suggested  (in  a  private  letter  to  the  British  Museum)  that 
I  4  =  A  I,  and  that  this  coin  was  issued  at  the  town  of 
Lisus,  in  Crete.  M.  Svoronos  is  further  of  opinion  that 
none  of  the  coins  of  this  class  belong  to  Lyttus,  one  of  his 
reasons  being  that  the  specimens  (including  some  in 
silver,15)  are  found  in  the  western  part  of.  Crete,  and  thus 
far  from  Lyttus.  He  has  an  ingenious  theory  as  to  their 
attribution,  on  which,  however,  as  he  (I  believe)  intends 
publishing  it,  it  would  not  be  fair  to  enlarge. 


Obv. — Female  head  r.  (Artemis  ?) ;  hair  rolled  and  bound 
with  cord. 

Rev. —  §     I     $    Eagle  flying  r.  ;  above  head,  leaf. 
M.    Size  -55.    Weight  57'5  grs.    [PI.  I.  4.] 

A  coin  of  the  latter  part  of  the  fifth,  or  of  the  early  part 
of  the  fourth  century  B.C.  In  the  Brit.  Mus.  Cat.,  Crete  and 
Aegean  Islands  (p.  121)  the  Siphnian  coins  described  are 

15  Cp.  Margaritis  in  Rev.  Num.  1886,  p.  20,  No.  21. 


silver  of  the  seventh  and  sixth  centuries,  and  of  the  early 
part  of  the  fifth  century,  and  bronze  coins  of  the  fourth 
century.  The  present  specimen,  though  of  good  style,  with 
the  eye  correctly  drawn  in  profile,  is  the  offspring  of  the 
early  fifth  century  coins  (see  Cat.  Crete,  &c.,  PL  XXVIT. 
11 — 13),  as  may  be  seen  not  only  in  the  close  similarity 
of  the  types,  but  also  in  the  severely  simple  treatment  of 
the  hair. 

Dr.  Weil  (Hist.  u.  phil.  Aufsatze,  E.  Curtius  gewidmet. 
Berlin,  1884,  p.  128)  considers  the  archaic  head  on  coins 
of  Siphnos  (Cat.  Crete,  &c.f  PL  XXVII.  11—13)  to  be 
that  of  Apollo,16  but  the  head  is  not  necessarily  male,  and 
on  the  silver  and  copper  of  a  later  period  the  head  is  un- 
doubtedly female  (cp.  Cat.  Crete,  &c.,  PL  XXVII.  14, 
15).  There  is  a  remarkable  unity  in  the  style  of  the 
Siphnian  coinage,  and  in  my  catalogue  of  Crete,  &c.,  I  have 
therefore  described  both  the  archaic  and  the  fine  heads  as 
female.  The  personage  represented  may  be  Artemis,  a 
goddess  who  is  known  to  have  been  worshipped  at  Siphnos. 

POLEMO  II.   (KING  OF  PONTUS,  &c.). 

Obv.— BACIA6UJC    HOA6M Head  of  Polemo 

II.  r.,  diademed  :  border,  of  dots. 

Rev.-  BAZI 

TDvihA  i  (Name  of  Antonia  Tryphaena,  mother 

NHZ  °f  Polemo IL)  encircled  bJ diadema. 

JR.   Size  -7.  Weight  51 '7  grs.    [PI.  I.  18.] 

A  specimen  of  this  rare  coin  was  in  Mr.  Borrell's  collec- 

16  So  also  Overbeck,  Griechische  Kunstmytlwlogie,  vol.  iii. 
(Apollo),  p.  72;  Miinztafel,  ii.  No.  1. 


tion  (wt.  46  grains)  and  is  described  in  his  MS.  Catalogue 
in  the  British  Museum. 


MATOY  (sic).  Bust  of  Sauromates  I.  r., 
diademed  and  draped ;  with  moustache  and  long 
hair ;  border  of  dots. 

Jteu.—Head  of  Nerva  r.,  laur. ;  beneath  f^T  (393  = 

A.D.  97). 
N.   Size  -8.    Weight  120-2  grs.    [PI.  I.  19.] 

This  rare  stater  is  remarkable  for  the  unusually  fine 
treatment  of  the  king's  portrait.  A  specimen  with  the 
same  date  (393)  is  published  by  Burachkov  (Olbia,  &c., 
PL  XXVIII.,  No.  134 ;  p.  255). 

Obv. — Tunny  within  wreath  formed  of  two  ears  of  corn. 

Rev.—  [K]  Wreath,  within  which  fa  ;  beneath  wreath, 
I  A  (or  $). 

JE.     Size  -65. 

Coins  of  this  type  have  sometimes  been  attributed 
to  Dyme  in  Achaia,  and  to  other  places.  Dr.  Imhoof- 
Blumer,  who  has  published  a  list  of  the  varieties  (Monnaies 
GrecqueSy  pp.  243 — 244 ;  cp.  p.  164)  has  shown  that  they 

belong  to  Cyzicus.     The  full  inscription  is  ^   y  but  this 

rarely,  if  ever,  appears  complete  on  the  specimens.  Our 
specimen  is  similar  to  one  in  Dr.  Imhoof's  collection  (No. 
83  in  his  Mbnn.  Gr.,  p.  244)  and  may  possibly,  like  his, 
be  a  re-struck  coin.  It  apparently  belongs  to  the  fourth 
century  B.C. 


Obv.  —  Head  of  Apollo  r.,  bare. 

Rev.  —  PA  PP.     Bull  grazing  1.  ;    the   whole   in   incuse 

JR.     Size  -6.    Weight  48*3  grs.    [PL  I.  17.] 

Probably  of  the  end  of  the  fifth  or  of  the  beginning  of 
the  fourth  century  B.C.  A  laureate  head  of  Apollo  is  the 
usual  obverse  type  at  Gargara,  and  the  youthful  head  on 
this  coin,  which  is  treated  with  fine  *  distinction  of  style/  is 
probably  also  Apollo.17  A  similar  head  occurs  on  a 
British  Museum  coin  of  Gargara  already  published  in  the 
Numismatic  Chronicle,  3rd  S.,  vol.  vi.  (1886),  p.  254  ; 
PL  XL  8. 


Obv.  —  Bearded    male    head     (Spithridates  ?)   1.,    wearing 
Persian  head-dress. 

Rev.  —  ^Pl    0PI.     Half  sea-horse  r.,  winged. 
M.    Size  -55.    Weight  44-4  grs.    [PL  I.  14.] 

This  coin  has  the  same  types,  and  is  probably  from  the 
same  die,  as  the  specimen  first  published  by  Yon  Rauch, 
from  his  own  collection,18  and  re-published  by  Dr.  Von 
Sallet  in  the  Num.  Zeit.  iii.  (1871),  p.  424.  Two  Persian 
commanders  named  Spithridates  are  historically  known,19 
one,  the  General  who  revolted  from  Pharnabazus  (B.C.  39  6  j, 
the  other,  the  Satrap  of  Ionia  and  Lydia  (circ.  B.C.  334). 

17  General  Fox,  Engravings  of  Unpublished,  &c.,  Part  II.  p.  5, 
No.  29,  and  Plate,  No.  29,  describes  (correctly  ?)  a  somewhat 
similar  coin  with  obv.  Young  male  head  diademed. 

18  Berliner  Blatter,  v.  (1869),  p.  29. 
w  See  Head,  Hist.  Num.,  p.  512. 



Dr.  Von  Sallet20  attributes  the  coins21  to  the  second 
Spithridates,  chiefly  on  the  ground  that  their  style  is  that 
of  the  end  rather  than  that  of  the  beginning  of  the  fourth 
century  B.C.  But  a  comparison  of  these  coins  with  those 
of  Orontas  the  Satrap22  (circ.  B.C.  360),  and  with  the 
obverse  of  the  Satrapal  coin  attributed  to  Colophon2* 
(circ.  B.C.  400)  will  probably  suggest  that  they  may  be — 
so  far  as  style  is  concerned — of  the  beginning  of  the  fourth 
century,  and  thus  of  the  time  of  the  first  Spithridates.  It 
must  be  granted,  however,  that,  considerations  of  style 
apart,  the  second  Spithridates  (the  Satrap)  is  more  likely 
to  have  issued  coins  than  the  first  Spithridates  (the  General). 
And  between  these  conflicting  claims  it  is  difficult  to 
decide,  on  our  present  evidence.  The  winged  hippocamp 
on  the  silver  coins  may  indicate  (as  suggested  by  Von 
Rauch)  that  they  were  struck  at  Lampsacus. 

Obv. — Head  of  Apollo  1.,  laureate. 

Rev.— ABY     MHTPOAIIPO^.      Eagle  with  closed 
wings  standing  r. ;  in  front,  aplustre  ;  in  field  r., 
(g  :  the  whole  in  slight  circular  incuse. 
M.    Size  -9.    Weight  232-3  grs.    [PI.  I.  10.] 

A  fine  and  rare  stater 24  issued  probably  not  later  than 

20  Num.  Zeit.  iii.  p.  424  ;  so  also  Von  Rauch,  I.e.,  and  Imhoof, 
Portratkopfe,  p.  23. 

21  Bronze  coins,  as  well  as  silver,  are  known ;  see  v.  Sallet,  I.e., 
and  a  similar  specimen  in  the  British  Museum  acquired  in  1874. 

»  Von  Sallet,  Num.  Zeit.  iii.  p.  419  f.  ;  Waddington,  Melanges, 

23  Gardner,  Types,  PI.  X.  14. 

24  Cf.  a  specimen  in  the  French  collection  (headr.)  mentioned 
by  Brand*,   Miimwesen,  &c.,  p.  444  ;  cf.  Pellerin,  Recueil,  ii. 

.ri.  LI.  JNo.  y. 


circ.  B  c.  400,  being  the  earliest  coin  of  the  long  series  at 
Abydos  with  types,  Head  of  Apollo  ;  rev.  Eagle  and  magis- 
trates' names.  The  aplustre  and  the  slight  incuse  connect 
this  coin  with  the  gold  stater  of  Abydos  25  issued  about  the 
end  of  the  fifth  century  (obv.  Nike  sacrificing  ram.  Rev. 
Eagle  ;  in  front,  aplustre  :  all  in  incuse)  . 

The  head  of  Apollo  is  one  of  unusual  beauty,  and  differs 
considerably  from  other  heads  of  that  god  found  on  Greek 
coins  (compare  a  good  representative  series  in  Overbeck's 
Griechische  Kumtmythologie  (Apollo)  Mimztafel  iii.).  It 
recalls  the  finest  Apollo  heads  on  the  coins  of  Chalcidice 
(Overbeck,  op.  cit.  Miinztafel  ii.,  JSTo.  30  ;  Gardner, 
Types,  PI.  VII.,  No.  13),  but  has  an  expression  of  greater 

LESBOS  (circ.  B.C.  450  ?) 
Obv.—  AE        Call's  head  1. 

Rev.  —  Rough  incuse  square. 

JR.    (base?).      Size    -3.       Weight    14-2    grs. 
[PI.  I.  9.] 


Obv.—  ......  AlANoCKAI.     Bust  of  Trajan  r., 


£^._  TVANUJNiePACACVAAVTON.       Pallas, 
draped  and  helmeted,  standing  looking  towards 
1.  ;  in  her  r.,  Nike  ;  with  1.  she  supports  shield 
and  spear  ;  in  field,    GT    A. 
M.     Size  -8. 

26  Head,  Guide  to  the  Coins  of  the  Ancients,  PI.  XVIII.  14. 
26  Compare    a   Demeter   head   at  Cyzicus,   Gardner, 
PI.  X.  45  ;  and  see  Head,  Hint.  Num.,  p.  448,  Fig.  270. 


Compare  a  specimen  with  similar  reverse  type  (€T  I) 
published  in  the  Annali  for  1847,  p.  281 ;  PI.  P.  No.  7. 


Obv.—  Head  of  Antiochus  IX.  r.,  diademed  ;  with  whisker 
and  slight  beard  :  fillet  border. 

Rev.—       BAZIAEflZ       Tyche,  wearing  chiton,  peplos 
ANTIoXoY  and    niodius,   standing  1.  ; 

<t>IAonAToPoZ        in  r.,  rudder  ;  in  L,  cornu 
copia  ;    in   exergue, 

(date,  A.  S.  216  =  B.C.  96);  to   L,      ;   to    r., 

rose  :  the  whole  in  olive-wreath. 
JR.  Size  1-15.  Weight  250*7  grs.  [PI.  1.  21.] 

A  rare  tetradrachm  not  described  in  Prof.  Gardner's 
Catalogue  of  the  Seleucid  Kings  (cp.  a  drachm,  p.  92, 
No.  15  ;  and  Loebbecke,  Zeit.  f.  Num.,  xv.  1887,  p.  53). 

Tetrapolis  of  Antioch,  Seleucia,  Apameia  and  Laodiceia. 

Obv.  —  Two  Zeus-like  heads  r.,  jugate,  wearing  taenia 
(the  Demi  of  Antioch  and  Seleucia  ?)  :  border  of 

Eev.—  AAEA4>.QN     Zeus  seated  1.  ;  in  r.,  Nike;  in  1., 

AHMHN  sceptre;  in  exergue,  tHP  (year 

BY  165  of  Seleucid  era  -  B.C.  148)  ; 

in  field  r.,  monogram. 
M.     Size  1. 

Not  described  in  Mr.  Head's  Ifistoria  Numorum  (cp. 
p.  656). 


The  Museum  acquired  at  the  beginning  of  1887  a  good 
specimen  of  a  Jewish  shekel  (weight  216 '5  grains27)  dated 
"  year  5  "  [PL  I.  20].  So  far  as  I  am  aware,  only  two 
other  examples  of  this  coin  are  known,  one  (from  a 
different  die)  in  the  collection  of  the  Rev.  S.  S.  Lewis,  of 
Cambridge,28  the  other  lately  purchased  by  MM.  Rollin 
and  Feuardent  (Rev  Num.  vol.  v.,  3rd  S.  (1887)  p. 


MAYoY.  Zeus  standing  1.,  clad  in  liimation ; 
r.  hand  extended  j  in  1.,  long  sceptre. 


Rev. — Rajadirajasa    mahatasa     Moasa    (Prakrit    inscr.). 
Nike  standing  r.,  holding  wreath  and  paliu  bound 
with  fillet ;  in  field  r.,  $ 
M.     Size  '15.     Weight  37'1.     [PI.  I.  16.] 

This  hemi-drachm  (Persian  standard)  is  not  described 
in  the  Brit.  Mm.  Cat.,  Gr.  and  Scythic  Kings,  where, 
however,  a  didrachm  with  similar  types  and  inscriptions  is 
described  (p.  68,  No.  3  ;  PL  XVI.  2).  It  seems  to  be 

A  remarkable  decadrachm  of  the-  time  of  Eucratides,  or 
earlier,  and  other  Bactrian  coins  of  importance  recently 
acquired  by  the  Museum  have  been  already  described  in 
the  Numismatic  Chronicle  (vol.  vii.  3rd  S.  (1887),  p.  177  ff.) 

by  Prof.  Gardner. 


27  Types  and  inscriptions  as  usual ;  seefMadden,  Coins  of  the 
Jews,  pp.  68,  69. 

28  Madden,  Coins  of  the  Jews,  p.  69. 

29  For  other  coins  of  Maues,  see  von  Sallet  in  Z.  f.  N.  vi. 
p.  834  f. 



THE  County  of  Somerset  is  rich  in  Roman  remains,  and 
numerous  hoards  of  Roman  coins  have  at  various  times 
been  discovered  within  its  boundaries.  At  an  early  period 
of  the  Roman  occupation  the  metalliferous  mines  in  the 
Mendip  Hills  appear  to  have  been  worked,  and  the  lead, 
of  which  many  "  pigs  "  of  Roman  date  are  formed,  was 
probably  derived  from  this  source. 

In  the  Numismatic  Chronicle  for  1866  1  I  described  a 
hoard  of  about  450  brass  coins  found  in  the  Mendip  Hills, 
about  six  miles  from  Frome,  and  belonging  for  the  most 
part  to  the  Constantino  period,  the  latest  being  of  Con- 
stantius  II.  Another  hoard  of  about  350  brass  coins,  for 
the  greater  part  struck  in  the  London  mint,  seems  to  have 
been  found  in  the  district  around  Bristol,  and  was  also 
described  by  me  in  1885. 2  These  coins  were  likewise  of 
the  Constantine  period,  the  latest  being  of  Constantino  II. 
A  far  larger  hoard  of  silver  coins,  belonging  to  a  some- 
what later  date,  was  discovered  somewhere  in  the  same 
neighbourhood  above  twenty  years  ago,  and  came  into  my 
possession.  The  list  of  the  types  that  it  comprised  I  hope 
on  some  future  occasion  to  communicate  to  the  Society ; 

Num.  Chron.,  N.S.  vol.  vi.  p.  157. 
Num.  Chron.  3rd  S.,  vol.  v.  p.  118. 


but  in  the  meantime,  I  may  observe  that  in  the  hoard 
were  a  large  number  of  the  coins  of  Magnus  Maximus, 
among  which  were  two  bearing  on  the  exergue  AYG.P.S. 
and  AYG.,  struck  at  London,  which  at  that  time  bore  the 
name  of  Augusta.  An  account  of  these  two  coins  will  be 
found  in  the  Numismatic  Chronicle  for  1867.3  Both  are 
now  preserved  in  the  national  collection  in  the  British 

The  Rev.  Prebendary  Scarth,  in  a  paper  on  Roman 
Somerset,4  has  given  a  long  list  of  localities  in  that  county 
in  which  Roman  coins  have  been  found,  and  to  the  list 
there  given  \nay  be  added  King's  Weston  5  and  Milver- 
ton,6  and  probably  several  other  places.  The  Milverton 
hoard,  though  the  metal  of  which  the  coins  consisted  is 
not  mentioned  in  the  Archaeological  Journal,  was  probably 
of  silver.  The  coins  are  said  to  have  ranged  from  the  time 
of  Julianus  to  that  of  Arcadius,  but  among  the  45  coins 
which  are  attributed  to  various  reigns,  7  are  described  as 
being  of  Faustina ! 

Some  silver  coins  found  at  Holway,  and  described  by 
Dr.  Hurly  Pring,  comprise  specimens  of  Julianus  II., 
Valens,  Gratianus,  Yalentinianus  II.,  Theodosius,  Euge- 
nius,  and  Arcadius. 

A  remarkable  hoard,  described  as'having  been  found  in 
an  urn  of  red  Samian  ware  at  Holwel,  near  Taunton,  was 
brought  under  the  notice  of  this  Society  on  Dec.  28, 1843, 
by  the  late  Rev.  Henry  Christmas.  It  comprised  silver 
coins  from  the  time  of  Constantius  II.  to  that  of  Hono- 
rius,  and  consisted  of  285  coins  of  the  ordinary  module 

3  Num.  Chron.,  N.S.  vol.  vii.  pp.  62  and  331. 

4  Som.  Arch,  and  Nat.  Hist.  Proc.,  1878,  N.S.  vol.  iv.  p.  18.' 

5  Arch.  Jour.,  vol.  ii.  p.  209. 

6  Arch.  Jour.,  vol.  iv.  p.  145. 


and  33  so-called  medallions.  These  latter  were  of  Con- 
stans,  Julianus  II.,  Yalentinianus  L,  Yalens,  Gratianus, 
Valentinianus  II.,  Magnus  Maximus,  Theodosius  L,  and 
Eugenius.  Holway  and  Holwel  seem  to  be  two  names 
of  the  same  place,  for  Dr.  Hurly  Pring,  of  Taunton,  in- 
forms me  that  no  such  place  as  Holwel  exists,  and  that 
Mr.  Christmas  must  have  fallen  into  an  error  in  thus  de- 
scribing Holway. 

The  important  and  extensive  hoard  of  silver  coins  which 
I  am  now  about  to  describe  belongs  to  a  somewhat  earlier 
period.  My  attention  was  kindly  called  to  it  by  the  Rev. 
Prebendary  Scarth,  and  the  owner  of  the  hoard,  Mr.  W. 
W.  Kettlewell,  of  Harptree  Court,  East  Harptree,  near 
Bristol,  on  whose  property  it  was  found,  has  most  liberally 
placed  it  in  my  hands  for  examination  and  description. 

The  hoard  was  brought  to  light  in  the  following  manner. 
During  the  late  dry  summer  the  water  supply  to  the  vil- 
lage of  East  Harptree  had  run  very  low,  and  it  was 
desirable  to  make  search  for  some  additional  spring  on  the 
Mendips  that  could  be  conducted  into  the  main  pipes  and 
supplement  the  supply.  A  swampy  and  boggy  piece  of 
ground,  which  is  always  wet,  seemed  to  promise  what  was 
required.  The  spot  is  about  a  mile  to  the  S.~W.  of  the 
village  of  East  Harptree,  just  to  the  west  of  the  Frances 
Plantation,  close  to  where  the  word  "  spring  "  occurs  on 
the  six-inch  Ordnance  Map.  A  man  named  William  Cur- 
rell  was  engaged  in  the  search  for  water,  and  his  spade 
struck  upon  a  pewter  or  white  metal  vessel,  not  more  than 
five  or  six  inches  below  the  surface,  which  had  already  been 
broken  into  several  pieces.  It  was,  however,  dug  out  from 
the  ground,  and  was  found  to  contain  no  less  than  1,496 

7  Som.  ArcJi.  and  Nat.  Hist.  Proc.,  1881,  N.S.  vol.  vii.  p.  55. 


silver  coins,  some  cast  silver  ingots  that  had  been  cut  into 
strips,  and  a  silver  ring  set  with  an  intaglio.  The  vessel 
has,  so  far  as  possible,  been  restored  to  its  original  form,  by 
Mr,  Talbot  Ready,  and  the  annexed  woodcut  will  give  some 
idea  of  its  character.  It  maybe  described  as  bottle-shaped. 
In  height  it  is  about  9J  inches,  and  7  inches  in  greatest 
diameter,  the  base  being  4  inches  across.  Since  the 
woodcut  was  made,  the  neck  of  the  vessel,  about  1J  inches 
in  length,  has  been  found  by  Mrs.  Kettlewell.  It  is  about 

psp^  /        A  -^ 

Vf  J  ( 

1J  inches  inside  diameter,  and  shows  traces  of  there  hav- 
ing been  a  handle  to  the  vessel.  I  have  been  unable  to 
discover  any  traces  of  writing  or  marks  of  ownership  upon 
it.  The  material  of  which  the  vase  is  formed  is  doubtless 
for  the  most  part  lead  from  some  of  the  neighbouring 
mines.  I  have  not  ascertained  what  admixture  of  tin  it 
contains.  The  use  of  lead  in  Roman  times  must  have 
been  very  extensive.  A  good  instance  is  afforded  by  the 
lining  of  the  large  bath  at  Bath,  which  was  of  lead,  about 



half  an  inch  in  thickness.  It  was  recently  stripped  from 
its  position  under  the  direction  of  the  Corporation  of  Bath, 
and  sold  as  old  metal  for  the  sum  of  £70. 

The  silver  ring,  of  which  also  a  woodcut  is  given,  is  of 
a  not  uncommon  character,  with  the  gem — a  carnelian — 
projecting  a  considerable  distance  beyond  the  socket  in 
which  it  is  mounted.  It  presents  the  flattened  oval  open- 
ing for  the  finger  so  common  in  Roman  rings.  The  gem 
has  a  figure  of  Mars  bearing  a  trophy  and  spear  engraved 
in  intaglio  upon  it. 

Its  general  character  and  style  of  ornamentation  is 
shown  in  the  annexed  cut,  and  no  further  comment  seems 

The  pieces  of  cast  silver  are  five  in  number,  not  count- 
ing a  small  fragment,  which  has  probably  been  broken  off 
from  one  of  them.  One  is  a  small  lenticular  cake  about 
lj  inch  in  diameter,  which  seems  to  have  been  run  into  a 
depression  in  clay  or  sand.  It  has  an  indentation  from 
a  chisel  on  its  upper  surface.  Its  weight  is  516  grains. 

Two  of  the  other  pieces  are  portions  of  another  and 
larger  flat  cake  of  silver  about  2J  inches  in  diameter, 
which  has  been  cut  into  three  by  means  of  two  parallel 
cuts  with  a  chisel.  Only  the  middle  strip,  which  is  about 
&  inch  wide,  was  present,  and  one  of  the  outside  segments. 
These  weigh  248  and  806  grains  respectively. 


The  two  other  pieces  are  segments  of  cakes  of  the  same 
character ;  one  of  them,  about  2J  inches  long  and  1  inch 
broad  in  the  middle,  weighs  818  grains ;  the  other, 
2J  inches  long  and  f  inch  in  extreme  breadth,  weighs 
644  grains.  This  latter  has  had  a  small  triangular  piece 
chopped  off  from  one  end.  The  occurrence  of  such  lumps 
of  unwrought  silver  is  more  frequent  in  the  hoards  of 
Saxon  times  than  in  those  of  Roman  date.  The  melting 
and  casting  of  the  silver  must  have  been  effected  by  some 
comparatively  skilled  hand,  and  the  metal  may  have  come 
into  the  possession  of  the  owner  of  the  hoard  in  the  course 
of  business.  It  no  doubt  represented  some  money  value, 
but  the  pieces  do  not  seem  to  have  been  adjusted  to 
any  regularly  graduated  weight.  In  the  somewhat  later 
hoard  of  Roman  coins  discovered  at  Coleraine,8  in  Ireland, 
in  1854,  a  considerable  amount  of  silver  plate,  including 
some  ingots,  was  present,  weighing  in  all  over  200 

The  coins  when  found  were  to  some  extent  coated  with 
dirt,  and  with  what  was  probably  a  little  chloride  of 
silver.  When  carefully  washed  and  brushed  their  re- 
markably good  preservation  became  apparent,  and  there 
were  none  but  what  could  with  certainty  be  attributed  to 
the  emperor  under  whom  they  were  struck,  and  there  was 
only  a  small  percentage  of  which  the  place  of  mintage 
could  not  be  determined. 

The  following  is  a  summary  list  of  the  emperors  repre- 
sented in  the  hoard,  and  of  the  number  of  pieces  struck 
under  each.  It  includes  twenty  coins  which  had  been 
dispersed  when  the  hoard  was  first  brought  under  my 
notice,  making  the  total  number  1,496. 

8  See  Num.  Chron.,  vol.  xvii.  p.  101. 


Constantino  the  Great 


Constantius  II. 

JulianusII.      .  •     718 

Jovianus  .... 

Valentinianus  I.        .         .         .  .165 

Valens     .         .  •'     199 

Gratianus         ....  .       60 


A  detailed  list,  showing  the  number  of  the  coins  of  each 
type  and  the  places  of  their  mintage,  is  appended.  The 
mints  were  situated  in  eleven  different  places,  and  in 
some  of  these  there  seems  to  have  been  several  different 
establishments  or  qfficinae.  These  are  sometimes  desig- 
nated by  the  letters  P  .  S  .  T  .,  &c.,  for  Prima,  Seeunda, 
Tertia,  &c.,  or  by  the  letters  on  the  field  OF  .  I  .,  OF  . 
II  .,  OF  .  III.  The  letters  S.  M.,  by  which  the  initials  of 
the  town  are  sometimes  preceded,  have  been  thought  to 
stand  for  Signata  Moneta,  and  the  letters  P.  S.  following 
the  designation  of  the  town  for  Pecunia  Signata.  The 
coins  in  the  Harptree  hoard  were  issued  from  the  follow- 
ing mints : — 

Antioch.     ANT 22 

Aquileia.     SMAQ 1 

Aries  (Constantina).  CONST  .  .  27 
P.CON— P.CON'ST  ....  166 
S.CON— S.CONST  ....  183 
T.CON— T.CONST  ....  177 

—  553 

Constantinople.     C£>,  CB,  CA,  CZ  .         .  4 

Lyons.     LVG        .         .         .  .      313 

P.LVG,  &c.        .  114 

S.LVG,  &c.  .         .         .         .142 

—  574 

Nicomedia.     SMN         ...  4 

Carried  forward  Tl58 


Brought  forward     .  .  .1158 

Rome.     R.P.,  KB.,  R.T.,  R.Q.,  &c.  .  .         99 

Sirmium.     SIRM           .         .         .  .  .            6 

Siscia.     SIS  .                           ....  1 

Thessalonica.     TS8  .TES  12 

Treves.     TR.,TRl>S.     .         .         .  .  .207 

Uncertain  13 


It  will  be  at  once  seen  that  though  the  issues  from  the 
Gallic  mints  largely  predominate,  yet  that  not  a  few  coins 
struck  in  towns  far  distant  from  Britain  are  present  in  the 
hoard.  Antioch  was  the  city  from  which  some  of  the  coins 
of  Constantius  II.,  Julianus,  Jovianus,  Yalentinianus  I., 
and  Yalens  were  issued.  Nicomedia  produced  coins  of  Con- 
stantius II.,  Jovianus,  arid  Valens.  Thessalonica  is  repre- 
sented by  coins  of  Constantino  the  Great,  Constantius  II., 
Yalentinianus  I.,  and  Valens.  The  name  of  Sirmium 
appears  on  coins  of  Constantius  II.  and  Yalentinianus  I., 
and  those  of  Siscia  and  Aquileia  on  single  coins  of  the 
latter  emperor.  Constantinople  appears  in  addition  on  a 
coin  of  Gratianus.  Eome  was  the  mint  place  of  pieces 
of  Constaiis,  Yalentinianus  I.,  and  Yalens,  especially  of 
those  of  the  second  named.  More  than  three-quarters 
of  the  whole  hoard  were  struck  in  the  two  mints  of  Aries 
and  Lyons,  and  nearly  a  seventh  in  that  of  Treves.  The 
division  of  the  mint  at  Lyons  into  two  offlcinae  must,  to 
judge  from  the  coins,  have  taken  place  in  the  reign  of 
Julianus.  At  Aries  the  subdivision  of  the  mint  appears 
to  have  already  existed  in  the  time  of  Constantius  II. 

The  attribution  of  the  coins  bearing  the  exergual  mint- 
mark  CONST,  to  the  town  of  Constantina  in  Gaul  instead 
of  to  Constantinople  was  first  made  by  the  late  Mr.  Bor- 
rell,  of  Smyrna.  It  was  suggested  to  him  by  a  coin  of 


Fausta  bearing  that  mark,  which  could  not  have  desig- 
nated Constantinople,  as  Fausta  died  before  Byzantium 
was  refounded  under  its  new  name.9  The  town  of  Arelate, 
or  Aries,  was  also  one  of  those  to  which  Constantine  gave 
an  almost  new  existence,  for  on  the  opposite  side  of  the 
Rhone  he  built  a  new  and  important  town,  to  which  he 
gave  the  name  of  Constantina,10  a  name  which,  at  all  events 
for  a  time,  overshadowed  and,  indeed,  superseded  the  old 
name  of  Arelate.  In  the  days  of  Honorius,  however, 
when  Aries  became  the  residence  of  the  Pracfect  of 
Gallia,  under  whom  also  the  government  of  Britain  was 
placed,  it  resumed  its  old  name.  Ausonius,  who  was  tutor 
to  Gratianus  as  a  boy,  has  commemorated  the  place  among 
his  Clara)  Urbes. 

"Pande,  duplex  Arelate,  tuos  blanda  hospita  portus, 
Gallula  Roma  Arelas  ;  quam  Narbo  Martius,  et  quam 
Accolit  Alpinis  opulenta  Vienna  colonis  : 
Praecipitis  Rhodani  sic  intercisa  fluentis, 
Ut  mediam  facias  navali  ponte  plateam. 
Per  quern  Romani  commercia  suscipis  orbis, 
Nee  cohibes." 

I  have  sought  in  vain  in  the  modern  suburb  of  Aries, 
Trinquetaille,  for  any  traces  of  the  ancient  Constantina. 

Another  Constantina  which  has  retained  its  name  until 
the  present  day  was  originally  the  town  of  Cirta,  in 
Numidia.  At  first  a  Phoenician  city  or  Kiriath,  it  next 
became  the  Roman  Colonia  Julia,  then  the  Colonia  Sittia- 
norum  and  then  Constantina,  the  name  it  still  retains  as 
one  of  the  chief  towns  in  French  Algeria.  I  do  not  think, 

9  Num.  Chron.,  N.S.  vol.  i.  p.  121. 

0  Scaliger  has  suggested  that  the  new  town  was  built  bv 
Constantine  III.,  who  fixed  his  capital  at  Aries  ;  but  in  this  he 
must  have  been  in  error.— Note  to  Ausonius,  Clara  Urbes  viii 


however,  that  there  was  ever  a  Roman  mint  in  that 

The  fabric  of  the  coins  bearing  the  mint  mark  CONST, 
is  so  similar  to  that  of  those  bearing  the  mark  of  Lugu- 
dunum  or  Lyons  that  we  may  with  some  confidence  regard 
the  letters  as  designating  the  Gallic  Constantina.  The 
few  coins  in  this  hoard  assigned  to  the  mint  of  Constan- 
tinople are  of  a  different  style  and  bear  a  C  only  accom- 
panied by  a  Greek  letter  to  denote  the  omcina,  and  a 
star,  wreath  or  other  symbol. 

The  coins  struck  at  Treves  are  proportionally  far  fewer 
in  number  than  is  usual  in  the  hoards  of  coins  buried  in 
the  days  of  Constantino  the  Great  and  his  sons,  whose 
residence  was  frequently  in  that  city.  The  retreat  south- 
ward of  the  more  important  centres  of  Roman  power  and 
commerce  had  already  begun  in  the  days  of  Gratianus, 
though  Treveri  was  still  the  fourth  of  the  Clarce  Urbcs, 

"  Lata  per  extentum  procurrunt  mcenia  collem," 
and  where 

"  Largus  tranquillo  praelabitur  amne  Mosella, 
Longinqua  omnigense  vectans  commercia  terrae."  n 

To  return,  however,  to  the  coins  'in  the  hoard.  Among 
them  are  pieces  of  at  least  three  different  modules.  By 
far  the  greater  number  are  of  small  size  and  varying  in 
average  weight  from  about  31  to  about  33  grains.  These 
would  appear  to  have  been  struck  at  the  nominal  rate  of 
144  to  the  Roman  pound  of  about  5,053  grains  troy.  This 
would  make  the  proper  weight  of  each  to  be  about  35 

11  Auson.,  Clara  Urles,  iv. 


The  coins  of  somewhat  larger  module  and  weight  belong 
to  a  rather  earlier  period  and  were  probably  struck  on 
the  standard  of  96  to  the  pound,  which  though  dating 
from  the  time  of  Nero,  had  been  re-established  under 
Diocletian.12  Such  pieces  if  of  full  weight  would  weigh 
about  52 J  grains  troy.  The  coins  of  Constantine  the 
Great,  Constans,  Constantius  II.,  and  that  of  Julianus 
with  the  star  on  the  reverse  (PL  II.,  1,  2,  3,  4,  and  10), 
range  from  40f  grains  to  54J  grains,  the  average  of  the 
eight  coins  being  49  grains. 

The  largest  pieces,  which  are  usually  termed  medallions, 
seem  to  have  been  intended  to  represent  double  the  value 
of  the  ordinary  small  pieces,  and  to  have  been  coined  at 
the  rate  of  72  to  the  pound.  Of  these  there  were  15 
present  in  the  hoard,  ranging  in  weight  from  59  to  70J 
grains  ;  the  average  weight  being  66J  grains,  as  against 
70  grains,  the  calculated  weight  at  the  rate  of  72  to  the 
pound.  These  pieces  were  at  a  later  period  known  as  the 

It  is  remarkable  that  in  several  of  the  west  country 
hoards  a  large  proportion  of  these  medallions  has  been 
present.  In  that  of  Holway  already  mentioned,  there 
were  33  medallions  to  285  of  the  small  coins  or  siliquso. 
As  a  general  rule  they  are  in  a  high  state  of  preservation, 
and  it  seems  likely  that  they  were  more  treasured  by  those 
into  whose  possession  they  came  than  the  ordinary  current 
coins.  Those  in  the  Harptree  hoard  were  for  the  most 
part  coined  in  distant  mints  ;  one  at  Antioch,  five  at 
Thessalonica,  three  at  Rome,  two  at  Aries,  and  four 
at  Treves.  In  the  Holway  hoard  the  mints  of  Siscia, 

12  See  Mommsen,  Hist,  de  la  Monn.  Horn.,  Trad.,  De  Blacas, 
vol.  iii.  p.  75. 


Sirmium,    Lyons,    Aquileia    and    Milan   were    also    re- 

Full  particulars  of  the  types  and  legends  of  the  1,496 
pieces  forming  the  Harptree  hoard  are  given  in  the 
following  list,  but  it  will  be  well  to  call  attention  to  some 
of  the  more  remarkable  coins. 

CONSTANTINE    THE    GREAT.      A.D.    306 337. 

But  a  single  coin  of  this  emperor  (PI.  II.,  1)  was  found. 
It  is  in  fine  condition  and  of  considerable  rarity.  It  was 
struck  at  Thessalonica,  but  in  what  year  it  is  difficult  to 
say,  though  it  must  belong  to  the  close  of  his  reign,  as 
coins  of  a  similar  character  exist  with  the  head  of  Con- 
stans  as  Caesar,  a  title  which  was  not  conferred  upon  him 
until  A.D.  333. 

CONSTANS.     A.D.  337 — 350. 

The  four  coins  are  of  the  ordinary  module,  but  are  all 
rare.  Two  are  engraved  in  PL  II.,  2  and  3.  The  date 
of  the  particular  issues  of  his  coins  it  is  almost  impossible 
to  fix,  as  the  Decennalia  Yota,  which  at  first  were  cele- 
brated at  intervals  of  ten  years,  had  by  his  time  been 
made  to  recur  far  more  frequently.  Though  he  actually 
reigned  less  than  thirteen  years,  or  seventeen  if  the 
period  during  which  he  was  Caesar  is  included,  yet  coins 
of  his  are  extant  with  VOT.  XX  MVLT.  XXX,  as  if 
the  first  twenty  years  of  his  reign  had  been  completed, 
and  prayers  had  been  offered  for  its  continuance  during 
another  period  of  ten  years.  The  legend  of  Felix  Tempo- 
rum  Reparatio  first  came  in  on  the  coinage  of  Constans, 
and  became  of  extremely  common  occurrence  on  the  coins 
of  his  successors. 



CONSTANTIUS   II.      A.D.    337—361. 

He  was  the  elder  brother  of  Constans,  with  whom  he 
reigned  jointly  until  350,  when  by  his  death  he  became 
sole  emperor.    Of  his  coins,  332  were  present  in  this  hoard, 
of  which  4  have   been  selected  for  engraving  (PI.  II., 
4—7).     That  with  the  reverse  PAX  AYGYSTORYM  is 
rare,  and  probably  belongs  to  the  early  part  of  his  reign. 
The  medallions  with  the  legends  TRIYMFATOR  GEN- 
are   also   scarce.     As   the   former  legend   occurs  on  the 
medallions  of   Constans,    the  piece  was  probably  struck 
before  A.D.  350.     The  legend   YIRTVS  EXERCITYM 
occurs  also  on  coins  of  Constans,  but  was  unknown  to 
Cohen   among   the   coins   of  Constantius.     The  form  is 
probably  a  genitive  plural  of  Exercitus.     The  fabric  of 
the  medallion  differs  materially  from  that  of  the  others  of 
the  same  emperor  struck  in  more  southern   and  eastern 
mints   than   Aries.      The   coin  (PL  II.,  7)  with   SPES 
REIPYBLICE  is  rare;    that   cited  by   Cohen  is  in  the 
Museum  of  Yienna.     The  coin  No.   8  with  the  reverse 
YOT  XXXX  is  also  scarce.  The  coin  reading  CONSTIYS 
offers  a  singular  example  of  an  error  in  sinking  the  die. 
This  coin  is  in  perfect  preservation  and  is  of  the  large 
module.     His  other   coins    require  no   comment.     They 
belong  for  the  most  part  to  the  latter  part  of  the  reign  of 

DECENTIUS.     A.D.  351 — 353. 

Of  this  prince,  who  was  the  brother  of  Magnentius,  who 
held  Gaul  for  three  years  against  Constans  and  Constan- 
tius II.,  but  one  piece,  and  that  a  medallion,  was  present 
in  the  hoard.  It  is  of  great  rarity  and  is  remarkable  for 


reading  PRINCITI  instead  of  PRINCIPI.     A  similar 
piece  is  in  the  French  national  collection. 

JULIANUS  II.     A.D.  355—363. 

Nearly  one  half  of  the  coins  in  the  hoard  are  of  Julian, 
either  as  Csesar  or  Emperor,  there  being  no  less  than  712 
pieces  bearing  his  name.  Among  these  are  a  medallion 
as  Emperor,  and  a  coin  of  the  old  standard  of  96  to  the 
pound,  both  of  which  are  figured  in  the  Plate  (Figs.  9  and 
10).  Both  are  scarce.  Of  the  coins  of  the  ordinary 
module,  No.  8  and  16  offer  varieties  not  mentioned  by 
Cohen.  As  Julian  reigned  but  eight  years  it  is  some- 
what remarkable  to  find  YOTIS  XXX  MYLTIS  XXXX 
on  his  coins.  Possibly  the  reverse  die  may  have  been 
intended  for  Constantius  II.  His  other  coins  range  over 
the  whole  of  his  reign  from  the  time  when  he  was  first 
made  Caesar,  and  his  portraits  vary  from  that  of  a  boy  to 
that  of  a  full-bearded  man.  The  form  in  which  his  titles 
appear  varies  considerably,  the  D.N.  for  Dominus  Noster 
being  sometimes  prefixed  and  sometimes  left  out,  and  the 
letters  after  his  name  sometimes  P.P.  AYGr,  sometimes 
P.F.  AYG-,  and  sometimes  simply  AYG.  The  letters  P.P. 
which  indicate  the  title  Pius  Perpetuus,  or  possibly  Perpe- 
tuus  only,  seem  to  be  confined  to  the  coinage  of  the  Lyons 

JOVIANUS.     A.D.  363—364. 

Of  Julian's  successor  eight  coins  were  present,  one  of 
which,  the  medallion  PI.  II.,  Fig.  11,  is  of  considerable 
rarity.  In  the  title  after  the  name  it  seems  to  read  PEP 
or  PPP  rather  than  P.F. P.  as  given  by  Cohen  from  the 
Catalogue  d'Ennery.  An  example  in  my  own  cabinet, 
also  struck  at  Antioch,  seems  to  read  PPP  likewise,  which 


may  probably  be  extended  as  Pius  Perpetuus.  Though 
Jovianus  held  the  empire  for  seven  months  only  his  coins 
commemorate  both  the  Yota  Quinquennalia  and  the  Vota 
Decennalia,  as  if  his  reign  had  extended  over  at  least  ten 
years.  The  coin  with  YOT.  X  MYLT.  XX  is  very  rare 
and  is  cited  by  Cohen  from  the  Yienna  Museum. 

YALENTINIANUS  I.    A.TX  364 — 375. 

The  coins  of  Yalentinian  the  Elder  are  164  in  number, 
including  three  medallions  of  two  types,  both  rather  rare. 
The  rarest  of  his  smaller  coins  is  No.  4  with  the  legend 
EESTITYTOE  EEIPYBLICAE  in  full,  a  legend  which 
first  came  into  use  on  the  coins  of  this  Emperor. 

YALENS.     A.D.  364—378. 

Of  Yalentinian's  brother  and  associate  in  the  Empire 
there  were  196  coins  in  the  hoard,  including  one  medallion 
minted  at  Treves  with  the  usual  reverse  of  YIETYS 
EXEECITYS.  The  coins  with  EESTITYTOE  EEIP. 
belong  to  the  earlier  part  of  his  reign  and  are  scarcer 
than  those  with  YEBS  EOMA,  which  were  probably 
struck  after  Yalentinian's  death,  for  the  majority  of  the 
coins  of  the  latter  type  were  coined  at  Treves,  which  was 
not  strictly  speaking  originally  within  the  dominion 
of  Yalens  as  Emperor  of  the  East. 

GKATIANUS.    A.D.  375 — 383. 

Of  Gratian,  the  elder  son  of  Valentinian  I.,  there  are  58 
coins  in  the  deposit,  mostly  of  the  common  type  of  YEBS 
EOMA,  which,  like  those  of  Yalens  recently  mentioned, 
were  struck  in  the  mint  of  Treves,  and  probably  belong 


to  the  same  period.  The  only  other  coin  of  Gratian  pre- 
sent in  the  hoard  gives  a  type  not  known  to  Cohen, 

"We  must  now  briefly  consider  what  was  the  probable 
date  at  which  the  Harptree  hoard  was  deposited,  and  in 
so  doing  we  must  take  into  account  not  only  the  coins 
that  are  present  in  the  deposit,  but  also  some  of  those 
which  were  absent  from  it.  Now  of  Valentinian  II.,  who 
at  the  age  of  four  years  was  associated  in  the  empire  by 
his  half-brother  Gratian  and  his  uncle  Valens  in  Novem- 
ber, 375,  a  short  time  after  the  death  of  his  father,  Yalen- 
tinian  I.,  no  coins  are  present.  Those  of  Gratian  are 
limited  to  two  types,  both  in  all  probability  belonging  to 
quite  the  early  part  of  his  reign.  There  is,  however,  some 
little  difficulty  in  determining  the  date  at  which  current 
coins  were  first  struck  bearing  the  image  and  superscrip- 
tion of  Gratian,  inasmuch  as  his  father  had  conferred  upon 
him  the  title  of  Augustus  so  early  as  A.D.  367.  He  was, 
however,  only  sixteen  years  old  at  the  time  of  Yalenti- 
nian's  death,  in  A.D.  375.  If  we  are  right  in  supposing 
that  the  YKBS  ROMA  type  was  not  in  use  at  Treves 
until  towards  the  close  of  the  reign  of  Yalentinian,  and 
that  the  coins  of  Yalens  with  the  same  reverse  were  issued 
from  that  mint,  in  immediate  succession  to  those  of  Yalen- 
tinian, we  may,  I  think,  conclude  that  those  of  Gratian 
were  struck  and  issued  synchronously  with  those  of  Ya- 
lens, and  that  no  coins  of  Gratian  were  struck  in  his 
father's  lifetime.  The  reverse  of  YOTIS  Y.,  judging  from 
the  analogy  of  the  coins  of  Jovianus,  might  have  been 
struck  immediately  after  his  virtual  accession  in  A.D.  375, 
or  it  may  even  bear  reference  to  his  nominal  accession  in 
A.D.  367.  At  how  early  a  period  coins  were  struck  in  the 
name  of  Yalentinian  II.,  to  whom  was  assigned  the 


empire  of  Italy,  Illyricum,  and  Africa,  is  not  absolutely 
certain,  but  probably  his  coinage  commenced  with  his 
reign,  as  some  of  the  portraits  upon  it  are  extremely 
young.  At  all  events,  from  the  absence  of  his  coins  in 
this  hoard,  and  the  paucity  of  types  of  those  of  Gratian,  I 
think  that  we  cannot  far  err  in  assigning  the  deposit  of 
this  hoard  to  a  date  not  much  removed  from  A.D.  376. 
Who  was  its  owner  and  what  were  the  circumstances  under 
which  he  buried  his  treasure,  are  questions  which  I  will 
not  waste  time  in  discussing. 

I  have  only  to  add  that  a  selection  of  twenty-five  of  the 
coins  has  most  liberally  been  presented  to  the  National 
Collection  by  Mr.  Kettlewell.  These  are  indicated  in  the 
following  list  by  the  letters  B.  M.  in  brackets  being 
appended  to  their  description. 



1.  Obv.  —  Diademed  head  of  Constantine  r. 

&w.—  CONSTANTINVS  AVG.  Victory  1.,  with 
wreath  and  palm.  In  exergue,  TSG. 
(Cohen,  No.  42.)  (PI.  II.  1.)  48|  gr.' 


1.  Obv.—¥L.  IVL.  CONSTANS  P.F.    AVG.  Dia- 
demed and  draped  bust  r. 

^.-VICTORIA  DD.   NN.  AVGG.     Victory 
L,  with  wreath  and  palm.     In  exergue 
TR.    (Cohen,  No.  73.)    (PL  II.  2.)    4l! 
54£,  40-J  grs.   ;vu       . 

Carried  forward 


Brought  forward        .         .31 
2.  Obv.—  As  No.  1. 

Rev.—  FEL.  TEMP.  REPARATIO.  Victory  in- 
scribing VOT.  XX.  on  a  shield  held  up 
by  a  kneeling  captive.  In  exergue,  K 

(Cohen,  No.  35.)    (PI.  II.  3.)    48f  grs.       1 

_     £ 


1.  Obv.—  FL.    IVL.    CONSTANTIVS   P.F.    AVG. 

Diademed  and  draped  bust  r. 

Rev.—  PAX  AVGVSTORVM.  Emperor  1.,  hold- 
ing labarum.  In  exergue,  TR.  M.  1.  (Cohen, 
No.  93.)  (PL  II.  4.)  49  grs.  .  1 

2.  Obv.—  As  No.  1. 

RVM.  Constantius  1.,  holding  standard 
and  resting  left  hand  on  shield.  In  ex- 
ergue, TES.  (Cohen,  No.  40.)  Med. 
(PL  II.  5.)  68i  grs<  ...  1 

3.  Obv.—  D.  N.  CONSTANTIVS  P.F.  AVG.    Bust 

as  before. 

^t;.—  VIRTVS  EXERCITVS.  Soldier  r.,  hold- 
ing spear  and  shield.  In  exergue,  TES. 
and  R  ?  C  •  Z.  Med.  (Cohen,  No.  52.) 
7(H,  67$,  59,  69,  70£  grs  .  .  5 

4.  Obv.—  As  No.  3. 

JBw.—VIBTVS  EXERCITVM.  As  No.  3.  In 
exergue,  P.  CON.  Med.  (PL  II.  6.) 
[B.  M.]  66  grs  .....  1 

5.  Obv.—FL.  IVL.  CONSTIVS  P.F.  AVG.     Bust 

as  before. 

.  DD.  NN.  AVGG.  Victory 
1.,  holding  wreath  and  palm.  In  ex- 
ergue, TR.  55^  grs.  ...  1 

6.   Obv.—  As  No.  3. 

Reo.—  SPES   REIPVBLICE   (sic)     Constantius 

Carried  forward  14 


Brought  forward        .         .  14 

helmeted,  holding  globe  and  hasta.  In 
exergue,  TES.  [B.  M.]  (Cohen,  No. 
105.)  (PI.  II.  7.)  28  grs.  .  . 

7.  Obv.—As  No.  3. 

Rev.—  As  No.  5.     In  exergue,  LVG  .  49 

8.  Obv.—A.s  No.  3. 

XXX  MVLTIS  XXXX  in  wreath. 
In  exergue,  ANT         ....       2 
SMN         ....       1 
SIRM       ....       2 
P.CON     ....     78 
S.CON     .         .         .         .78 
LVG.  (Cohen,  150—  152).  114 
Uncertain  mints     .....       5 

--  280 

9.  Obv.—  As  No.  3. 

Eev.—VOT  .  XXXX  in  wreath.  In  exergue  C  B  ? 

(Cohen,  No.  153.)     [B.  M.]  1 


1.  Oto.—D.N.  DECENTIVS   NOB.  CAES.     Bare 
bust  r.,  with  cuirass. 

7^.—  PRINCITI  (we)  IVVENTVTIS.  Decen- 
tius  holding  globe  and  slanting  spear. 
In  exergue,  TR.  Med.  (Cohen,  No.  3.) 
(PI.  II.  8.)  [B.  M.]  60£  grs.  .  .  1 


1.  O^.—D.N.   FL.   CL.    IVLIANVS   P.F.  AVG. 

Diademed  and  draped  bust  r. 

Rev.—  VIRTVS  EXERCITVS.  Julian  r.  hold- 
ing spear  in  r.,  in  1.  a  shield  and  an 
eagle  with  wreath  in  its  beak.  Med. 
In  exergue,  S.  CONST.  (Cohen,  No.  5.) 
(PL  II.  9.)  67|  grs.  1 

Carried  forward  .  347 


Brought  forward        .         .  347 

2.  Obv.— FL.  CL.  IVLIANVS    NOB.  C.     Youth- 

ful bare  bust  draped  r. 

Her. — Uninscribed.  A  star  of  eight  points  in 
centre  of  a  wreath.  In  exergue,  T.CON. 
A\.  1.  (Cohen,  No.  46.)  (PL  II.  10.) 
[B.M.]  47£grs.  .  .  1 

3.  Obv.—'FL.    CL.    IVLIANVS   P.P.   AVG.     Dia- 

demed and  draped  bust  r. 

Hev.—  VICTORIA  DD.  NN.  AVG.  Victory!., 
holding  wreath  and  palm.  In  exergue, 
LVG.  (Cohen,  Supplement  No.  2)  .  26 

4.  Obv.— D.N.  IVLIANVS  NOB.  CAES.    Draped 

bust  r.,  the  head  bare. 

i^.— VOTIS  V    MVLTIS  X.  in  wreath.     In 

exergue,  T  CON.     (Cohen,  No.  30)     .  61 

5.  Obv.—  D.N.  CL.  IVLIANVS  AVG     Diademed 

and  draped  bust  1. 

Rev.— As  No.  4.    In  exergue,  P.  CON        .  .       2 

S.  CON        .  .       3 

,,       T.CON       .  .     16 

„       TR[B.  M.]  .     16 

„       TR^,         .  .36 

(Cohen,  No.  33.)  73 

6.  Obv.— D.N.  IVLIANVS  P.F.  AVG.     As  No.  5. 

Rev.— As  No.  4.    In  exergue,  P.  CON        .         .24 

S.  CON        .         .     26 
„       T.  CON        .         .     39 
Uncertain  mint     ...       1 
(Cohen,  No.  55.)  90 

7.  OAt\—PL.    CL.    IVLIANVS    P.P.    AVG.     As 

No.  5. 

Rev.— As  No.  4.    In  exergue,  LVG  .  '    ."'  .  125 

„       P.  LVG  ,nj*  a.  .     28 

„       S.  LVG  ,oH  .     36 

Uncertain  mints    .  .  .       2 

(Cohen,  No.  37.)  191 

Carried  forward  789 

Gin  r 



Brought  forward        .         .  789 

8.  Obv.— As  No.  7. 

Bev.—VOI.  V  MVLT.  X.  in  wreath.     In  ex- 
ergue, P.  LVG,  (Not  in  Cohen.)  [B.  M.]  I 

9.  Obv.—FL.  IVLIANVS  P.P.  AV.     As  No.  7. 

Rev. — As  No.  8.   In  exergue — ?   Contemporary 
forgery  ?    . 

10.  Obv.—FL.  CL.  IVLIANVS  P.F.  AVG.  Bearded, 

diademed,  and  draped  bust. 

jR^.—VOT.    X    MVLT.   XX.   in  wreath.      In 

exergue,  ANT.     (Cohen,  No.  41.)  7 

11.  Oiu.—D.N.  FL.  CL.  IVLIANVS  P.F.  AVG. 

Beardless,  diademed,  and  draped  bust  r. 

Rev.—VOT.  X  MVLT.  XX.  in  wreath. 

In  exergue,  P.  LVG   .         .         .         .11 
S.  LVG.  (Cohen,  No.    42, 
var.)     .         .         .         .14 

—  25 

12.  Obv.— As  No.  11,  but  bust  bearded. 

Rev.— As  No.  11.    In  exergue,  P.  CONST  .         .       1 

8.  CONST.         .     10 
T.  CONST.         .       5 

—  16 

18.  Obv.— As  No.  11. 

Rev. — As  No.  11,  but  small  eagle  in  centre  of 

wreath.     In  exergue,  P.CONST  .         .     53 

S.  CONST  .         .     63 

T.CONST  .         .     52 

Uncertain,  but  CONST   > T;        .     11 

—  179 

14.  06v.-FL.CL.  IVLIANVS  P.F.  AVG.  As  No.  11. 

Rev.— As  No.  13.  In  exergue,  P. CON  ST.  (Cohen, 

No.  41,  var.)     p.  M.]  1 

15.  Olv.—FL.CL.  IVLIANVS  P.P.  AVG.  Beardless, 

diademed,  and  draped  bust. 

Carried  forward        .         .         1,019 


Brought  forward       .         .         1,019 
Rev.— V01.  X  MVLT.  XX.  in  wreath. 

In  exergue,  LVG  [1  B.M.J  ...  4 
P.LVG  [1  B.M.]  .  .  19 
S.LVG.  (Cohen,  No.  40)  .  21 

—  44 

16.   Obv.—  D.N.  CL.  IVLIANVS  AVG.      Beardless, 
diademed,  and  draped  bust  r. 

tat'.— VOTIS  XXX  MVLTIS  XXXX  in  wreath. 
In  exergue,  S.  CON.  (Not  in  Cohen). 
[B.  M.]  .  1 


1.  Obv.—  D.N.  IOVIANVS  PPP  AVG.      Diademed 

and  draped  bust  r. 

Rev.— GLORIA  ROMANORVM.  Jovian  holding 
spear  and  globe,  standing  within  an 
arch.  In  exergue,  ANT.  Med.  (Cohen, 
No.  2.)  (PI.  II.  1.1.)  64i  grs.  .  1 

2.  Obv.— D.N.  IOVIANVS.  P.F.  AVF.     As  No.  1. 

Rev.—VOT.  V  MVLT.  X  within  a  wreath. 

In  exergue,  P.  CONST  ...  4 
SMN  ....  1 

—  5 

b.  Obv.— As  No.  2. 

Rev.— NOT.  X  MVLT.  XX  in  wreath.  In  ex- 
ergue, T.  CONST.  (Cohen,  No.  14)  .  2 


1.  Obv.—  D.N.  VALENTINIANVS  P.F.  AVG.   Dia- 
demed and  draped  bust  r. 

tat;.— VIRTVS  EXERCITVS.  Emperor  1.  hold- 
ing labarum  and  resting  left  hand  on 
shield.  In  exergue,  S.M.TR.  Med. 
(Cohen,  No.  11),  68  grs.  .'  J  1 

Carried  forward        .         .         1,073 


Brought  forward 

2.  Obv. — As  No.  1,  but  bust  in  cuirass. 

with  left  foot  on  globe,  inscribing  VOT. 
V.  MVLT.  X  on  a  shield  resting  on  a 
cippus.  In  exergue,  R.B.  and  R.T. 
(Cohen,  No.  8.)  (PI.  II.  12).  62,  65fc 
grs.  . 

3.  Obt'.— As  No.  1. 

/tec.— RE8TITVTOR  REIP.      Emperor  stand- 
ing,   holding     labarum    and    Victory. 
(Cohen,  No.  19.) 
In  exergue  ANT  ...  . 


P.  CONST,  *  in  field  1.  [B.M.] 
T.  CONST,  *  in  field  r.  [B.M.]      . 
CONST,  in  field  OF  I  . 





P.  LVG 

P.  LVG.      . 

S.  LVG 
S.  LVG-      v 
SMAQ  [B.M.] 
Uncertain  mints 

OF  II  [1  B.M.] 
OF  II* 

OF.  Ill  [B.M.] 
OF.  Ill* 















—  102 

4.  Obv.— D.N.  VALENTINIANVS  P.  AVG.     Bust 

as  No.  1. 

last.  (Cohen,  No.  22,  var.)  In  exergue, 
SIS.  [B.M.]  .  .  1 

5.  Obv.— As  No.  1. 

Rev.—  VOT.  V  in  wreath.      In  exergue  #  C'A 

[B.M.]     (Cohen,  No.  43.)    .  1 

6.  Obv.— As  No  1. 

Rev.— VOT.  V.  MVLT.  X.  In  exergue,  R  B  [B.M  1       1 

„        RT.         .     23 
(Cohen,  No.  44.)  24 

.Carried  forward        .  1,203 


Brought  forward       .         .         1,203 

7.  Obv.—A.s  No.  1. 

Jfev.—VOTIS  V  MVLT1S  X.    in  wreath. 

In  exergue,  TB  [B.M.]         ...  1 

S1BM[1B,M.]  .         .  4 

(Cohen,  No.  45.) 

8.  Obv.—As  No.  1. 

Rev.—  VBBS    ROMA.      Rome    seated,    holding 

Victory  and  sceptre. 

In  exergue,  R  P .  .  .  .  .17 
BQ.  ...  8 

B  T 2 

TRPS-  .  .  7 

(Cohen,  No.  48.)  29 


1.  Ol)i\—  D.  N.  VALENS  P.F.  AYG.     Diademed 

and  draped  bust  r. 

Rei\—  VIBTVS  EXEBCITVS.  Emperor  hold- 
ing standard  and  shield.  In  exergue, 
TRPS  •  (Cohen,  No.  17.)  (PI.  II.  13.) 
Med.  67£  and  69  grs.  .  .  .  2 

2.  Oii\— As  No.  1. 

Jfev.— BESTITVTOB  REIP.  Emperor  holding 
labarum  and  globe  surmounted  by  a 

In  exergue,  P.  LVG  .  .  .  .24 
P.  LVG  •  .  .  .  .25 
S.  LVG-.  ...  8 
ANT  [B.  M.].  .  .  1 
TES  .  .  .  .  1 
P.  CONST  .  .  .1 
S.  CONST,  *  in  field  .  1 
CONST,  OF  I  „  „  .  1 
CONST,OFI*  1B.M.1  .  3 
CONST,  OF  III*  .  .  1 
(Cohen,  No.  29.)  —  66 

Carried  forward        .  1,305 



Brought  forward 
8.   Ohv.— As  No.  1. 

1^.__VOT.  V  MVLTIS.  X.  in  wreath.    In   ex- 
ergue, SMN        ..... 
VOT.  V  MVLT.  X   In  exergue,  R  B      . 

Ditto  „         RT 

(Cohen,  No.  55.) 

4.  Obv.—Aa  No.  1. 

Rev.—  VRBS    ROMA.      Rome   seated,   holding 
Victory  and  sceptre. 
In  exergue,  P.  LVG 

RP      .         .         .         . 
RQ     . 
TRPS  . 
TRPS  • 





.       1 

.  4 
.  20 
.  13 
.  66 


1.   Obv.—  D.N.    GRATIANVS    P.F.    AVG. 
demed  and  draped  bust  r. 


;.— VOTIS  V.  in  wreath.  In  exergue,  *OB  O. 
(Not  in  Cohen.)     (PI.  II.  14.)     [B.  M.] 
SHgrs.     . 

2.  Ok'.—  As  No.  1. 

.—  VRBS  ROMA.  Rome  seated  holding 
sceptre  and  Victory.  In  exergue, 
TRPS.  81-grs  ..... 





IN  1874  Mr.  Percy  Gardner  published  a  tetradrachm 
similar  to  those  represented  in  the  accompanying  Plate. 
He  attributed  the  piece  to  Heraiis,  King  of  the  Sakas,  by 
reading  the  legend  1 


as  Tvpavvovvros  'Hpaov  2aKa  Kotpavov. 

This  assignment  of  the  coin  to  a  Saka  king  was  eagerly 
adopted  by  Mr.  Fergusson,  who,  by  a  bold  conjecture, 
metamorphosed  the  Turushka  king  Kanishka,  the  sove- 
reign of  the  Kmhdns,  into  a  king  of  the  Sakas,  and  the 
founder  of  the  Sdka  era.2 

But  Mr.  Fergusson  was  not  the  only  rebel  against 
"  time-honoured  "  Salivahana,  wHose  name,  as  Professor 
Kern  boldly  suggested,3  had  been  added  to  the  Saka  era 
by  the  English.  But  this  suggestion  is  utterly  without 
foundation,  as  there  are  many  inscriptions,  both  in  Southern 
and  in  Northern  India,  dated  in  the  Salivahana  Sdka  era. 
I  need  only  quote  one  of  S.  S.  1466,  or  A.D.  1544,  from 

1  Num.  Chron.,  N.S.,  xii.  p.  161. 

2  Royal   Asiatic    Society   Journal,    1880,    "  On   the    Saka, 
Samvat,  and  Gupta  Eras." 

3  Dr.  Max  Miiller,  India— What  can  it  teach  us?  p.  300. 


B&dami  in  Southern  India,  and  another  of  S.  S.  1583,  or 
A.D.  1561,  from  Chamba,  in  the  Punjab.4  Does  Professor 
Kern  believe  that  the  English  ruled  over  India  in  those 
years  ? 

In  1881  Dr.  Oldenberg  published  a  notice  of  the  same 
coin,5  in  which  he  retained  the  reading  of  ZAKA,  and 
ignored  the  existence  of  the  following  letter  B,  while  he 
objected  to  Koipavov,  and  proposed  to  read  either  Koranou  or 
Korranou.  He  thus  found  "adecisive  proof"  that  the  Korano 
or  Gtishdn  princes,  and  more  especially  "  Kanishka,  must  be 
regarded  as  Sakas."  He  then  goes  on  to  say  that  "  we 
know  from  coins  as  well  as  from  inscriptions  of  a  mighty 
Sdka  king  Kanishka."  With  this  statement  I  altogether 
disagree.  I  am  well  acquainted  with  all  the  inscriptions 
and  coins  of  the  Indo-Scythian  princes,  and  I  can  state 
positively  that  neither  coins  nor  inscriptions  give  the  title 
of  Saka  to  Kanishka.  In  the  inscriptions  he  is  always 
called  by  his  own  tribal  title  of  Eushdn,  or  Gushdn,  and 
on  his  coins  he  is  invariably  called  Korano. 

I  presume,  however,  that  Dr.  Oldenberg  refers  to  this 
coin  of  Ileraus  as  establishing  his  conclusion  that  Kanishka 
was  a  king  of  the  Sakas,  or  Saka-KwhAm.  But  the  read- 
ing of  ZAKA  I  dispute,  as  all  my  coins  read  ZANAB  and 
not  ZAKA.  This  word  is,  however,  not  always  spelt  in 
the  same  way.  I  find  ZANAB  on  six  coins,  the  N  being 
sometimes  reversed,  ZANAOB  on  one  coin,  and 

ZANAB  I Y  on  one  coin/ 

'•"•-'  Sj&£l  *ii[oij£.Drnjol 

It  is  true  that  the  N  is  sometimes  reversed,  but  so  it  is 

sometimes  both  in  TYPAMHOYHTOZ  and  in  KOIIA- 

p.  loo. 

Indian  Antiquary,  x.  p.  67.     Archaol.  Survey  of  India,  xxi. 


5  Indian  Antiquary,  x.  p.  215 

1  >?<  .  -  7i?M  -iC[  K 


I/1OY.  Of  the  latter  form  Mr.  Gardner  has  given  an 
instance  in  his  footnote,  page  47,  quoting  M.  Tiesen- 
hausen's  coin. 

Taking  the  various  readings  of  Sanab,  Sanaob,  and 
Sandbiu,  I  think  it  probable  that  the  term  may  be  intended 
to  represent  the  native  title  of  tmnyu,  or  chanyu,  "chief/* 
or  "  king."  As  the  last  word  on  the  small  silver 
oboli  is  KOPCANOY,  there  can  be  no  doubt  that  the 
king  belonged  to  the  Korsdn,  or  Kushan  tribe.  Tsanyu 
is  a  contraction  of  Tsemli-Khuthu-tanjii,  "Heaven's  son 
great,"  or  "Great  Son  of  Heaven,"  =  Devaputra.  As 
the  common  pronunciation  of  the  Greek  B  was  V,  the 
Greek  form  of  ZANAB,  or  ZANABIY,  would  approach 
very  nearly  to  the  native  title. 

With  respect  to  the  tribal  name  of  Kushdn,  an  exami- 
nation of  the  earlier  coins  of  Kujula  Kadphizes  shows  that 
the  first  Greek  forms  of  the  name  were  Korsna,  Korsan, 
and  Ehoransu,  which  agree  with  the  title  of  KOPCANOY 
on  the  oboli  of  Miaiis  in  the  Plate.  In  common  speech 
this  name  might  become  either  Korano  by  the  omission  of 
s,  or  Kushdn  by  the  omission  of  r.  But  the  Greek  form  I 
prefer  to  derive  from  the  common  practice  of  changing  s 
to  h,  which  would  change  Kormno  into  Korhano,  or  into 
Korrhano,  or  KOPPANOY. 

That  the  original  form  of  the  name  was  Korsan,  or 
Kkorsan,  is,  I  think,  supported  by  the  name  of  the  province 
of  Khorasdn,  which  was  certainly  occupied  by  this  tribe. 
I  suspect  also  that  Chorsari,  which  Pliny  says  was  the 
name  given  by  the  Scythians  to  the  Persians,  must  refer 
to  the  Kushans  of  Khorasan,  who  had  come  to  be  looked 
upon  as  Persians  by  the  Scythians  of  the  Jaxartes. 

According  to  my  view  the  legend  of  the  tetradrachms 
is  simply — 



TvpavvovvTOS  Miaou  ^avayS  Kopcravou, 
"Of.  the  supreme  king  Miaiis,  chief  of  the  Kushans." 

On  the  oboli  the  legend  is  restricted  to  two  lines,  in 
which  the  name  of  the  prince  is  spelt  in  two  different 
ways,  as  MIAOYC  and  MIAIOY.  With  the  tribal 
title  of  KOPCANOY  below,  the  whole  legend  is  simply 
"  Miaiis,  the  Kushan,"  or  rather  the  Korsan. 

The  unique  copper  coin  is  unfortunately  too  much  worn 
to  give  any  assistance  in  reading  either  the  name  or  the 
titles.  But  as  it  bears  an  Arian  legend  in  addition  to  the 
Greek  inscription  it  is  invaluable  as  a  proof  that  the 
territory  over  which  the  king  ruled  was  not  Bactria,  but 
some  country  to  the  south  of  the  Hindu  Kush.  On  the 
Greek  side  I  can  read  TYPAN  and  KOPCAN  ;  but  of 
the  Arian  legend  I  can  make  nothing  certain. 

Of  the  find-spots  of  the  tetradrachms  I  am  unable  to 
speak.  But  of  the  oboli  I  can  say  positively  that  my 
twelve  specimens  all  came  from  Western  Afghanistan, 
that  is  from  Kabul  and  the  country  to  the  south  of  Kabul. 
A  thirteenth  obolus  was  actually  found  by  Masson  in 
No.  2  Tope  at  Kotpur,  along  with  ten  copper  coins  bear- 
ing the  joint  names  of  Hermaeus  and  Kujula  Kadphizes.6 
Masson  describes  the  coin  as  "  a  small  circular  piece  of 
silver,  doubtful  whether  a  coin  from  its  smooth  reverse, 
but  on  the  obverse  bearing  the  bust  of  a  king,  whose  head 
was  bound  with  the  Greek  diadem."  I  saw  the  piece  in 
the  Indian  Museum  in  1870  amongst  Tope  relics,  and  I  at 
once  recognised  it  as  a  coin  of  Miaiis,  from  the  king's  head 
being  an  exact  representation  of  the  head  on  the  two 
tetradrachms  which  I  then  possessed.  In  the  same  Stupa 

6  Ariana  Antiqua,  p.  66. 


Masson  obtained  a  clay  seal  (see  Ariana  Antiqua,  Plate 
IV.  Fig.  6  of  Antiquities),  with  an  armed  figure  standing 
with  lance  in  hand.  As  my  new  coins  of  Kujula  Kad- 
phizes  present  the  same  armed  figure  we  thus  obtain  a 
second  connection  with  Kujula. 

With  respect  to  the  date  of  Miaiis  I  think  that  the  fol- 
lowing facts  all  point  to  the  latter  half  of  the  first  cen- 
tury B.C. 

1.  One  of  his  coins  was  found  in  company  with  ten 
copper  coins  bearing  the  joint  names  of  Hermaous  and 

2.  The  Greek  S  is  used  always  in   Turannountos   and 
JSanab,  but  in  Korsano  it  takes  the  round  form,  which  is 
also  found  on  some  of  the  later  coins  of  Hermaeus. 

3.  The  type  of  the  king  on  horseback,  with  Victory 
flying  behind  to  place  a  wreath  on  his  head,  is  the  proto- 
type which  was  afterwards  copied  on  the  coins  of  Gron- 

Taking  these  facts  in  conjunction  with  the  find-spots  of 
the  coins,  I  infer  that  Miaiis  must  have  ruled  over  the 
country  to  the  south-west  of  Kabul,  about  Wardak  and 
Ghazni,  some  time  during  the  latter  half  of  the  first  cen- 
tury B.C. 

If  my  inference  be  correct  we  may,  perhaps,  gain  some 
further  information  about  this  unknown  king  from  the 
Chinese  records.  Turning,  then,  to  their,  account  of 
Kipin,  that  is  of  the  country  to  the  south-west  of  Kabul, 
I  find  the  following  facts  recorded. 

1.  The  first  King  of  Kipin  known  to  the  Chinese  is 
named  U-theu-lao  by  Remusat7  (or  Woo-tow-laou  by 
Wylie).  He  was  reigning  about  the  beginning  of  the 

7  Eeinusat,  Nouv.  Melanges  Asiatiques,  i.  p.  207. 


first  century  B.C.  He  was  succeeded  by  his  son,  who  was 
defeated  and  killed  by  a  rebel  named  Yin-mo-fuy  son  of 
the  King  of  Yung-Khiu,  assisted  by  the  Chinese.  Yin- 
mo-fu  thus  became  King  of  Kipin.  Having  imprisoned 
the  Chinese  general  Chao-te  and  killed  some  seventy  of 
his  officers,  he  sent  an  embassy  to  China  to  excuse  his 
conduct.  But  the  Emperor  Hiao-yuan-ti  had  then  stopped 
all  communication  with  foreign  countries,  and  the  embassy 
was  not  received.  As  this  emperor  began  to  reign  in 
48  B.C.,  the  conquest  of  Kipin  by  Yin- mo-fu  may  be  placed 
about  50  B.C.8 

2.  The  people  of  Kipin  had  gold  and  silver  money  which 
bore  on  one  side  the  figure  of  a  horseman,  and  on  the 
reverse  the  head  of  a  man.  Wylie  says  a  man  on  horse- 
back and  a  man's  face.9  Now  it  is  remarkable  that  the 
only  coins  which  tally  with  this  description  are  those  of 
Miaiis  and  of  the  nameless  king.  But  as  there  are  neither 
gold  nor  silver  coins  of  the  latter  the  description  can  apply 
only  to  the  former.  This  being  the  case,  the  coins  with  a 
horseman  on  one  side  and  a  king's  head  on  the  other  should 
belong  to  Yin-mo-fu,  the  conqueror  of  Kipin,  and  Yin- 
mo-fu  should  therefore  be  Miaiis,  or  Miaios.  There  is  a 
tempting  resemblance  between  the  two  names,  which, 
supported  by  both  time  and  place,  suggests  the  possibility 
of  identifying  Yin-mo-fu,  King  of  Kipin,  with  Miaiis,  or 
Miaiiis,  whose  coins  belong  to  the  same  country  as  well  as 
the  same  age. 

With  respect  to  the  name  of  the  king,  I  must  confess 
that  it  is  still  uncertain.  Twenty-five  years  ago,  when  I 
got  my  first  two  tetradrachms,  I  read  the  name  as  HPAOY, 

8  Kemusat,  Now.  Melanges  Asiatinucs,  i   p.  206 
•.  Chon.,  N.S.,  ix.  p.  79. 


or  Heraiis,  as  I  noted  at  the  time  in  the  Journal  of  the 
Bengal  Asiatic  Society.  In  1874,  after  Mr.  Percy  Gardner 
had  published  the  British  Museum  coin,  on  which  he  also 
read  the  name  as  Heraiis,  I  was  induced  to  examine  the 
silver  oboli  of  the  same  king  which  I  had  lately  acquired. 
On  some  of  them  I  found  a  sloping  stroke  in  the  first  letter 
of  the  name,  which  seemed  to  agree  with  the  first  letter  on 
the  two  tetradrachms,  Nos.  3  and  4  of  the  accompanying 
Plate.  I  then  read  the  names  as  NIAOYC,  or  MIAOYC, 
and  also  on  some  of  the  oboli  as  NIAIOY,  or  MIAIOYC. 
On  looking  over  the  recorded  names  of  Indo-Scythian 
kings,  it  struck  me  that  the  Greek  name  might  possibly  be 
a  variant  form  of  the  Chinese  name  of  Ym-mo-fu.  Except 
for  this  possibility  I  cannot  say  that  my  present  reading 
of  Miaiis  is  preferable  to  my  early  reading  of  Heraiis. 
For  the  solution  of  the  doubt  we  must  await  the  discovery 
of  a  second  specimen  of  the  bilingual  copper  coinage,  as 
the  native  rendering  of  the  two  names  in  Arian  characters 
would  be  very  different.  Heraus  would  most  probably 
be  ^A~lt>  Herayasa,  while  Miaiis  would  be  ?A7Y,  Mia- 

But  whether  the  name  of  the  king  be  Heraus  or  Miaiis, 
it  is  certain  that  he  belonged  to  the  KOPCANO,  or 
Kushan  tribe,  and  consequently  that  he  could  not  have 
been  a  Saka.  I  will  now  try  to  make  this  clear.  For 
many  centuries  before  the  arrival  of  the  Yuechi  horde  in 
Bactriana,  the  provinces  on  the  Jaxartes  and  Oxus  had 
been  occupied  by  the  Sakas,  or  Sacae,  where  they  succes- 
sively opposed  the  armies  of  Cyrus,  Darius,  and  Alex- 
ander. Their  language,  as  shown  by  their  names  as  well 
as  by  the  Scythian  version  of  the  cuneiform  inscriptions 
of  Darius,  has  little  in  common  with  that  of  the  Kushans 
who  formed  one  of  the  five  tribes  of  the  Yuechi — a  great 


Turkish  horde.  Darius  records  the  suppression  of  the 
rebel  Sarukha,  a  leader  of  the  Sakas.  Herodotus  describes 
the  Scythians  in  the  army  of  Xerxes  as  Amurgian  Scyths 
who  carried  the  battle-axe  called  Sagaris.  They  were 
therefore  the  same  people  whom  Darius  calls  Saka-Hu- 
mavarga.  There  can  be  little  doubt  therefore  that  they 
were  the  same  as  the  Sagaraitkee,  who  also  carried  the 
Sagaris,  from  which  they  must  have  derived  their  name. 
I  have  long  ago  identified  the  Sagaraukce  with  the  Sar- 
duchce  of  Trogus  by  reading  A  for  A,  and  eliding  the  g. 
The  words  of  Trogus  are  very  important : 10  "  Scythicae  res 
additsc,  reges  Thocarorum  Asiani,  interitusque  Sardu- 
charura."  Now  the  Thocari  are  the  Yuechi,  who  were 
called  Tushdras,  or  Tukharas,  by  the  Indians,  and  Tu-ho-lo 
by  the  Chinese  ;  and  the  Asiani  must  be  the  Kmh&W,  or 
Gushans,  whose  chief  conquered  the  other  four  tribes,  and 
took  the  title  of  "  King  of  the  Kushans."  The  Sarduchao 
are  the  Sai,  or  Sakas,  who  were  driven  out  by  the  Kushans. 
Now  this  title  of  "  King  of  the  Kushans  "  is  found  on  all 
the  coins  of  Kujula  Kadphizes,  the  Yuechi  chief  who  con- 
quered Hermaeus,  the  last  of  the  Greek  kings  of  India. 

That  the  Yuechi  were  a  different  race  from  the  Sakas 
is  shown  by  their  history  as  related  by  the  Chinese 
annalists.  In  the  beginning  of  the  second  century  B.C. 
they  were  driven  by  the  Hiungnu  from  their  home  in  the 
province  of  Shensi,  near  the  Great  "Wall  of  China.  They 
retired  to  the  west,  and,  being  again  defeated  and  their 
king  killed  by  the  Hiungnu,  they  migrated  still  farther  to 
the  west,  arid  settled  in  the  country  along  the  Jaxartes  in 
B.C.  163.  In  a  short  time  they  spread  over  the  whole  of 
the  provinces  on  both  banks  of  the  Oxus,  from  which, 

10  Jasfcini,  Pro!.,  chap.  xlii. 


about  130  to  126  B.C.,  they  expelled  the  Ta-Hia,  or  Bac- 
trian  Greeks,  and  the  Sai,  or  Sakas.  One  hundred  years 
later  the  chief  of  the  Kuei-shwang,  or  Kushan  tribe,  hav- 
ing subdued  the  other  four  tribes,  united  the  whole  horde 
of  the  Yuechi,  and  took  the  title  of  "  King  of  the  Ku- 
shan s,"  after  which  he  conquered  the  Kabul  Valley,  where 
he  came  into  contact  with  the  Greek  king  Hermaous. 

JSTow  this  title  of  "  King  of  the  Kushans  "  is  the  same 
that  was  borne  by  Kanishka,  who  is  styled  in  Court's 
Manikyala  inscription  "  Samvardhaka  Gushana  vansa,"  or 
"  the  aggrandizer  of  the  Kushan  race."  In  the  Sanskrit 
history  of  Kashmir  he  is  called  a  Turushka,  or  Turk. 
Hwen  Thsang  calls  him  a  Tu/iolo,  or  Tukhara,  while 
Biruni  and  other  early  Muhamedan  writers  call  him  a 
Turk,  to  which  Biruni  adds  that  his  ancestor,  the  founder 
of  the  family,  was  Barhatigin.  As  Tigin  is  a  Turki  word, 
this  statement  furnishes  another  proof  of  the  Turki  origin 
of  the  Kushans. 

Hwen  Thsang  says  that  the  language  of  Folishisatangua, 
or  Kabul,  was  different  from  that  of  Tsau-ku-ta,  or  Kipin.11 
Again,  in  speaking  of  Tsau-ku-ta^  or  Kipin  itself,  he  says 
that  the  writing  and  language  were  different  from  that  of 
other  countries.12  But  if  the  Kushans  were  Sakas,  the 
language  of  the  Kushans  of  Kabul  and  of  the  Sakas  of 
Kipin  (Sakastene)  would  have  been  the  same.  The 
KusMns  are,  in  fact,  separately  distinguished  from  the 
Sakas  in  the  Allahabad  Pillar  Inscription  of  Samudra 
Gupta  under  the  well-known  title  of  Daivaputra  Shtihi, 
which  was  used  by  Kanishka  and  his  successors  in  all 
their  inscriptions. 

»  Beal,  ii.  p.  285  ;  Julien,  ii.  p.  190. 
12  Beal,  ii.  p.  284 ;  Julien,  iii.  p.  188. 


In  the  face  of  all  these  facts  I  do  not  see  how  it  is  pos- 
sible to  maintain  the  identity  of  the  Sakas  and  the 
Kushans.  Even  if  the  word  which  I  read  as  ZANA 
should  hereafter  be  found  to  be  actually  ZAKA,  as  read 
by  Mr.  Gardner  and  Dr.  Oldenberg,  I  should  object  to 
these  two  distinct  peoples  being  rolled  into  one  tribe  of 
Saka-Kmhdns.  My  explanation  would  rather  be  that  Heraus, 
or  M-iauSj  was  the  king  of  both  peoples — of  the  Kushans 
by  inheritance,  and  of  the  Sakas  by  conquest. 

I  will  now  describe  the  different  coins  of  this  king 
which  I  have  given  in  Plate  III. 


Obv. — Bare  head  of  king,  diademed,  to  right,  with  long  hair 
and  moustaches,  surrounded  by  border  of  fillets. 

Eev. — King  on  horseback,  to  right,  left  hand  holding  bridle, 
right  hand  resting  on  bow-case  attached  to  saddle. 
Victory  flying  behind  with  wreath  in  outstretched 
hand  to  crown  the  king.  Legend  in  corrupt  Greek 
characters  in  one  half-circle  above,  and  two  straight 
lines  below. 

. . .  IANOY. 


3.-TY/ ANNOYNTOZ  MIAOY  Z  .  I .  N  .  I .  OB 


•"I/I  AHOY. 



The  British  Museum  specimen  agrees  very  closely  with 
Nos.  1  and  2,  but  the  coin  of  M.  Tiesenhausen,  quoted  by 
Mr.  Gardner,  appears  to  be  more  like  lSTo.  4.  My  No.  6 


is  an  ancient  forgery  thickly  plated.    The  other  five  coins 
average  226  grains,  the  heaviest,  No.  4,  being  240  grains. 


The  small  silver  coins  preserve  very  successfully  the 
portrait  of  the  king  as  shown  on  the  tetradrachms.  The 
weight  varies  from  8  to  9,  9i,  10i,  and  11  grains.  Mr. 
Thomas 13  notices  one  of  these  oboli  in  the  possession  of 
General  Pearse,  but  he  seems  to  have  looked  upon  it  as 
belonging  to  the  barbarous  imitations  of  the  oboli  of 
Eukratides,  as  he  describes  it  as  "  an  example  of  an  excep- 
tionally common  class  of  silver  coins,"  whereas  General 
Pearse's  and  Masson's  specimens  are  the  only  coins  that 
I  know  of  in  addition  to  my  own. 

Obv. — Bare  head  of  king  to  right,  as  on  the  tetradrachm,  in  a 
dotted  circle. 

Rev. — Male  figure,  standing  to  right,  with  both  hands  raised. 
Greek  legend  in  two  perpendicular  lines. 

No.  7.—  %  I AIOY.  KOPC  ANOY. 

8.—  -IIAIOY.  iCOPCANou. 


10.— /MlAOYC.  .  OMAvou. 



13.  Obv. — King's  head  to  right,  with  Arian  legend  illegible. 

Rev. — King  on  horseback  to  right,  with  Victory  flying 
behind,  as  on  the  tetradrachms.  Greek  legend  im- 

I  can  read  TYPAN  to  left,  and  KOIC  below,  but  I 
do  not  see  any  trace  of  letters  between  the  horse's  feet- 

13  Bactrian  Coins  and  Indian  Dates. 




Some  day,  perhaps,  a  lucky  find  will  give  us  the  king's 
name  in  Arian  characters.  The  legend  on  the  right  looks 
as  if  it  was  Maharayasa. 

With  respect  to  the  letter  B  at  the  end  of  the  word 
ZANAB,  Mr.  Thomas  has  a  curious  note  in  which,  by 
some  legerdemain,  he  makes  it  an  undeveloped  form  of  a 
well-known  monogram  B.  This  he  takes  for  Drangia; 
but  unfortunately  in  the  Greek  spelling  of  the  name 
APAPflA  there  is  no  N,  while  there  are  two  gammas,  of 
which  there  is  no  trace  in  the  monogram. 



(Continued  from  Vol.  VII.,  page  272.) 

DEATH,  1770. 

Obv. — Shield  of  Bell,  ermines,  on  a  chief  sa.,  an  escallop 
shell  between  two  bells  ar.,  on  either  side  beetle 
and  spider ;  above,  ANNO  XXVII  ;  below, 

Rev. — Pedestal  ornamented  with  two  ancient  bronze  celts 
and  raised  on  three  steps,  inscribed  SEDULO, 
FELICI,  PROBO  ;  on  either  side  of  monument, 
coins  and  shells.  Leg.  LABIA  SCIENTLE 

1-35.  MB.  &.    PL  IV.  1. 

This  medal  is  by  John  Kirk,  but  I  have  been  unable  to 
find  any  particulars  about  John  Bell,  whom  it  com- 
memorates.  The  inscription  on  the  reverse  is  from  Prov. 
xx.  15. 

JOHN  BELLINGHAM,  1771 — 1812. 


Obv. — Bust  of  Bellingham  to  left  wearing  frock-coat,  &c. 
MAY  18.  1812.  AGED  42.  YEARS. 

Rev.— In  the  field,  ASSASSINATED  THE  RIGHT 
1812.  Around,  garter  inscribed  THOU  SHALT 

1-55.    MB.  ST.     PL  IV.  2. 


John  Bellingham,  who  assassinated  the  Right  Hon. 
Spencer  Perceval  on  the  llth  May,  1812,  was  a  native  of 
St.  Neots,  in  Huntingdonshire,  and  was  born  about  1771. 
His  'father  having  removed  to  London  in  1775,  the  son 
was  apprenticed  to  a  jeweller,  and  afterwards  set  up  in 
Oxford  Street  as  a  tin-plate  worker.  Having  become 
bankrupt,  he  entered  a  merchant's  counting-house,  and 
went  to  Archangel  and  commenced  business  as  a  timber 
merchant  with  a  certain  Mr.  Borbecker.  Bellingham, 
having  returned  to  Hull,  was  thrown  into  prison  on 
account  of  the  failure  of  his  partner,  and  when  released 
went  back  to  Archangel,  where  he  was  seized  by  the 
Russian  authorities  for  debt  and  again  imprisoned.  On 
his  release  he  repaired  to  England  full  of  complaints 
against  the  Russian  Government,  and  continued  from 
time  to  time  to  present  memorials  to  the  British  Govern- 
ment on  the  subject  of  his  claims.  Exasperated  with 
the  failure  of  these  memorials,  Bellingham  went  to  the 
House  of  Commons  on  the  llth  May  and  shot  Mr.  Per- 
ceval as  he  was  entering  the  lobby.  For  this  crime 
Bellingham  was  hanged  seven  days  afterwards. 


1.  Obv. — Bust  of  Belzoni  to  left;  below,  T.  i.  WELLS.,  F. 

Rev. — View  of   the   pyramid ;    above,  OPENED   BY  G. 

BELZONI;  below,  MARCH  2ND  1818. 
2-1.  MB.  m.     PI.  IV.  3. 

Giovanni  Battista  Belzoni,  actor,  engineer,  and  traveller, 
was  born  at  Padua  in  1778,  came  to  England  in  1803, 

ENGLISH    PERSONAL   MEDALS    FROM    1760.  61 

and,  being  a  man  of  great  height  and  muscular  power, 
gained  a  living  in  London  by  performing  feats  of  strength. 
Having  studied  hydraulics  at  Rome  he  invented  some 
improvements  in  water-engines,  which  he  exhibited  in 
various  parts  of  England.  In  1815  he  was  in  Egypt,  and 
was  employed  to  remove  the  colossal  granite  bust  of 
Rameses  II.  for  transport  to  England.  Encouraged  by 
the  success  of  this  undertaking,  and  endowed  with  great 
instinct  for  discovery,  Belzoni  spent  the  next  four  years  in 
excavating  various  sites  throughout  Egypt,  Nubia,  and 
Libya.  He  uncovered  the  site  of  the  great  temple  of 
Rameses  II.  at  Abu-Simbel ;  opened  the  grotto  sepulchre 
of  Seti  I.  in  the  Valley  of  the  Tombs  of  the  Kings,  in  the 
Libyan  mountains,  from  which  he  procured  the  beautiful 
alabaster  sarcophagus  now  in  the  Soane  Museum,  in 
Lincoln's  Inn  Fields ;  discovered  the  opening  to  the 
pyramid  of  Cephrenes,  or,  as  it  is  generally  called,  the 
second  pyramid  of  Gizon,  and  identified  the  ruins  of  the 
city  of  Berenice,  on  the  eastern  gulf  of  the  Red  Sea. 
In  1819  Belzoni  returned  to  Europe  and  published  a 
narrative  of  his  operations  and  discoveries.  In  1822  he 
set  out  again  on  a  voyage  of  exploration  to  Timbuctoo, 
in  the  hope  of  tracing  the  source  of  the  Niger.  He 
started  on  his  journey  from  Cape  Coast,  but  on  arriving 
at  Gato,  in  Benin,  he  was  attacked  by  dysentery  and 
died  there,  3rd  December,  1823. 

The  above  medal  refers  to  the  discovery  of  the  passage 
leading  to  the  centre  of  the  pyramid  of  Cephrenes  on  the 
2nd  March,  1818.  After  many  days'  labour  in  search  of 
the  opening  Belzoni  came  upon  three  blocks  of  granite  in 
an  inclined  direction  towards  the  centre.  Having  cleared 
the  front  of  the  three  stones  the  entrance  proved  to  be  a 
passage  4  feet  high,  3  feet  6  inches  wide,  formed  of  large 


blocks  of  granite,  which  descended  towards  the  centre  for 
104  feet  5  inches,  at  an  angle  of  twenty-six  degrees. 
Nearly  all  this  passage  was  filled  up  with  large  stones. 
At  the  end  of  the  passage  his  way  was  barred  by  a  port- 
cullis, which,  having  been  raised  with  great  difficulty, 
disclosed  beyond  further  passages,  which  finally  led  to  the 
central  chamber,  in  which  lay  the  sarcophagus,  not  of  the 
great  King  Rameses  II.,  as  Belzoni  thought,  but  of  the 
builder  of  the  pyramid,  King  Khafra  (Cephren). 


2.  Obv. — Two  statues  of  Sekheh  seated  to  left;  below, 
L.  MANFREDINI.  Leg.  OB  .  DONVM  .  PATRIA  . 

Rev.—  Inscription,  10.  BAPT.  BELZONI  PATAVINO 

2-1.     MB.  jr.     PI.  IV.  SA. 

When  Belzoni  revisited  his  native  city  of  Padua  in 
1819  the  inhabitants  caused  the  above  gold  medal  to  be 
struck.  It  commemorates  his  presentation  of  various 
statues  and  objects  of  antiquity  from  Egypt  to  Padua,  and 
also  his  principal  discoveries  during  1817 — 1818.  The 
explorations  on  the  site  of  the  pyramid  of  Cephrenes  were 
conducted  in  1817  and  1818,  the  sepulchre  of  Seti  I.  was 
found  in  1817,  and  the  site  of  the  city  of  Berenice  in 
October,  1818.  This  medal  has  a  ring  for  suspension,  and 
was  the  one  presented  to  Belzoni  himself.  It  was  subse- 
quently given  by  a  descendant  of  Belzoni  to  the  National 

ENGLISH   PERSONAL    MEDALS    FROM    1760.  63 

JEREMY  BENTHAM,  1748—1832. 
DEATH,  1832. 

Obv.— Head  of  Bentham  to  right.     Leg.  JEREMY  BEN- 
THAM  ESQ.    M.A.      HALLIDAY   F. 

Rev. — Within  wreath  formed  of  one  palm-branch,  DIED 

JUNE  6  1832  AGED  85. 
1-25.     MB.  m.    PL  IV.  4. 

Jeremy  Bentham,  the  eminent  writer  on  ethics  and 
jurisprudence,  born  in  Red  Lion  Street,  Houndsditch, 
15th  February,  1748,  was  educated  at  Westminster  School 
and  at  Queen's  College,  Oxford,  where  he  took  his  Master's 
degree  at  the  early  age  of  eighteen.  On  graduating,  his 
father,  who  had  conceived  the  most  ambitious  hopes  as  to 
his  future,  set  him  to  study  law  at  Lincoln's  Inn,  where 
he  was  called  to  the  bar  in  1772.  Though  Bentham  had 
a  great  love  for  legal  studies  he  disliked  the  profession  of 
a  barrister,  and  refused  to  practise,  but  turned  his  atten- 
tion to  the  theory  of  the  law,  and  became  the  greatest 
critic  of  legislation  and  government  of  his  time.  On  both 
these  subjects  he  produced  many  learned  works.  In  1792, 
on  the  death  of  his  father,  Bentham  came  into  possession 
of  a  handsome  inheritance,  and  settled  in  Queen  Square 
Place,  Westminster,  once  Milton's  house,  where  he  passed 
the  life  of  a  recluse,  scarcely  ever  allowing  any  one  to  visit 
him.  He  died  there  on  the  6th  June,  1832.  Bentham 
was  a  man  of  very  nervous  temperament,  and  conceived  a 
horror  of  society.  In  his  appearance  he  made  a  curious 
picture ;  his  hair  white,  long,  and  flowing,  his  neck  bare, 
wearing  a  Quaker-like  hat  and  coat,  list  shoes,  and  white 
worsted  stockings,  drawn  over  his  breeches  above  the 
knees.  His  peculiar  expression  of  countenance  is  well 
depicted  by  the  above  small  medal. 


LORD  GEORGE  BENTINCK,  1802—1848. 

DEATH,  1848. 

Obv.—  Head  of  Lord  Bentinck  to  left.  Leg.  LORD 

1848.       B.    WYON    SO. 

Rev.— Inscription  :  BRAVE—  EARNEST  —  GENEROUS 

2.     MB.  ^E.     PI.  IV.  5. 

Lord  William  George  Frederick  Cavendish  Bentinck, 
commonly  called  Lord  George  Bentinck,  was  the  third 
son  of  the  fourth  Duke  of  Portland ;  born  27th  February, 
1802;  entered  the  army  when  young,  and  eventually 
attained  the  rank  of  major.  Elected  in  1826  M.P.  for 
Lynn-Regis,  he  sat  for  that  borough  till  his  death.  At 
first  attached  to  no  party,  Lord  George  voted  for  Catholic 
emancipation  and  for  the  principles  of  the  Reform  Bill. 
He  subsequently  joined  the  Conservative  party,  which 
acknowledged  Sir  Robert  Peel  as  its  leader ;  but  when 
Peel  introduced  his  free  trade  measures  in  1845  Lord 
George  placed  himself  at  the  head  of  the  Protection  party, 
in  which  character  he  appears  on  the  above  medal.  He 
was  a  man  of  handsome  countenance  and  of  a  fine  physique, 
and  was  deeply  interested  in  all  kinds  of  sport,  especially 
the  race-course,  at  all  times  showing  the  utmost  zeal  to 
suppress  the  dishonest  practices  of  the  turf.  He  died 
suddenly  on  the  21st  September,  1848,  whilst  walking  in 
the  park  at  Welbeck  Abbey. 



Obv. — Bust  of  Lord  Beresford  to  right  in  military  dress 
and  wearing  the  chain  and  badge  of  the  Spanish 
military  order  of  St.  Hermenegild  ;  below,  MUDIE  . 

Eev. — A  Polish  Lancer  attacking  with  his  spear  a  High- 
lander, who  defends  himself  with  his  sword ; 
beneath  horse's  feet  a  prostrate  figure,  dead ; 
in  the  field,  MUDIE.  D.  BENNET  .  F.  In  the 

1-55.  MB.  M.    ST.     Mudie's  Medals,  No.  XVIII. 

William  Carr,  Lord  Beresford,  afterwards  Viscount,  the 
natural  son  of  the  first  Marquis  of  Waterford,  was  born 
2nd  October,  1768,  and  entered  the  army  in  1785.  After 
serving  in  various  parts  of  the  world  he  attained  the  rank 
of  brigadier-general  in  1806,  and  was  present  at  the  battle 
of  Corunna  in  1808.  In  1809  lie  took  the  command  of  the 
army  in  Portugal,  and,  joining  his  forces  with  those  of 
Wellington,  acted  with  great  valour  at  the  battle  of 
Busaco  in  1810,  for  which  service  he  was  created  a 
Knighfc  of  the  Bath.  In  1811  he  commanded  at  the 
battle  of  Albuera,  and  for  this  victory  received  the  thanks 
of  Parliament.  He  was  present  at  Badajoz,  Salamanca, 
and  at  the  various  battles  of  the  Pyrenees,  and  subse- 
quently distinguished  himself  at  Toulouse.  In  August, 
1814,  he  was  created  a  baron,  and  in  1823  Viscount 
Beresford.  In  the  Wellington  administration,  from  1828 
to  1830,  he  was  Master  General  of  the  Ordnance.  He 
bore  several  foreign  titles,  and  was  a  knight  of  various 



foreign  orders.     He  died  8th   January,   1854,  when  the 
title  became  extinct. 

The  reverse  of  the  medal  refers  to  an  incident  in  the 
battle  of  Albuera,  which  nearly  lost  the  day  to  the  allies. 
The  Polish  Lancers,  taking  advantage  of  a  thick  mist, 
attacked  the  right  flank  of  the  allies  in  the  rear,  when  in 
the  act  of  charging  the  enemy,  and  threw  it  into  utter 
confusion,  taking  many  prisoners.  The  day  now  seemed 
lost,  but  by  a  rapid  advance  on  the  part  of  General  Stewart 
and  General  Cole  the  enemy  were  driven  back  and  the 
victory  secured.  In  the  onset  the  Polish  Lancers  did 
dreadful  execution.  They  galloped  about  in  all  directions, 
spearing  many  of  the  wounded  men  and  their  defenceless 
supporters.  The  destruction  of  life  is  represented  by  the 
prostrate  figure. 


1.  Obv. — Bust  of  Bergami  facing,  bare,  head  to  right.     Leg. 

Rev. — Bust  of  Queen  Caroline  to  left,  laureate,  her  hair 
bound  with  pearls ;  she  wears  low  dress  edged 
with  lace  and  ermine  mantle ;  around  her  neck, 
string  of  pearls,  to  which  is  attached  a  medallion 
of  George  IV.  Below  x  (C.  H.  Kiichler).  Leg. 

1-6.    MB.  M.     PL  IV.  6. 

Count  Bartolemo  Bergami,  with  whom  Queen  Caroline, 
wife  of  George  IV.,  was  accused  of  having  committed 
adultery,  entered  her  service  as  courier  in  1814,  during 
her  visit  to  Italy  in  that  year.  Bergami  is  said  to  have 
been  of  an  old  family,  and  to  have  served  in  the  Italian 
campaigns  of  1812—1814.  He  soon  rose  in  favour  with 


the  Queen,  who  advanced  him.  to  the  rank  of  an  equerry, 
and  then  to  that  of  chamberlain.  She  also  procured  for 
him  a  barony  in  Sicily,  the  knighthood  of  Malta,  and 
decorated  him  with  several  orders  of  knighthood.  Ber- 
gami's  constant  attendance  on  the  Queen,  added  to  the 
number  of  favours  which  he  received  at  her  hands,  caused 
the  circulation  in  Italy  of  many  reports  much  to  the 
Queen's  disadvantage,  and  formed  the  grounds  for  a  bill 
of  divorce,  brought  by  George  IY.  in  1820,  which  was, 
however,  abandoned  at  the  third  reading.  Bergami 
remained  in  the  Queen's  service  till  1820,  when  he 
returned  to  Italy,  and  died  at  his  villa  of  Fossombrone, 
near  the  town  of  San  Marino,  23rd  March,  1841,  his  death 
being  caused  by  a  fall  from  his  horse. 


2.  Qbv. — Bust  of  Bergami  facing,  bare,  &c.,  as  on  previous 

Rev, — Within  wreath  of  laurel,  united  below  by  orna- 
mented shield,  COURIER  TO  HER  MA- 
JESTY. 1820. 

1-6.  MB.  ST. 


1.  Qbv. — Bust  of  Betty  to  right,  wearing  open  shirt  with  frill, 
coat,  and  cloak ;  below,  i.  WESTWOOD  •  p. 

Eev.— Oak- wreath,  within  which  BRITISH  TRAGEDIAN 

1-95.  MB.  ST. 

William  Henry  West  Betty,  actor,  better  known  as  the 
young  Roscius,  was  born   13th  September,   1791,  at  St. 


Chad's,  Shrewsbury.  At  an  early  age  having  shown  signs 
of  possessing  a  very  retentive  memory,  he  was  encouraged 
by  his  father  to  practise  declamation.  In  1801  he  was  so 
taken  with  Mrs.  Siddons's  acting  as  Elvira  at  Belfast  that 
he  determined  to  become  an  actor.  Two  years  later,  in 
1803,  then  only  twelve  years  old,  he  appeared  at  Belfast 
in  the  character  of  Osman  in  the  tragedy  of  Zara,  a  version 
of  Voltaire's  Zaire.  His  first  appearance  was  a  complete 
success,  and  he  continued  to  take  various  parts  in  various 
plays,  acting  in  Dublin,  Cork,  Waterford,  Glasgow,  and 
Edinburgh.  In  1804  Betty  came  to  London  and  played 
at  the  Covent  Garden  and  Drury  Lane  theatres  as  Selim 
in  Barbarossa,  Hamlet,  and  other  characters.  His  repu- 
tation as  a  youthful  actor  attracted  the  whole  of  London, 
and  on  one  occasion  Mr.  Pitt  adjourned  the  House  of 
Commons  in  order  that  members  should  be  in  time  to 
witness  his  representation  of  Hamlet.  His  last  appearance 
as  a  boy-actor  was  in  March,  1808,  at  Bath.  After  that 
time  he  retired  into  private  life  and  studied  under  Mr. 
Wollaston,  one  of  the  masters  of  Charterhouse,  and 
afterwards  proceeded  to  Christ's  College,  Cambridge. 
On  his  father's  death  in  1811  Betty  again  took  to  the 
stage  and  acted  till  his  thirty-third  year,  his  farewell 
benefit  taking  place  at  Southampton  in  August,  1824. 
He  lived  for  fifty  years  in  the  enjoyment  of  the  large 
fortune  amassed  in  his  early  days,  and  died  24th  August, 
1874,  at  his  residence  in  Ampthill  Square,  London.  This 
and  the  following  medals  all  refer  to  Betty's  first  appear- 
ance in  London. 

2.  Obv.— Bust  of  Betty  to  right,  similar  to. the  preceding; 
below,  i.  WESTWOOD.  Leg.  WILLIAM  HENRY 

ENGLISH    PERSONAL    MEDALS    FROM    1760.  69 

Eev.—  Within  oak-wreath,  BRITISH  TRAGEDIAN 
AGED  13  YEARS  A  .  D  1804. 

1-75.  MB.  ST. 

3.  Qi)Vt — Bust  of  Betty  to  right,  bare,    except   for   mantle 

thrown  over  his  shoulders  :  hair  very  curly  :  on 
truncation,  WESTWOOD  .  F.  Ley.  WILLM  HENRY 
WEST  BETTY  BORN  13™  SEPTE  1791. 

Rev.— Above  and  within  oak-wreath,  BRITISH  TRAGE- 

1-75.  MB.  M.  ST. 

4.  QiVt — Bust  of  Betty  to  right,  &c.,  similar  to  the  preceding, 

but  on  truncation,  KETTEK. 

UeVm — Above,  and  within  oak-wreath,  BRITISH  TRA- 

•95.  MB.  M. 

This  is  a  medalet  copied  from  the  preceding  one,  and 
probably  made  for  sale  in  the  streets. 

5.  Obv.  Bust  of  Betty  to  right,  wearing  open  shirt  with  frill 

and   coat.      Leg.    THE     YOUNG     ROSCIUS. 

T.    WEBB.    F. 

Rev. — Theatrical  emblems,  lyre,  cup,  sword,  scroll,  &c., 
encircled  by  wreath :  above,  on  scroll,  BORN 
SEPTR  13™  1791.  Leg.  NOT  YET  MATURE 

1-65.  MB.  M.  ST.     PL  IV.  7. 

6.  Obv. — Bust  of  Betty  to  right,  wearing  shirt  with  frill  and 

cloak  fastened  with  brooch  in  front :  below,  w.  F. 
(T.  Webb  fecit).  Leg.  THE  YOUNG  ROSCIUS. 

Rev. — Theatrical  emblems,  lyre,  "cup,  sword,  &c.,  as  on  the 
previous  medal. 

1-65.  MB.  M. 




Obv. Arms  of  Nottingham,  gu.  two  staves,  ragulee  couped, 

one  in  pale,  surmounted  by  the  other  in  fess, 
vert ;  between  two  ducal  coronets  in  chief,  or ; 
the  bottom  part  of  the  staff  in  pale,  enfiled  with 
a  ducal  coronet  of  the  last ;  above,  BIRCH  ; 

J^t;.— Within  oak-wreath,  FOX.     Leg.   DEFENDER    OF 

1-45.  MB.  M. 

In  July,  1802,  consequent  on  a  dissolution  of  Parlia- 
ment, an  election  was  held  at  Nottingham,  and  Sir 
J.  B.  Warren  and  Mr.  Joseph  Birch,  of  the  Hazles,  near 
Liverpool,  were  returned ;  Mr.  Daniel  P.  Coke,  one  of  the 
former  sitting  members,  being  defeated.  On  account  of 
certain  irregular  proceedings  connected  with  the  election, 
a  petition  was  presented  against  the  return  of  Mr.  Birch, 
and  the  election  was  declared  invalid.  A  second  election 
was  in  consequence  held  in  May,  1803,  and  on  that  occa- 
sion Mr.  Birch  was  defeated  and  Mr.  Coke  was  successful. 
In  the  meantime  the  two  political  parties  at  Nottingham 
(the  yellows  and  the  blues)  had  been  carrying  on  a  sharp 
struggle  in  connection  with  a  bill  before  Parliament  for 
extending  the  jurisdiction  of  the  justices  of  the  peace  for 
the  county  of  Nottingham  into  the  town  of  Nottingham. 
The  proposal  arose  out  of  the  very  serious  riots  which 
had  taken  place  during  the  election  of  1802.  The  bill 
was  strongly  opposed  by  Mr.  Birch  and  his  friends,  the 
yellows,  as  an  infringement  of  the  charter  and  the  civil 
rights  of  the  Corporation.  When  the  bill  was  discussed 
in  the  House  of  Commons  on  the  29th  April,  the  Right 
Hon.  C.  J.  Fox  most  vehemently  opposed  it  in  an  able 


speech  in  which  he  defended  the  conduct  of  the  local 
magistrates,  and  met  the  inuendoes  thrown  out  against 
them,  and  also  characterized  the  bill  as  a  bill  of  pains  and 
penalties  upon  the  magistrates,  and  a  disfranchisement  of 
the  people  of  Nottingham.  In  spite  of  Fox's  eloquence 
the  bill  passed,  and  was  read  a  third  time  on  the  3rd  May, 


Obv. — Bust  of  Birch  to  right,  wearing  frock-coat,  shirt 
with  frill,  and  hair  en  queue.  On  truncation,  w 
(T.  Webb).  Leg.  THE  RT.  HON.  THE  LORD 

Rev. — Wheatsheaf,  from  which  proceed  rays.  Leg.  A 

1-55.  MB.  ST.     PI.  IV.  8. 

Samuel  Birch,  dramatist  and  pastrycook,  born  8th 
November,  1757,  at  an  early  age  was  apprenticed  to  his 
father,  who  carried  on  the  business  of  a  pastrycook  at 
15,  Cornhill,  was  elected  Alderman  for  the  Candle  wick 
Ward  in  1807,  one  of  the  Sheriffs  for  London  in  1811, 
and  Lord  Mayor  in  1814.  In  politics  he  was  a  strenuous 
supporter  of  Pitt's  administration,  though  he  vigorously 
opposed  the  repeal  of  the  Test  and  Corporation  Acts. 
During  his  year  of  office  as  Lord  Mayor  he  opposed  the  Corn 
Bill  of  1815  ;  and  at  a  meeting  of  the  livery  of  the  City  of 
London,  23rd  February,  he  made  a  bold  attack  upon  the 
intended  prohibition  of  the  free  importation  of  foreign 
corn.  The  course  which  he  took  on  this  occasion  is  com- 
memorated by  the  above  medal.  In  1836  Birch  retired 


from  business,  and  died  10th  December,  1841.  He  was  a 
man  of  considerable  literary  attainments,  and  wrote  a 
number  of  poems  and  musical  dramas,  some  of  which 
were  produced  at  the  Drury  Lane,  Covent  Garden,  and 
Haymarket  Theatres. 

MARSHAL  BLUCHER,  1742—1819. 

PEACE  OF  PAEIS,  1814. 

1.  Obv. — Bust  of  Bliicher  to  left  in  military  dress,  and  wear- 
ing various  decorations  :  ribbon  across  his  breast. 
Inner  Leg.  G.  L.  VON  BLUCHER  .  PRINCE 
DE  WAGSTADT.  Outer  Leg.  THE  HERO 
NATURE  .;. 

Rev. — A  lion  and  a  lamb  lying  side  by  side  ;  between  them 
a  cornucopia ;  in  the  background,  church ;  in 
the  foreground,  wheatsheaf  and  book  inscribed, 
PEACE  1814  :  above,  rays  of  light,  from  which 
descends  a  bird  with  laurel  branch.  Leg.  WE 

1-G5.     MB.  JE.  ST. 

Gebhard  Leberecht  von  Bliicher,  Prince  of  Wahlstadt, 
Field  Marshal  of  Prussia,  born  at  Rostock,  in  Mecklen- 
burg-Schwerin,  16th  December,  1742  ;  served  during  the 
Seven  Years'  War  in  a  regiment  of  Swedish  hussars,  but 
being  taken  prisoner  by  the  Prussians,  he  soon  afterwards 
exchanged  into  the  Prussian  army.  He  served  through- 
out the  French  campaign,  first  as  a  colonel,  and  after- 
wards as  commander-in-chief  of  the  Prussian  army,  and 
was  present  at  the  battles  of  Auerstadt,  Lutzen,  Bautzen, 
Haynau,  and  Leipzig.  On  the  1st  Jan.,  1814,  he  crossed 
the  Ehine  and  determined  to  press  forward  for  Paris, 

ENGLISH    PERSONAL    MEDALS    FROM    1760.  73 

and  in  spite  of  a  severe  check  which  he  received  from 
Napoleon,  which  compelled  him  to  retire  for  a  time  to 
Chalons,  he  defeated  the  latter  at  Laon,  and  entered  the 
French  capital  with  the  allied  armies  on  the  31st  March. 
This  campaign  was  closed  by  the  Peace  of  Paris  ;  and  for 
his  distinguished  services  Bliicher  was  created  Prince  of 
Wahlstadt.  After  Napoleon's  return  from  Elba  in  1815, 
Bliicher  again  resumed  the  chief  command  of  the  Prussian 
army,  but  was  defeated  by  Napoleon  at  Ligny.  He, 
however,  soon  recovered  his  ground,  and  arrived  on  the 
field  of  Waterloo  in  time  to  complete  the  defeat  of  the 
French  army,  which  he  pursued  to  Paris,  and  entered 
that  city  with  the  Allies  for  the  second  time  on  the 
7th  July.  This  campaign  terminated  Bliicher's  brilliant 
military  career,  and  he  died  12th  September,  1819.  The 
medals  of  Bliicher  described  were  all  struck  in  England, 
and  therefore  form  a  part  of  the  National  series  ;  those 
struck  in  Germany  are  not  given. 

The  above  medal  refers  to  the  state  of  affairs  brought 
about  by  the  Peace  of  Paris,  which,  however,  was  destined 
to  be  of  short  duration.  It  is  the  work  of  John  West- 
wood,  who  made  similar  medals  of  George  (IV.)>  Prince 
of  Wales,  Wellington,  Frederick  William  III.  of  Prussia, 
Alexander,  Emperor  of  Russia,  &c. 

PEACE  OF  PARIS,  1814. 

2.  Qbv. — Busts  jugate  to  right  of  the  Emperor  of  Russia, 
the  King  of  Prussia,  the  Duke  of  Wellington,  and 
Marshal  Blucher :  above,  a  scroll.  NON  NOBIS 



ReVt — Britannia  seated  on  rock  in  sea,  rests  her  right 
hand  on  shield  bearing  the  royal  arms  of  England, 
and  her  left  on  rudder:  at  her  feet,  a  child 
holding  book,  inscribed  XIX  within  serpent  and 
PEACE  TO  EURO  MAY  30  1814 :  below,  on 
rock,  K  &  s  (Kettle  &  Sons).  Leg.  NULLA 

1-9.  MB.  ST. 

The  Emperor  Alexander  of  Russia  and  Frederick  Wil- 
liam III.  of  Prussia  were  present  with  the  allied  armies 
when  they  entered  Paris  on  the  31st  March,  1814.  Wel- 
lington did  not  arrive  till  some  weeks  afterwards,  as  the 
defeat  of  Marshal  Soult  at  Toulouse  occurred  on  the 
10th  April,  or  nearly  a  fortnight  after  the  fall  of  Paris. 

PEACE  OP  PARIS,  1814. 

3.  Obv. — Busts  jugate  to  right  of  the  Emperor  of  Russia, 
the  King  of  Prussia,  Wellington,  and  Bliicher. 

Rev.— Within   oak-wreath,    PEACE    OF    1814;    above, 

rays  ;  around,  BE  THANKFUL  REJOICE. 
•95.     MB.  ST. 

The  obverse  of  this  medal  is  copied  from  the  preceding; 
it  is  a  cheap  memorial  of  the  Peace  of  Paris.  There  is  a 
variety  (MB.  ST.)  without  the  rays  above  the  wreath  on 
the  reverse. 

PEACE  OF  PARIS,  1814. 

4.  0&i<.-Bust  of  Bliicher  to  left  in  military  dress,  wearing 
ribbon  across   his   breast  and  cross      Lea    F 
MAR  .  G  .  L  .  VON   BLUCHER. 


Eev.—  Inscription,  THE  LIBERTIES  OF  EUROPE 
MAY  30  1814. 

•95.  MB.  Brass. 
A  medalet  of  the  same  character  as  the  preceding  one. 

FOR  ELBA,  ETC.,  1814. 

5.  Obv. — Bliicher  in  military  dress  and  holding  his  marshal's 
staff  in  his  right  hand,  on  horseback,  to  left,  and 
trampling  on  Davoust,  who  lies  extended  on  his 
back,  his  broken  staff  at  his  side.  In  the  distance, 
before  the  horse,  is  a  view  of  the  Hanseatic  towns, 
with  people  praying,  and  behind,  Napoleon  taking 
his  departure  for  the  Island  of  Elba  :  above,  on 
scroll,  BLUCHER  .  THE  FALL  OF  HAM- 
EMPEROR.  Around  edge,  STRUCK  BY  J. 
FRIEND  BLUCHER.  In  the  exergue,  HALLIDAY, 


Rev. — Within  oval  medallion  ornamented  with  scrolls  and 
palm  and   laurel  branches,  bust  of  Wellington 
facing,  in  military  dress  and  wearing  ribbon  and 
star  of  the  Garter  :  above,  angel  and  crown,  from 
which  proceed  rays  :  below,  on  mantle — 

T.  H.  F.  (Thomas  Halliday  fecit.) 

2-9.  MB.  M.  M. 

After  the  battle  of  Leipzig  all  the  French  garrisons  in 
the  Prussian  towns  were  compelled  to  surrender ;  and 
amongst  these  were  the  Hanseatic  Cities,  over  which 
Napoleon  had  placed  Marshal  Davoust,  one  of  his  most 
able  generals.  Davoust  is  said  to  have  treated  the  inhabi- 


tants  of  these  cities,  especially  those  of  Hamburg,  where 
he  resided,  with  great  harshness.  Napoleon  abdicated  on 
the  4th  April,  1814,  and  was  allowed  to  retain  the  title 
of  emperor  with  the  sovereignty  of  the  island  of  Elba,  to 
which  he  retired  on  board  a  British  vessel.  Hence  on 
the  medal  he  is  called  "  Elba's  Emperor." 


G.  Oit'.— Head  of  Bliicher  to  left :  below,  M.  (John  Milton.) 

Rev.— Inscription,  THE  GLORY  OF  PRUSSIA  AND 

1-3.  MB.  JE. 

Bliicher,  by  his  military  tactics,  had  made  himself  a 
terror  to  the  French,  especially  during  the  campaigns  of 
1813  and  1814.  The  chief  feature  of  his  generalship 
was  to  attack  the  enemy  impetuously,  then  to  retreat 
when  the  resistance  offered  was  too  great  for  his  troops  to 
overcome.  The  mode  of  his  attacks  gained  for  him  the 
nickname  of  "  Marshal  Forward  "  from  the  Russians;  but 
by  Napoleon,  who  knew  the  effect  of  them  only  too 
well,  he  was  called  ule  vieux  diable." 

BATTLE  OF  WATEELOO,  18  JUNE,  1815. 

7.  Obv. — Bust  of  Bliicher  to  left,  bare  :  on  shoulder,  HALLI- 
OF  WAGSTADT  (sic). 

Rev. — Bust  of  Wellington  to  left,  in  military  dress,  wear- 
ing ribbon  across  his  breast,  and  various  orders. 
Inner  leg.  DUKE  OF  WELLINGTON.  Outer 
WATERLOO  .  JUNE  18  .  1815  :•:  . 

2-1.  MB.  JE. 

ENGLISH    PERSONAL    MEDALS    FROM     1760.  77 

A  very  great  share  of  the  credit  of  the  victory  is  due  to 
Bliicher.  Though  driven  back  by  Napoleon  two  days 
previously  he  was  not  discouraged  ;  and  his  timely  arrival 
at  Waterloo  perhaps  did  more  to  complete  the  victory 
than  if  he  had  been  present  at  the  commencement  of  the 

BATTLE  OF  WATERLOO,  18  JUNE,  1815. 

8.  Obv. — Within  laurel  wreath  heads  of  Bliicher  arid  Wel- 

lington facing  each  other :  above,  BLUCHER 
WELLINGTON  :  below,  outside  wreath,  LOOS. 



ALLIANCE  D.  18  JUNI  1815. 

1-45.  MB.  Al. 

The  four  days'  fighting  refers  to  the  repulse  of  Bliicher 
by  Napoleon  at  Ligny  on  the  16th  June,  and  the  fruit- 
less attack  by  Marshal  Ney  on  the  Belgians  and  Welling- 
ton on  the  same  day  at  Quatre  Bras,  and  to  skirmishing 
which  preceded  and  followed  the  engagement  at  Waterloo 
on  the  17th  June.  The  battle  of  Waterloo  is  called  by 
the  Germans,  "  The  battle  of  La  Belle  Alliance." 


9.  Obv. — Heads  of  Bliicher  and  Wellington,  with  wreath  as 

in  previous  medal. 

Rev.— Inscription,  DER  ENTSCHEIDENDEN  HEL- 


D.  7  JULIUS  1815. 

1-45.  MB.  M. 


It  is  said  that  when  the  Allies  occupied  Paris  for  the 
second  time,  Bliicher  manifested  a  strong  desire  to 
retaliate  on  that  city  the  spoliation  that  other  capitals 
had  suffered  at  the  hands  of  the  French,  but  that  he  was 
held  in  check  by  the  Duke  of  Wellington. 


10.  Obe. — Bliicher  and  Wellington  holding  right  hands  over 
lighted  altar  :  above,  Victory  crowning  each  with 
laurel-wreath.  Leg.  AUFS  NEUE  SIEGSTEN 
exergue,  BLU  :  U  :  WELLIN  JETTON. 

Rev.— The  Allies  entering  Paris.  Leg.  ZWEITER 
PARIS.  In  the  exergue,  DEN  10.  JULY.  1815. 

1-8.  MB.  JR. 

This  is  a  well-executed  German  medalet,  after  the 
style  of  Dutch  jetons  of  the  seventeenth  century.  The 
allied  sovereigns  who  entered  Paris  on  the  10th  were  the 
King  of  Prussia,  the  Emperor  of  Russia,  and  the  Emperor 
of  Austria. 

LIEUT.-COLONEL    JOHN    BoLTON,    1756—1837. 


Obv.—  Ornamented  shield  with  arms  of  Bolton  :  below,  on 

Rev.— Below  crown,  LIEUT  COLONEL  BOLTON  TO 
SERVICES  AUGUST  25  1806. 

1-6.  MB.  M. 

In    1803   the  inhabitants  of   Liverpool  showed   their 
loyalty  and  their  promptitude  to  aid  the  Government  in 

ENGLISH    PERSONAL    MEDALS    FROM    1760.  79 

the  defence  of  the  ports  of  England,  by  forming  them- 
selves into  military  associations  for  the  protection  of  their 
own  city.  Amongst  those  who  took  an  active  part  in 
the  movement  was  John  Bolton,  who  offered  to  raise  and 
equip  at  his  own  expense  a  regiment  of  volunteers,  to 
consist  of  six  hundred  men.  This  offer  was  accepted  by 
the  War  Office,  and  the  regiment  was  embodied  and 
equipped  in  a  very  short  period.  Bolton  was  appointed 
colonel,  and  the  regiment  was  commanded  by  thirty-seven 
commissioned  and  non-commissioned  officers.  It  was 
estimated  at  the  time  that  the  cost  of  raising  this  troop 
was  over  £10,000.  The  regiment  was  reviewed  by  Prince 
William  of  Gloucester  when  he  visited  Liverpool  in  the 
same  year.  On  the  25th  August,  1806,  in  consequence 
of  a  new  code  of  regulations  for  volunteer  corps,  the  regi- 
ment was  disbanded ;  and  on  the  occasion  Colonel  Bolton 
presented  one  of  the  above  medals  in  silver  to  each  of  the 
non-commissioned  officers,  of  whom  three  survived  Bolton, 
and  were  present,  wearing  their  medals,  at  his  funeral  in 

There  is  a  second  specimen  in  the  British  Museum  of 
the  same  type,  but  entirely  engraved. 


Obv. — Within  wreath  formed  of  roses,  shamrocks,  and 
thistles,  bust  of  Bolton  to  left :  on  neck,  T.  H.  F. 
(Thomas  Halliday  fecit) :  above,  J.  BOLTON, 
ESQ.:  WATERLOO  ESTATE  .  On  band  of 
wreath,  1835. 

Rev.— Within  laurel-wreath,  A  REWARD  FOR  GOOD 

2-1.     MB.  M.     PI.  IV.  9. 


I  have  been  unable,  after  a  long  search,  to  find  any 
particulars  about  the  Waterloo  Estate ;  but  I  am  disposed 
to  identify  the  J.  Bolton  on  this  medal  with  the  Colonel 
Bolton  who  issued  the  previous  one.  Bolton  was  a  most 
liberal  supporter  of  all  scientific,  industrial,  and  charitable 
institutions  connected  with  Liverpool  and  its  vicinity. 

GOVERNOR  OP  CEPHALONIA,  1810 — 1813. 

1  QlVm — Head  of  De  Bosset  to  right:  behind,  monogram  of 
K  P  (KAPOAOZ  PIAIPPOZ):  before, 
monogram  of  A  B  (AE  BOZZET).  Below, 
monogram  of  A  B  (Antoine  Bovy). 

Rev. — Within  wreath  of  laurel  and  oak,  KAPOAfl  <f>l- 
KE<I>AAHNnN  A.ftlT  (The  Council  of 
Cephalonia  dedicates  this  medal  to  Charles  Philip 
De  Bosset,  the  most  able  military  and  civil 
Governor  of  this  island,  in  the  year  1813.) 

1-05.  MB.  E.    PI.  IV.  10. 

Charles  Philip  de  Bosset,  a  native  of  Switzerland, 
entered  the  service  of  the  British  army  in  August,  1796, 
and  was  actively  employed  in  his  own  country  until  Sep- 
tember, 1798,  in  which  month  he  was  advanced  to  the 
rank  of  lieutenant.  In  1799  he  was  engaged  on  special 
service  on  the  Continent  with  the  Swiss,  Austrian,  and 
.Russian  armies,  and  was  present  at  various  actions  ter- 
minating in  the  battle  of  Zurich  in  the  same  year.  He 
was  taken  on  board  the  Dolphin  packet  by  a  French 
privateer  in  June,  1800,  after  an  action  of  two  hours. 
He  was  promoted  to  a  captaincy  in  October,  1803  ;  and  in 
1805  served  in  the  expedition  to  Hanover,  and  afterwards 
in  Zealand,  being  present  at  the  siege  and  surrender  of 

ENGLISH    PERSONAL    MEDALS    FROM    1760.  81 

Copenhagen  in  1807.  He  joined  the  expedition  to 
Sweden  under  Sir  John  Moore ;  and  from  there  went  to 
Portugal  in  1808,  where  he  received  the  rank  of  major. 
In  1810  he  was  engaged  at  the  siege  of  St.  Maura,  in  the 
Ionian  Islands,  and  at  the  storming  of  the  enemy's 
entreDchments  before  that  place.  When  Colonel  Lowe 
was  appointed  civil  and  military  chief  of  Cephalonia, 
Santa  Maura,  Ithaca,  and  Zante,  he  nominated  De  Bosset 
his  deputy  in  Cephalonia.  De  Bosset  was  a  man  of  great 
abilities  and  firmness,  and  was  animated  by  a  love  of  the 
strictest  justice.  Colonel  Lowe  invested  him  with  full 
powers,  and  punishments  were  often  inflicted  without 
trial  on  such  officers  as  were  guilty  of  bribery,  corruption, 
or  other  crimes.  With  such  freedom  of  action  De  Bosset 
endeavoured  to  maintain  justice  and  good  order,  and  he 
laboured  hard  to  re-establish  better  government  in  Cepha- 
lonia, where  he  remained  till  1813.  The  high  opinion  in 
which  his  actions  were  held  is  well  attested  by  the  above 
medal,  which  was  struck  in  his  honour  by  the  local 
council  of  Cephalonia.  He  does  not  appear  after  this 
date  to  have  been  in  active  service  again.  In  June,  1814, 
he  was  promoted  to  a  lieutenant- colonelcy,  and  in  1815 
was  created  a  Military  Companion  of  the  Bath,  and  in 
1831  a  Knight  of  Hanover.  In  1837  he  was  made  a  full 
colonel.  He  appears  to  have  died  in  1844,  as  his  name 
is  not  to  be  found  in  the  Army  List  after  that  date.  De 
Bosset  was  the  author  of  a  treatise  on  the  coins  of  Cepha- 
lonia and  Ithaca,  Proceedings  in  Perga  and  the  Ionian 
Islands,  &c. 

I  have  attributed  this  medal  to  Antoine  Bovy,  a  Swiss 
artist,  on  account  of  the  initials  under  the  bust ;  and  this 
attribution  is  probably  correct,  as  De  Bosset  was  of  the 
same  nationality. 



GOVERNOR  OF  CEPHALONIA,  1810 — 1813. 

2  Obv — Within  wreath  of  laurel  and  oak,  inscription,  A 

ReVt — Within   wreath   of    palm    and    olive,    inscription, 

KAPOAH  <i>iAinnn  AE  BOSZET,  &c., 

as  on  previous  medal. 
1-25.  MB.  M. 

BERIAH  BOITIBLD,  1807—1863. 

1.  Obv.— Head  of  Botfield  to  right :   on  neck,  L.  c.  WYON. 

Below,  1854. 

Rev.—  Inscription,  PRAESTANTIAE  IN  LINGUIS 
below,  two  branches  of  laurel. 

1-8.  MB.  M.    PJ.  IV.  11. 

Beriah  Botfield,  born  at  Earl's  Ditton,  in  Shropshire, 
5th  March,  1807,  was  educated  at  Harrow  and  Christ 
Church,  Oxford.  In  early  life  he  studied  botany  and 
geology,  but  afterwards  abandoned  these  pursuits  for 
that  of  bibliography.  He  sat  in  Parliament  for  Ludlow 
from  1840  to  1847,  and  again  from  1857  to  his  death, 
7th  August,  1863.  The  above  medal  was  established  in 
1854  as  a  prize  for  the  encouragement  of  the  study  of 
modern  languages  at  Harrow  School. 


2.  Obv. — Head  of  Botfield  to  right,  &c.,  as  on  previous  medal. 

Bev.— Within  beaded  circle,  BERIAH  BOTFIELD  M :  P: 

1-8.     MB.  M. 


The  reverse  of  this  medal  was  made  in  1857,  when 
Botfield  was  again  elected  M.P.  for  Ludlow.  This  medal 
was  issued  for  presentation  to  his  friends.  Botfield  was  a 
member  of  a  large  number  of  literary  and  scientific 
societies,  for  which  he  edited  many  works ;  his  attention 
to  literature  obtaining  for  him  distinguished  honours. 
He  was  President  of  the  British  Archaeological  Associa- 
tion in  1860. 

MATTHEW  BOULTON,  1728—1809. 


1.  Obv. — Bust  of  Boulton  to  right,  wearing  frock-coat  and 
shirt  with  frill ;  hair  en  queue.  Leg.  MATT  . 
BOULTON  ESQE.  F.R.S.L.&ED.  F.R.I.  &  A.S. 

Ilev. — Inscription,  arranged  in  concentric  circles,  M: 
UNE  MACH  :  A  VAPEUR  PR  :  FRAP  : 
MONN  :  1798  .  IL  ER  :  UNE  BIEN  SUPE- 
CES  CERC  :  &  CHIF  :  MARQ  :  LE  DIAM  :  & 
NO  :  DE  PIECES  FRAP  :  P  :  MIN  :  P  :  8 
PL  :  GR  :  VOLUME.  OU  DE  8  DIFF  : 
L'EFF  :  AU  DEG  :  NECESS.  In  centre,  head 
of  Science  facing,  rayed.  Opposite  each  circle 
of  inscription  is  a  number,  showing  how  many 
pieces  of  that  size  could  be  struck  per  minute  by 
Bolton's  new  machine. 

1-6.  MB.  M. 

Matthew  Boulton,  engineer,  born  at  Birmingham, 
3rd  September,  1728,  was  apprenticed  in  early  life  to  his 
father's  business  of  a  silver  stamper  and  piercer.  At  his 
father's  death  in  1757,  with  a  view  to  extending  his 
business,  he  founded  the  famous  Soho  works,  which  soon 


obtained  a  great  reputation  for  the  high  character  of  work 
executed   there.      Boulton   not   only  exerted   himself  to 
.improve  the  workmanship  but  also  the  artistic  merits  of 
his  wares,  and  with  that  aim  procured  the  finest  examples 
of  art  work,  not  only  in  metal,  but  also  in  pottery  and 
other  materials.     The  growth  of  his  factory,  and  the  con- 
sequent increased  need  for  motive  power,  induced  Boulton 
to  direct  his  attention  to  the  steam  engine ;  but  it  was  not 
until  he  obtained  the  help  of  Watt  that  he  was  able  to 
bring  this  invention  to  any  perfection.     Provided  with 
his   new   machine,    Boulton   occupied   himself  with   the 
reform  of  the  copper  coinage,  and  in  1788  set  up  several 
coining  presses  at  Soho  to  be  worked  by  steam.     After 
striking  large  quantities  of  coins  for  the  East  India  Com- 
pany and  for  foreign  governments,  he  undertook,  in  1797, 
the  production  of  a  new  copper  coinage  for  Great  Britain, 
than  which  no  better  coinage  of  that  class  has  ever  been 
issued.     In  the  preparation  of  his  dies  Boulton  employed 
the  most  skilful  artists,  both  English  and  foreign.     In 
the  scientific  world  Boulton  held  a  prominent  place,  and 
he  was  a  Fellow  of  the  Royal  Societies  of  London  and 
Edinburgh.     His  house  at  Soho  was  a  meeting-place  for 
all  scientific  men.     He  died  there,  August  17th,  1809. 
The  above  medal  was  struck  as  a  record  of  the  rapidity 
of  his  coining  machines. 

His  DEATH,  1809. 

2.  Obv.— Bust  of  Boulton  to  right,  wearing  frock-coat,  shirt 
with  ^  frill;  hair  en  queue:  on  truncation, 
P.  WYON  :  below,  MODELED  BY  KOUW  PUB- 
BOULTON  ESQR.  F.B.S.  LN.  &  ED  F.K  I 
&  A.S. 

ENGLISH    PERSONAL    MEDALS    FROM    1760.  85 

Rev.— Inscription  across  the  field,  THE  LIBERAL  & 

4.  MB.  M. 

The  obverse  is  in  very  high  relief,  and  is  interesting 
as  showing  the  perfection  of  the  machinery  for  striking 
medals  invented  by  Boulton  and  Watt. 

His  DEATH,  1809. 

8.  Obv. — Bust  of  Boulton  to  right,  wearing  frock-coat  and 
shirt  with  frill,  hair  en  queue:  below  a  plain 
scroll.  Leg.  MATTHEW  BOULTON,  ESQ. 
F.R.S.  &c. 

Rev.— Within  wreath  of  palm,  FAREWEL.  Leg. 

1-9  M.B.  M.  ST.  (Obverse.)    PI.  IV.  12. 

This  medal  is  the  work  of  C.  H.  Kiichler,  a  native  of 
Flanders,  who  was  employed  by  Boulton  at  the  Soho 
Mint.  There  is  in  the  British  Museum  an  unfinished 
plaque,  with  the  bust  slightly  altered  from  the  obverse  of 
the  above  piece,  and  with  the  scroll  inscribed,  DIED  AT 
SOHO.  M  :  7.  180 —  AGED  .  00ys.  OM  :  OD  : 

His  DEATH,  1809. 

4.  Obv. — Bust  of  Boulton  to  right,  similar  to  the  preceding ; 
below,  two  genii,  one  holds  lighted  torch,  the 
other  places  laurel  branch  on  model  of  the  mint 

Kev.— Inscription,  BY  THE  SKILFUL  EXERTION  OF 
A    MIND    TURNED     TO     PHILOSOPHY    & 


THE  17 TH  AUGUST  1809  AGED  81.  ES- 

1-75.  MB.  M. 

This  medal  is  probably  by  Rouw.  The  inscription  is 
taken  from  the  mural  monument  erected  to  Boulton's 
memory  in  the  side  aisle  of  Hands  worth  Church,  in  the 
composition  of  which  his  partner,  James  Watt,  assisted. 

His  DEATH  AND  BURIAL,  1809. 

5.  Obv.—  Inscription,   MATTHEW  BOULTON    DIED  AU- 

GUST 17TH  1809  AGED  81  YEARS.     Above 
and  below,  plain  line. 

Rev.— Within  wreath  of  palm,  IN    MEMORY  OF  HIS 

1-6.  MB.  M. 

This  medal  is  probably  the  work  of  C.  H.  Kiichler. 

MEMORIAL,  1809. 

6.  Obv.  —  Bust  of  Boulton  to  right,  wearing  frock-coat,  shirt 

with   frill ;    hair    en    queue;    below,  PIDGEON  F. 

ENGLISH    PERSONAL    MEDALS    FROM    1760.  87 

Rev.— Within     laurel-wreath,    INVENTAS    AVT     QVI 

2-5.  MB.  m. 

MEMORIAL,  1809. 

7.  Obv. — Bust  of  Boulton  to  right,  wearing  frock-coat,  shirt 

with  frill ;  hair  en  queue. 

1-9.  MB.  ST. 

This  is  a  proof  for  the  obverse  of  a  medal  by  C.  II. 
Kiichler.  It  is  struck  on  the  flan  of  the  medal  com- 
memorating the  battle  of  Trafalgar,  which  had  been  issued 
by  Boulton  in  1805  for  presentation  to  those  who  took 
part  in  that  engagement. 

MEMORIAL,  1809. 

8.  Obv. — Bust  of  Boulton  to  right,  &c.,  similar  to  the  pre- 

ceding;   below,    GALLE    F.       Leg.  MATTHEW 
No  reverse. 

2-3.  MB.  ST. 

This  medal  is  by  Andre  Galle,  a  French  artist.  No 
reverse  appears  ever  to  have  been  executed  for  it. 



Obv. — Head  of  the  Earl  of  Bridgewater  to  right ;  on  neck, 


Jfetf.- Inscription,     FRANCIS     HENRY     EGERTON, 

1-6.  MB.  m.     PL  IV.  13. 

The  subject  of  this  medal  was  the  son  of  John  Egerton, 
Bishop  of  Durham,  and  grand-nephew  of  the  first  Duke 


of  Bridge  water.  He  was  born  in  1758,  and  succeeded  his 
brother  as  eighth  earl  in  1823.  He  had  been  educated  for 
holy  orders,  and  was  appointed  Prebendary  of  Durham.  He 
died  unmarried  in  February,  1829,  when  the  title  became 
extinct.  By  his  will  he  left  £8,000  invested  in  the  public 
funds  to  be  paid  to  the  author  of  the  best  treatise  "  On 
the  Power,  Wisdom,  and  Goodness  of  God  as  Manifested 
in  the  Creation."  The  then  President  of  the  Royal  Society 
of  London,  Davies  Gilbert,  to  whom  the  selection  of  the 
authors  was  left,  with  the  advice  of  others,  decided  that 
instead  of  being  given  to  one  man  for  one  work  the  money 
should  be  allotted  to  eight  different  persons  for  eight 
separate  treatises,  though  all  connected  with  the  same 
primary  theme.  These  contributions  are  known  as  the 
"  Bridgewater  Treatises."  The  Earl  of  Bridgewater  also 
left  upwards  of  £12,000  to  the  British  Museum,  the 
interest  to  be  employed  in  the  purchase  and  care  of  the 
MSS.  for  public  use. 

The  above  medal  is  one  of  the  Durand  series  of  cele- 
brated men  of  all  countries  issued  between  1820  and  1846. 


JOHN  BRIGHT  and  others. 

Obv. — Within  four  ornamented  compartments  the  bust  of 
M.P.,  C.  WILSON  ESQ.  M.P.,  and  HON.  C. 
PELHAM  VILLIERS  M.P.  In  centre  a  scroll 
inscribed  CORN  BILL  PASSED  JUNE  25 
1846 ;  above,  caduceus  and  rudder ;  below, 
branches  of  laurel  and  oak,  on  which  scales  and 
fasces  inscribed  LEAGUE.  Leg.  ANTI-CORN 

ENGLISH    PERSONAL    MEDALS    FROM    1760.  89 

Rev. — Britannia  standing  facing,  holding  palm-branch  and 
resting  her  left  hand  on  rudder,  which  is  placed 
on  a  globe  ;  at  her  side  her  shield.  She  is  sur- 
rounded by  various  emblems  of  arts  and  com- 
merce ;  in  the  distance,  sea  with  ships ;  below, 
A  &  M  .  BIRMM  (Allen  &  Moore,  Birmingham). 
Leg.  FREE  TEADE.  In  the  exergue,  184G. 

1-75.  MB.  M. 

This  medal  refers  to  the  formation  of  the  Anti-Corn 
Law  League  on  the  20th  March,  1839,  the  result  of 
the  unsuccessful  efforts  of  Yilliers  and  others  to  obtain  an 
inquiry  into  the  general  effect  of  tbe  Corn  Laws.  The 
object  of  the  league  was  accomplished  by  the  repeal  of 
the  Corn  Laws  in  1846. 

DANIEL  DE  LISLE  BROCK,  1762 — 1842. 

Obv. — Bust  nearly  facing  of  Brock  in  frock-coat.  Leg. 

SEY. BORN  DEC.  10.  1762.  HALLIDAY,  F.  E  .  LE  . 

Rev.—  Within  laurel  wreath,  WHOSE  DEVOTION  TO 
STOW. 1835  ;  above,  shield  and  crest  of 

2.  MB.  M, 

Daniel  De  Lisle  Brock,  third  son  of  John  Brock  of 
Guernsey,  born  10th  Dec.,  1762,  was  elected,  in  1798, 
a  jurat  of  the  Royal  Court  of  Guernsey,  and  on  four 
separate  occasions,  between  1804  and  1810,  was  de- 



puted  by  the  States  of  Guernsey  to  represent  them 
in  London  in  respect  of  certain  measures  affecting  the 
trade  and  ancient  privileges  of  the  island.  In  1821  he 
was  appointed  bailiff,  or  chief  magistrate,  of  the  island, 
and  at  that  time,  and  again  in  1832,  was  despatched  to 
London  to  protect  the  interests  of  Guernsey.  Three  years 
later,  in  1835,  he  was  once  more  despatched  to  London,  at 
the  head  of  a  deputation,  to  protest  against  a  Bill  to 
deprive  the  Channel  Islands  of  their  right  of  exporting 
corn  into  England  free  of  duty,  and  chiefly  through  his 
remonstrances  the  Bill  was  withdrawn.  On  this  occasion 
Brock  was  presented  with  a  service  of  plate,  his  portrait 
was  placed  in  the  Royal  Court-house  of  Guernsey,  and  the 
above  medal  was  struck.  He  died  in  Guernsey  24th  Sept., 
1842,  and  received  a  public  funeral. 

SIR  ISAAC  BROCK,  1769—1812. 
MEMORIAL,  1816. 

Obv. — Funeral  urn  on  base,  crowned  by  two  genii ;  base 
inscribed  FELL  OCT  13  1812.  Leg.  SR  ISAAC 

Rev.—  Between   two   stars,    1816.      Leg.  SUCCESS  TO 

1-05.  MB.  M. 

Sir  Isaac  Brock,  eighth  son  of  John  Brock  of  Guernsey, 
and  brother  of  Daniel  De  Lisle  Brock  (see  preceding 
medal),  born  6th  Oct.,  1769,  entered  the  army  in  1785, 
and  purchased  a  lieutenancy  in  the  8th  (King's)  in  1790, 
and  in  the  next  year  exchanged  into  the  49th  foot,  with 
which  he  proceeded  to  Jamaica  and  Barbadoes.  Having 
returned  to  England,  he  joined  General  Moore  in  his 
expedition  to  North  Holland  in  1799,  and  was  present  at 


the  battles  of  Egmont-op-Zee  and  Copenhagen,  and  in  the 
operations  in  the  Baltic  in  1801.  In  1802  he  returned  to 
Canada,  and  in  1810  held  the  command  of  the  troops  of 
TJpper  Canada,  which  he  defended  against  the  attacks  of 
the  Americans  under  General  Hull  in  1812.  With  a  much 
inferior  force  he  compelled  General  Hull  to  retire  to 
Detroit,  and  afterwards  to  surrender  with  all  his  forces 
(16th  Aug.,  1812).  For  the  judgment  and  skill  dis- 
played at  this  juncture,  Brock  was  made  an  extra 
Knight  of  the  Bath  10th  Oct.,  1812,  but  a  few  days 
afterwards,  13th  Oct.,  he  was  killed  in  an  engagement  at 
the  village  of  Queenstown  against  the  forces  of  Major- 
General  Van  Rennselaer.  He  was  buried  in  one  of  the 
bastions  of  Fort  St.  George,  but  his  remains  were  after- 
wards, in  1824,  carried  to  a  vault  in  Queenstown  heights. 
A  monument  was  also  erected  to  him  in  the  south  tran- 
sept of  St.  Paul's. 

SIR  BENJAMIN  BRODIE,  1783—1862. 
^  HONORARY  MEDAL,  1844. 

Obv. — Head  of  Brodie  to  left :  behind,  BRODIE  ;  below, 

W.    WYON  .  R.A. 

Rev. — Science,  naked  to  waist,  kneeling  to  left  on  left  knee 
and  lighting  lamp,  which  is"  placed  on  an  orna- 
mental stand  ;  her  left  hand  rests  on  small  jug. 
Leg.  E  .  TENEBRIS  .  TANTIS  .  TAM  . 
POTUISTI.  In  the  exergue,  CONSOCII  .  ET . 

W.    WYON  .  R.A. 

2-85.  MB.  M.    PI.  IV.  14. 

Sir  Benjamin  Collins  Brodie,  the  eminent  surgeon,  born 
in  1783,  came  to  London  at  the  age  of  eighteen,  ana 
devoted  himself  to  the  study  of  anatomy.  He  entered 


St.  George's  Hospital  in  1803,  of  which  he  was  elected 
assistant  surgeon  in  1808,  and  surgeon  from  1822  to 
1840.  For  papers  contributed  he  was  elected  a  Fellow 
of  the  Royal  Society  in  1810,  and  having  operated  suc- 
cessfully on  George  IV.  was  made  sergeant-surgeon  by 
William  IV.  He  was  President  of  the  Royal  College  of 
Surgeons  in  1844,  and  of  the  Royal  Society  in  1858.  He 
died  at  Broorne  Park  21st  Oct.,  1862.  The  above  medal 
was  presented  to  Sir  Benjamin  Brodie  in  1844,  upon  his 
resignation  of  the  office  of  surgeon  to  St.  George's  Hospital 
after  thirty  years  of  office  in  that  institution. 


TRY Grenadier  Company.  ^resenUi)  Jbp  LIEUT 

lie*.—  Inscription,  JOSEPH  PICKETT,  one  of  the  Eight 
best  shots  in   the  REGIMENT  ivhen  firing  with 
Ball  on  the  18th  of  Jany.  1832. 
1-55.  MB.  JR. 

On  account  of  the  agricultural  riots  which  had  taken 
place  in  Wiltshire  during  the  months  of  November  and 
December,  1830,  arrangements  were  made  in  January, 
1831,  for  the  formation  at  Salisbury  of  a  body  of  local 
volunteers  for  the  protection  of  the  city  and  the  sur- 
rounding districts.  The  corps  was  speedily  completed 
and  consisted  of  four  companies,  which  were  to  be  placed 
under  the  command  of  two  field  officers,  a  colonel,  and  a 
major.  William  Brodie,  an  active  inhabitant  of  Salisbury, 
who  had  taken  charge  of  the  special  constables  who  were 
sworn  in  to  protect  the  city  during  the  recent  riots,  was 


chosen  colonel.  When  Parliament  was  dissolved  in  Dec., 
1832,  Brodie  was  returned  as  the  representative  of  the 
city  at  the  head  of  the  poll.  The  above  medal  was  pre- 
sented to  the  corps  by  Col.  Brodie.  There  is  a  second 
specimen  in  the  National  Collection  which  is  entirely 


Obv.—  Inscription,  around,  CHARLES  BROOKER  ESQv: 
CANDIDATE  FOR  BRIGHTON-:'-  ;  in  field, 

Rev.— Inscription,  ADVOCATED  ADOPTION  OF  THE 

1-35.  MB.  JE. 

Qharles  Brooker,  of  Alfriston,  in  Sussex,  was  one  of  the 
candidates  for  the  borough  of  Brighton  at  the  general 
election  of  1841.  He  stood  as  the  Chartist  candidate,  and 
held  very  advanced  views,  being  in  favour  of  vote  by 
ballot,  universal  suffrage,  payment  of  members  of  Par- 
liament, separation  of  Church  and  State,  and  the  repeal 
of  the  New  Poor  Laws.  At  the  nomination  the  show  of 
hands  was  against  him,  but  he  proceeded  to  the  poll  on 
the  30th  June,  and  only  obtained  the  support  of  19  voters, 
by  whom  this  medal  was  ordered  to  be  struck. 

LORD  BROUGHAM,  1778 — 1868. 

1.  Oil'.— Head  of  Brougham  to  right,  bare.  Leg.  HENRY 
LID  AY  F. 


7^._ Inscription,  OF  COMMERCE,  THE  ENLIGHT- 

1-9.    MB.  M. 

Henry  Peter,  Baron  Brougham  and  Vaux,  born  at 
Edinburgh,  September  19,  1778,  was  educated  at  the 
High  School  and  University  of  that  city.  In  1805  he  came 
to  London,  and  having  been  called  to  the  English  bar  in 
1808,  he  soon  signalised  his  powers  as  an  orator.  Elected 
M.P.  for  Camelford  in  1810,  he  sat  for  that  borough  till 
1813,  and  afterwards  for  Winchelsea,  1815—1830,  and 
York  County,  1830 ;  was  appointed  Attorney-General  to 
Queen  Caroline  in  1820,  and  Lord  Chancellor,  1830— 
1834 ;  after  which  date  he  held  no  further  office,  but  took 
an  active  part  in  all  social  and  political  matters  till  his 
death  in  1868.  His  miscellaneous  writings  are  of  great 
extent  and  upon  an  almost  incredible  number  of  subjects. 
This  and  the  following  medal  refer  to  Brougham's  oppo- 
sition to  the  Orders  in  Council  of  November,  1807,  pro- 
hibiting trade  with  France  and  the  countries  dependent 
upon  her,  and  insisting  on  American  vessels  coming  first 
to  our  ports  and  paying  a  tax.  These  Orders  were  con- 
sidered very  detrimental  to  the  commercial  interests  of 
the  country,  and  those  relating  to  America  were  re- 
pealed on  June  23,  1812. 

2.  Obv. — Head  of  Brougham,  &c.,  as  on  the  preceding. 

Rev.— Inscription,  A  MEMORIAL  OF  GRATITUDE 
HAM. AUGT.  1  1812. 

1-9.     M.B.  ST. 



FIND  OP  STYCAS. — About  the  year  1867  a  small  find  of  eight 
stycas  took  place,  and  they  have  recently  come  into  my 

They  proved,  after  careful  cleaning,  to  be  all  in  fine  condition 
(three  were  of  bronze  and  five  of  silver),  and  I  am  therefore 
enabled  to  supply  their  exact  descriptions,  as  follow : — 

1.  Obv.— +  EANBALD  =  + 

Bev.—+  EDILVEARD  =  +  M. 

2.  Obv.— +  VIGMVND  IIREP  =  :H 
Rev.—+  COENRED  =  +  JR. 

3.  Obv.— +  VIGMVND  AREP  (retrograde)  =  X 
Rev.—+  EDILVEARD  =  +  M. 

4.  Qbv.—+  EANRED  REX  =  + 
Rev.—+  HRRED  •  =  +  2R. 

5.  Obv.— +  EANRED  REX  =  + 
Rev.-+  HVA  •  ETRED  =  +  -31. 

6.  Obv.—+  EANRED  REX  =  0 
Eev.—+  VILHEAN  =  0  JR. 

7.  Obv.— +  EDILRED  REX  =  + 
Rev,—+  BROGE  -.-  R  -  +  M. 

8.  Obv.—+  EDILRED  •  RE  (retrograde)  =  + 
Rev.—+  VENDELGERH  =  +  M. 

Although  these  coins  do  not  present  any  new  type,  it  is 
worthy  of  notice  that  we  have  for  the  first  time  met  with  an 
unmistakable  silver  styca  of  Vigmund. 


The  significance  of  so  many  stycas  being  struck  in  silver  is 
not  easy  to  be  satisfactorily  accounted  for,  unless  they  formed  part 
of  a  silver  currency,  but  I  will  not  venture  so  bold  an  assertion. 

I  have  in  my  cabinet  over  twenty  silver  stycas  (about  one- 
fifth  of  the  total  number)  of  Eanbald,  Vigmund,  Eardulf  (?), 
and  Eanred ;  and  I  have  seen  specimens  of  Vulfhen  and 
Ethelred  II. 

No  silver  stycas  of  Redulf  or  Osberht  have  hitherto  come 
under  my  notice. 


previous  occasions  noted  rare  or  unknown  pieces  of  the  Com- 
monwealth, and  to  these  I  can  now  add  two  sixpences  of  that 
period,  both  of  which  are  in  my  own  collection,  and  are  dated 
respectively  1657  and  1659.  Mr.  Hawkins  states  that  the 
former  of  these  existed  in  the  Hunter  Museum,  and  Mr.  Kenyon, 
in  a  later  edition,  mentions  that  one  with  the  figure  7  struck 
over  6  was  also  in  the  possession  of  Mr.  Wakeford.  My  speci- 
men, purchased  at  the  sale  of  the  late  Major  Stewart-Thorburn, 
is  probably  the  same  piece  as  the  latter.  The  sixpence  of  1659 
is  given  with  some  expression  of  doubt  by  Mr.  Hawkins,  on  the 
authority  of  a  manuscript  note  by  Mr.  Tutet. 


THE  NORTH  BORNEO  COINAGE. — Mr.  Acting  Consul-General 
Treacher,  writing  from  Brunei,  says  that  during  1884  the 
copper  coinage  of  British  North  Borneo  was  proclaimed  legal 
tender  in  Brunei,  taking  the  place,  to  a  large  extent,  of  the 
Chinese  cash,  which  used  to  be  imported  by  one  of  the  Chinese 
traders.  The  new  coinage  is  of  the  same  intrinsic  value  as  that 
of  the  Straits  Settlements,  and  is  taken  freely  hi  the  colony  of 
Labuan,  where,  however,  it  has  not  been  made  a  legal  tender. 


/am.  Ghm.Ser.MK!Mm 


Num.  Mrm.SerlEW.MPUf. 


•it*  -  -0>-v 


Num.  arm.SerIirMMI.PLtf 

(i  of  the  actual 



1.  TCoue,  formee  par  un  triscele  tournant  a  droite  dans  un 

cercle  autour  d'un  globule  central. 

Rev. — Carre  creux  rude  divise  en  qtiatre  triangles  par  des 

JK  5/4.  8  gr.  11.  Mus.  de  Berlin,1  Fox  ;  Imhoof,  Monatsb. 
d.  Berl.  Akad.,  1881,  p.  671  ;  Annuaire  d.  I  Soc.  Fr. 
de  num.,  1882,  p.  103.— PI.  V,  1. 

2.  Autre,  le  triscele  tourne  a  gauche. 

JR  3.  2,00.  Cab.  de  France,  Mion.  II  p.  112,  n.  3,  Suppl. 
VII,  PI.  V,  2  ;  Cousinery,  Voyage  en  Maced.  II,  p.  125, 
PI.  IV,  3 ;  Beule,  Monn.  d'Athenes,  p.  19,  Eev.  Num. 
1856,  PI.  XI,  6.  Trouve  a  Athenes. 

3.  Meme  type.     Les  genoux  du  triscefe,  tournant  a  gauche, 

attaches  au  cercle.     Dans  le  champ  4>. 

Eev. — Carre  creux  divise  par  des  barres  en  sept  triangles, 
comme  a  Egine. 

M  3i/3.  7,21.  Ma  coll.    Trouve  en  Attique.— PI.  V,  2. 

Un  autre  exemplaire,   trouve  en   Arcadie,  doit   avoir 
passe,  m'a-t-on  dit,  dans  la  collection  de  Hirsch,  a  Paris. 

1  Je  dois  une  empreinte  de  ce  didrachme,  comme  de  1'obole, 
n.  7,  a  1'obligeance  de  M.  de  Sallet,  Directeur  du  Musee. 



4.  Meme  triscele,  mais  tournant  a  droite ;  le  cercle  ne  parait 

pas.     Dans  le  champ  (J) . 

Rev.— Carve  creux  divise  par  de  larges  barres  «n  sept 

M  3£.  7,167.  Coll.  du  Dr.  H.  Weber,  a  Londres,     Head, 

Hist.  Num.  p.  579  (Phaselis).— PL  V,  3. 

5.  Tortue  de  mer,  comme  sur  les  stateres  d'Egine. 

Eev. — Meme  triscele,  mais  d'assez  mauvais  style,  tournant 

a  droite  autour  d'un  gros  globule,  entoure  de  feuilles  ? 

Carre  creux. 
JR  5/4.  12,15.    Brit.  Mus.    Head,  I.  c.  p.  332  (Egine) ; 

Cat.  Br.  Mus.  Attica,  p.   136,  143,  PL  XXIV,  8.— 

PL  V,  4. 

Le  didrachme,  n.  1,  et  son  triobole,  n.  2,  appartiennent 
a  un  groupe  bien  connu  de  monnaies  archa'iques,  recon- 
naissables  a  leur  poids  eubo'ique  et  leur  carr£  creux  rude 
divise  en  quatre  triangles  et  dont  le  classement  est  toujours 
un  sujet  de  controverse  entre  les  numismatistes  les  plus 
compe  tents. 

Les  uns,  comme  M.  Head,2  les  distribuent  entre  les  villes 
d'Eube*e,  d'autres,  comme  Beule,3  les  croient  frappees  en 
Attique,  ou  on  les  deterre  le  plus  souvent.4 

Les  trouvailles,  faites  aux  environs  d'  Ere  trie  et  a  Eleusis, 
decrites  par  M.  Koehler,5  demontrent  qu'elles  circulaient, 
en  Eubee  comme  en  Attique,  entremelees  aux  monnaies 
d'Eretrie  anterieures  a  490  et  d'Athenes.  Aussi  M. 
Koehler  se  range-t-il  a  Topinion  de  M.  Imhoof,6  et  incline- 

2  Cat.  Br.  Mus.   Centr.  Greece,  p.  XLVI—LVI,  p.    106— 
137,  PL  XX,  XXII,  XXIV ;  Hist.  Num.  p.  301—309. 

3  Mann.  d'Ath.  p.  15  suiv. ;  Rev.  Num.  1856,  p.  347  suiv. 

4  D'apres  Prokesch,  Ined.  1859,  p.  7,  elles  se  trouveraient 
aussi  en  Macedoine. 

5  Mittheil.  d.  D.  Arch.  Inst.  aus  Athen.   1884,  IX  p.  354 — 

•  "  H  se  peut  que  plusieurs  de  ces  monnaies  aient  ete  frap- 


t-il  £  y  voir  les  Emissions  de  villes  diverses,  dont  les  mon- 
naies  circulaient  ensemble  parcequ'elles  e*  talent  du  meme 
poids,  ainsi  que  les  stateres  eginetiques  de  plusieurs  iles 
et  villes  ont  ete  recueillis  entremeles  dans  les  depots  de 
Melos  et  de  Thera.7  J'ajoute  qu'il  y  a  des  monnaies  au 
meme  carre  creux,  divise  en  quatre  triangles  et  du  meme 
poids  euboique,  qui  ne  sont  ni  d'Athenes,  ni  d'Eubee,  mais 
de  Potidee,8  et  de  Gyrenes.9 

Aussi  Mionnet  a-t-il  cru  pouvoir  separer  le  triobole, 
n.  2,  du  reste  de  la  trouvaille  qu'il  decrit  T.  II,  p.  112, 
n.  2 — 18,  en  le  classant  a  Selge  de  Pisidie,10  tandis  que 
M.  Head  s'est  demande  s'il  ne  serait  pas  Lycien.  n 

En  effet,  une  piece  qui  ne  s'est  rencontree  qu'une  seule 
fois,  en  un  seul  exemplaire,  dans  les  nombreux  depots 
attiques  et  eubeens,  ne  peut  guere  etre  consideree  comme 
attique  ou  comme  euboique. 

La  provenance  du  didrachme  n.  1  est  inconnue. 

II  ne  m'a  done  pas  semble  temeraire  de  placer  ces  deux 
pieces  en  tete  de  ma  liste,  me  fondant  sur  Pidentite  de 
type  avec  celui  des  monnaies  suivantes,  emises,  sans  doute, 
par  une  ville  dont  le  nom  commen9ait  par  0,  et  qui 
n'e'tait,  par  consequent,  situee  ni  en  Eubee,  ni  en  Attique. 

II  est  vrai  que  le  poids  n'est  pas  1©  meme,  mais  comme 
il  va  en  decroissant,  le  didrachme  euboique  de  8  gr,  11 

pees  aAthenes  ;  mais  laplupart  proviennent  sans  doute  de  1'Eu- 
bee  et  d'autres  contrees  alliees  ou  tributaires  des  Atheniens." 
Annuaire  d.  1.  Soc.  Fr.  de  num.  1882,  p.  90,  ou  M.  Imhoof 
donne  la  liste  la  plus  complete  de  ce  groupe  de  monnaies. 

7  Wroth,  Num.  Chron.  1884,  p.  269—280. 

8  Cat.  Br.  Mus.  Maced.  p.  99  n.  1  ;  Head,  Guide,  PI.  IV,  9. 

9  Miiller,  Num.  de  Vane.  Afr.  I,  p.  10  n.  7 ;  Sitppl.  p.  1  n. 

10  Mion.  Suppl.  VII,  p.  740. 

11  Hist.  Num.  p.  309. 


se  sera  peut-etre  affdibli  a  fur  et  a  mesure  jusqu'a  ce  qu'il 
ne  correspondit  plus  qu'a  la  moitie  du  statere  egine"tique 
de  12  gr.  15. 

Les  stateres  d'Egine  paraissent  avoir  circule  en  telle 
masse  en  Peloponnese  qu'il  leur  en  est  venu  le  nom  de 
rnonnaie  peloponnesienne.12  C'est  done  dans  cette  contree 
qu'aura  ete  situee  la  ville,  qui  copie  le  carre  creux  et  la 
tortue  d'Egine  sur  les  n.  3  et  5,  et  qui  adopte  le  poids 

En  cherchant  une  ville,  dont  le  nom  commencerait 
par  un  0,  entre  Tile  d'Egine,  1'Attique,  d'ou  proviennent 
les  n.  2  et  3,  et  1'Arcadie,  ou  un  exemplaire  du  n.  3  (ou 
peut-etre  du  n.  4)  doit  avoir  ete  trouve,  je  me  suis  arrete 
a  Phlius,  &  laquelle  le  type  du  triscele  convient  tout 

En  effet,  comme  la  Phliasie  consiste,  pour  la  plus  grande 
partie,  en  une  vallee  de  forme  triangulaire,  entouree  de 
tous  cote's  par  des  montagnes,13  il  serait  difficile  de  s'ima- 
giner  un  symbole  plus  appropri£  a  cette  vallee  triangu- 
laire, telle  qu'elle  est  figuree  sur  les  cartes,  que  le  triscele 
des  monnaies  en  question.14 

De  plus  ce  triscele  forme  une  roue  avec  le  cercle  auquel 
il  est  attach^  et  une  roue  est  le  type  bien  connu  des  mon- 
naies poste*rieure8  de  Phlius  qui  sont  aussi  de  poids 

Puis,  la  legende  ne  consiste  souvent,  sur  les  monnaies 

12  Hesychius,   ^eXuiv^,  i/o/u<r/ia  IleXoTrovv^o-taKov.      Pollux  IX, 
74,  TO   rUAoTrovnjo-iW  vo/Aicr/Aa  xcXuvrjv  rwes  $&ovv  tcaXtiv  OLTTO 


13  Bursian,  Geogr.  Griechenl.  II,  p.  82. 

14  On  sait  que,  depuis  Agathocle,  le  triscele  symbolise,  sur 
les  monnaies,  la  forme  triangulaire  de  la  Sicile. 

19  Cat.  Br.  Mus.  Pdoponn.  p.  88,  n.  1,  2,  6,  7,  PI.  VI  n.  19, 
20,  23. 


de  date  plus  re*cente,  comme  sur  les  n.  3  et  4,  qu'en  un 
seul  0,  qui  sert  meme  de  type  au  revers.16 

Enfin,  on  montrait  a  Phlius,  situee  au  pied  du  mont 
nomme  Tricaranos  a  cause  de  ses  trois  cimes,17  un  omphalos 
qui  etait  cense  marquer  le  point  central  du  Peloponnese,18 
et  cet  omphalos  semble  indique  par  le  globule  central 
tres  apparent  du  triscele,  comme  M.  Head  1'a  retrouve  au 
centre  de  la  roue  des  monnaies  posterieures.19 

Tout  concourt  done,  il  me  semble,  pour  rendre  1'attri- 
bution  de  cette  petite  serie  a  la  Phliasie,  non  pas  certaine, 
mais  au  moins  tres  probable. 

Si  elle  etait  admise,  il  s'en  suivrait  que  le  Peloponnese 
n'est  pas  aussi  pauvre  en  monnaies  archaiques,  anterieures 
aux  guerres  mediques,  qu'on  ne  Fadmet  generalement,20 
et  que,  puisqu'il  y  en  a  de  Corinthe  et  de  Phlius,  d'Heree 
et  de  Mantinee,  il  est  permis  de  croire  qu'on  en  trouvera 
d'autres  villes  encore. 

M.  Koehler 21  remarque,  avec  raison,  que  les  monnaies, 
sur  lesquelles  le  type  est  entoure  d'uri  cercle,  forment  un 
groupe  separe ;  ce  groupe  doit  son  existence,  a  mon  avis, 
au  desir  de  copier  aussi  servilement  que  possible  les  mon- 
naies d  la  roue  qui  sont  beaucoup  plus  abondantes  que  les 
autres  et  qui  d'apres  leur  style  varie  doivent  avoir  ete 
emises  pendant  un  assez  grand  nombre  d'annees  consecu- 
tives,  peut-etre  a  Chalcis,  ou  bien  a  Athenes,22  ou  meme 

16  Cat.  Br.  Mus.  I.  c.  n.  2,  8,  8—26,  PI.  VI,  21,  22,  24,  VII 
1—3,  5,  G. 

17  Bursian,  L  c. 

18  Ibid.  p.  34  ;  Pausan.  II,  13,  7. 

19  Head,  Hist.  Num.  p.  344. 

20  Ibid.  p.  343. 

21  Mitth.  aus  Athen.  1884,  IX  p.  361. 

22  Si   les   didrachnies,    drachmes,    etc.    a   la   roue    sont    de 
Chalcis,  ce  dont  je   doute  encore,  parceque  les  monnaies  cerr 


a  Me"gare.23  Si  done  le  triscele,  faisant  roue  dans  un  cercle, 
estde  Phlius,  les  autres  types  entoures  du  cercle,  1'astragale, 
Famphore,  la  chouette,  le  cheval  et  la  partie  anterieure  et 
posterieure  du  meme  animal 24  seraient  les  types  de  villes 
assez  voisines  de  la  Phliasie  et  de  1'Attique  pour  motiver 
un  monnayage  aussi  uniforme. 

Je  laisse  volontiers  a  d'autres  le  soin  de  combattre  ou 
de  poursuivre  plus  loin  cette  hypothese ;  il  me  suffit 
d'avoir  appele*  1'atten tion  des  numismatistes  sur  cette 
question  qui  ne  me  semble  pas  denuee  d'interet. 


6.  Hermes   nu  et  imberbe,  1'oeil   de  face,  volant   &   droite, 

tenant   de  la  main  gauche   le  caducee   et  coiffe  du 
petase.     Style  archaique. 

ReVt — Carre  creux  divise  par  trois  barres,  qui  se  croisent, 
en  six  triangles.  Dans  le  chanip,  des  traits  et  un  glo- 
bule, qui  ne  sont  qu'une  premiere  esquisse  que  le 
graveur  corrigea,  mais  oublia  de  faire  disparaitre. 

^  4/3.  3,93.  Brit.  Mus.— PL  V,  n.  5. 
„  3£.  3,90.  Ma  coll. 

Ces  deux  exernplaires  sont  du  meme  coin.  Ce  sont  les 
trites  d'un  statere  eginetique  de  11  gr.  79. 

7.  Meme  Hermes,  dans  la  meme  attitude,  1'oeil  de  face,  mais 

les  cheveux  releves  en  chignon,  le  caducee  dans  la 

taines  de  la  ville  semblent  prouver  que  le  statere  s'y  divisait 
comme  a  Corinthe  en  trois  drachmes,  Athenes,  en  adoptant  le 
poids  euboique,  aurait  choisi  le  type  de  la  tete  de  Gorgone  pour 
obtenir  un  type  de  forme  ronde  aussi  semblable  que  possible 
a  une  roue. 

23  Sur  quelques  monnaies  de  Megare  cinq  ou  trois  croissants 
font  la  roue  en  tournant  autour  d'un  point  central,  dans  un 
cercle.     Head,  Hist.  Num.  p.  329. 

24  Un  cheval  est  le  type  de  Cleitor  et  semble  avoir  aussi  ete 
usite  a  Cleones,  Imhoof,  Monn.  Grecq.  p.  187  n.  42. 


main  droite  et  lea  pieds  chausses  de  bottines  munies 
de   deux   ailes.     Dans   le    champ,   a  gauche,  MAO 
).     Tres  beau  style  archaique. 

Rev.  —  Croix  gammee  dans  un  carre  creux. 
M  2/1J.  1,01.  Mus.  de  Berlin.—  PI.  V,  n.  6. 

C'est  1'obole  d'un  statere  e"ginetique  de  12  gr.  12.  Au 
Musee  de  Berlin  elle  est  classee  a  Thaliadae  d'Arcadie, 
nominee  par  Pausanias  parmi  les  localites  situees  dans  le 
territoire  de  Cleitor,  sur  le  Ladon,  entre  les  sources  de  ce 
fleuve  et  la  frontiere  du  territoire  de  Thelpouse.25 

Cette  attribution  est,  en  effet,  tres  plausible.  II  n'y  a 
pas  d'autre  ville  grecque  connue,  dont  le  nom  commence 
en  Thali.  Puis,  la  croix  gammee  indique  une  relation 
avec  Corinthe,  dont  ce  symbole  est  un  des  types  les  plus 
anciens.  On  le  voit,  en  creux,  sur  le  revers  de  toute  une 
serie  de  pieces  arcnaiques,  depuis  le  statere  jusqu'aux  plus 
petites  divisions,26  et,  en  relief,  sur  des  oboles  un  peu  plus 
recentes  ;  27  on  le  rencontre  parmi  les  types  Corinthiens 
dont  Timoleon  orna  les  revers  de  la  serie  qu'il  emit  a  Syra- 
cuse ;  28  enfin  sur  des  monnaies  archa'iques  de  Corcyre, 

25  Pausanias  VIII,  25,  2  :  TO>  de  AaStoi/t  ap^erai  /*,«/  TO  vStop 
ev    Trrjycus    r^s  KXetrop/as — pet   $€.    Trpwrov    /xcv  Trapa   Aevicao-iov 
^wptov   /cat   Me(ro^8oa  Kat   Sta  rwv  Nacr&)v  ITTL  TC  "Opvya  re  Kat 
'AAowra  evofia^o/xci/ov,  e£  'AXovvros  8e  CTTI  ©aXtadas  re  KO.I   CTTI 
A^/x^rpos  tcpov  Karftfftv  'EAevcrtvias.     To  8(  fepoi/  TOVTO  evn  /xev 
®€A.7rovcrtcov   cv  opois. — Bursian,    Geogr.   Griechenl.  II  p.   263, 
n.  2.     D'autres  nomment  la  ville  Thaliades. 

26  Head,  Hist.  Num.  p.  335,  seconde  serie,  585—500. 

27  Ibid.  p.  337,   cinquieme  serie,  400 — 388.     Je  crois  ces 
oboles  plus  anciennes. 

28  Ibid.  p.  157  ;  Imhoof,  Monn.  Grecq.  p.  31,  n.  62,  PI.  B,  18. 
Les  monnaies  de  Syracuse,  qui  portent  un  type  corinthien  sur 
les  deux  faces,  ne  sont  pas  de  Timoleon,  mais  de  Dion,  a  mon 


colonie  de  Corinthe.29  II  n'est  done  pas  surprenarit  de  le 
voir  adopt^  dans  une  petite  ville  d'Arcadie,  assez  voisine 
de  Corinthe  pour  s'inspirer  des  types  de  la  cite  la  plus 
commercante  du  Peloponnese. 

La  date  de  cette  jolie  obole  parait  etre  indique'e  par  la 
coiffure  d' Hermes.  Au  commencement  du  5e  siecle  lea 
homines  la  portaient  encore,  mais  elle  passa  de  mode  chez 
eux  bientot  apres  les  guerres  mediques.  L'attitude 
d'Hermes  differe  si  peu  de  la  pose  du  meme  dieu  sur  la 
trite,  n.  6,  qu'on  serait  tente  d'assigner  celle-ci  au  meme 
atelier.  Mais,  comme  Thaliadae  semble  avoir  ete  trop  peu 
importante  pour  que  1'on  puisse  croire  qu'elle  ait  emis  des 
pieces  de  poids  superieur,  il  me  semble  qu'il  vaut  mieux 
songer  a  Pheneus,  ville  bien  plus  considerable,  situee  non 
loin  de  Thaliadae,  et  dont  on  n'a  pas  retrouve  jusqu'ici 
des  monnaies  anterieures  aux  guerres  mediques,  mais  qui 
nous  a  laisse  une  serie  de  monnaies  plus  recentes,  re- 
marquables  par  leurs  types  et  leur  execution  artistique.30 

Hermes  portant  le  caducee  est  le  type  principal  des 
Pheneates,31  qui  avaierit  pour  lui  une  veneration  toute 
speciale  ;  Qetov  ce  ri/uLwaiv  'EpjU/yi/  3>evearai  paXiara,  dit 
Pausanias  (VIII.  14,  10),  et  Pheneus  etait  situee  assez 
pres  de  Thaliadae  pour  comprendre  comment  le  type 
favori  des  Pheneates  ait  pu  etre  adopte  par  la  ville  arca- 

Le  carre  creux  assez  particulier  du  n.  6  me  semble  con- 

29  Ibid.  p.  276 ;  Cat.  Br.  Mm.   Thessaly,  p.  120  n.  94 98, 

PI.  XXI,   22,  et  n.  99;  Postolacca,  Monn.  des  lies,  n.  569, 

30  Head,  Hist.  Num.  p.  878  ;    Cat.  Br.  Mus.  Peloponn.  p. 
193,  194,  PI.  XXXVI,  1—9. 

11  La  pose  d 'Hermes  est  fort  analogue,  eu  egard  a  la  differ- 
ence d'epoque  et  de  style,  a  celle  du  meme  dieu  sur  les  stateres 
du  4e  siecle. 


firmer  1'attribution  proposed.  D'un  cote*  il  presente  une 
grande  analogie  avec  celui  du  n.  4  des  monnaies  que  je  viens 
de  classer  a  Phlius,  de  1'autre  avec  celui  des  drachmes  de 
Cleitor,32  qui,  bien  que  plus  recentes,  ont  conserve  ail 
revers  le  creux  divise  en  triangles  par  des  barres. — PL  V.  7. 

Enfin  le  flan  est  mince  et  plat  comme  ceux  des  plus 
anciennes  series  de  Corinthe.33 

Done,  Pheneus,  situe"e  entre  Cleitor  et  Phlius  et  rioii 
loin  de  Corinthe,  remplit  exactement  les  conditions 
requises  pour  y  placer  une  monnaie  du  type  et  de  la 
fabrique  qui  caracterisent  la  trite  n.  6. 

Reste  a  expliquer  pourquoi  Phe'ne'us  aurait  pre'fe're 
e*mettre  des  trites  du  statere  eginetique  plutot  que  des 

C'est  que  ces  trites  correspondent  environ  a  une  drachme 
euboi'que  faible.  Vers  la  fin  du  6e  siecle,  le  poids  euboi'que 
etait  encore  en  usage  a  Phlius,  comme  j'ai  tach^  de  le 
demon trer,  et  il  resta  toujours  le  poids  de  la  monnaie 
corinthienne.  Corinthe  elle-meme,  ou  le  statere  se 
divisait  en  trois  drachmes,  fit  souvent  battre  des  hemi- 
stateres, au  type  de  Belle rophon  combattant  la  chimere, 
qui  ne  rentrent  pas  dans  le  cadre  de  ses  Emissions  regu- 
lieres,  uniquement,  a  ce  qu'il  parait,  pour  avoir  des 
drachmes  eubo'iques,  dont  le  besoin  se  faisait  sentir  dans 
le  commerce. 

32  Cat.  Br.  Mvs.  1.  c.  p.  179,  2,  PI.  XXXIII,  9 ;  2  gr.  93  ; 
Imhoof,  Monn.   Grecq.  p.  187,  n.   169  ;  Prokesch,  Ined.  1859, 
PI.  II,  88. — Car  ce  sont  des  drachmes  corinthiennes  de  poids 
normal  plutot  que  des  trioboles  eginetiques  faibles.     Le  poids 
euboique  etait  done  usite  a  Cleitor. 

33  Head,  1.  c.  p.  336. 

VOL.    VHI.    THIRD    SERIES.  P 



8    Tete  barbue,  les  cheveux  frises  sur  le  front,  enveloppee  de 

la  tiare  basse  des  Perses,  nouee  sous  le  menton,  a 


Eev.—  BAZIAews,  lyre.     Traces  de  carre  creux. 
M  5.  15,30.  Brit.  Mus.  Mion.  Suppl.  IV,  p.  274  n.  22  ; 

Luynes,  Satrap,    p.   50,  PI.    VI;    Waddington,  Rev. 

Num.   1861,  p.  15,  PL  II,  4  ;  Leake,  Kings,  p.  53  ; 

Head,    Coins    of    Lydia,    &c.,    p.    50,    PL    III,    24; 

Guide,  p.  88,  PL  19,  27  ;  Imhoof,  Portrait*,  p.  22, 

PL  III,  1. 
9.  Tete  lauree  d'Apollon,  les  cheveux  releves  en  chignon,  a 


R0t>.—  IAZE—  HN,  me-me  lyre.     Carre  creux. 
JR  2.  1,83.  Dans  le  commerce. 

1,77.  Coll.  Imhoof,  Monn.    Grecq.    p.  811,  n.  64, 

PL  F,  7. 

10.  Meme  tete,  I  — 

Rev.  —  ZY(N)/xax<m/     ou     ov^ayjiKO^     o-rarrjp.        Hercule 

enfant  agenouille  &  droite,  etouffant  les  serpents. 
M  5/4.  10,73.     Coll.  Imhoof,  I  c.  n.  63,  PL  F,  6. 

D'apres  les  types,  la  legende  et  le  style  admirable  du 
n.  8,  ce  magnifique  statere  a  ete  emis,  vers  400  av.  J.-C., 
par  un  satrape  perse,34  au  nom  du  grand  roi  et  dans  une 
ville  grecque  d'Asie  mineure.  Comment  se  nommait  ce 
satrape  et  de  quelle  ville  s'agit-il  ? 

Leake  a  propose  Colophon,  dont  les  monnaies  ont  pour 
type  du  revers  une  lyre  35  pareille  a  celle  du  statere  et  je 
me  garderais  bien  de  douter  de  cette  attribution  tres 
plausible,36  si  je  pouvais  imaginer  un  motif  qui  ait  pu  in- 

34  M.  Head  a  montre  que  la  coiffure  n'est  pas  la  tiare  droite 
des  rois  de  Perse,  mais  la  tiare  basse  des  satrapes,  Coins  of 
Lydia,  1.  c. 

a6  KoAo0o)T/  IL\V  yap  e\€L  TJJV  Xvpav.     Himerius,  Orat.  21,  8. 

26  D'apres  Thucyd.  Ill,  84,  1'acropole  de  Colophon  avait  ete 
occupee,  en  430,  par  les  Perses,  comme  1'ont  rappelle  Leake 
et  M.  Waddington. 


duire  le  satrape  d'lonie  a  placer  sa  propre  image  sur  la 
monnaie  qu'il  faisait  battre  au  nom  de  son  maitre  dans  une 
ville  ionienne. 

C'est  ce  qui  m'a  fait  chercher  autre  part  le  mot  de 
Fenigme  et  je  crois  1'avoir  trouve  en  comparant  la  monnaie 
d'lasos,  n.  9,  recemment  publiee  par  M.  Imhoof  et  qui  ne 
differe  que  par  la  legende  des  monnaies  de  Colophon,  dont 
elle  est  une  copie ;  la  lyre  est  la  meme. 

Or  lasos  a  ete,  pendant  quelque  temps,  en  possession 
d'un  satrape,  un  des  plus  puissants  et  des  plus  celebres  de 
tous,  celui-la  meme  dont  le  Due  de  Luynes  aurait  aime 
reconnaitre  le  portrait  sur  ce  statere. 

Quand  la  revolte  du  satrape  de  Lydie,  Pissuthnes,  fils 
d'Hystaspe,  eut  ete  comprimee,  son  fils  Amorges  continua 
1'insurrection  en  Carie,  avec  Paide  des  Atheniens.  Tissa- 
pherne,  auquel  la  satrapie  de  Pissuthnes  avait  ete  confiee 
par  son  roi,  mais  qui  residait  habituellement  en  Carie,  ou 
son  palais  etait  situe,37  ne  parait  pas  avoir  dispose"  de  forces 
suffisantes  pour  combattre  en  personne  les  mercenaires 
grecs  dont  Amorges  s'etait  entoure.  II  profita  du  voisi- 
nage  de  la  flotte  Lacedemonienne,  qui  etait  venue  en  aide 
aux  Milesiens  contre  les  Atheniens,  pour  mettre  fin  a  la 
revolte.  Les  navires  peloponnesiens  parurent  inopinement 
devant  lasos,  ou  Amorges  s'etait  retranche,  s'emparerent 
sans  resistance  de  la  ville,  la  pillerent,  vendirent  les 
prisonniers  au  satrape  et  le  laisserent  maitre  absolu  de  la 
ville  et  de  ses  habitants.38  C'etait  en  412. 

Le  beau  statere,  n.  10,  de  poids  beotien,  et  au  type  beoticn 
d'Hercule  enfant  etoufiant  les  serpents,  date  de  394;  le 
revers  ne  montre  plus  de  traces  du  carre  creux.39 

37  Xenophon,  Hell.  Ill,  2,  12;  4,  12. 

38  Thucydide,  VIII,  28;  Hicks,  lasos,  Journ.  of  Hellen.  Stud. 
VIII,  1887,  p.  86, 87. 

39  lasos  n'a  pas  et£  devastee  en  405  pas  Lysandre,  comme  le 


Le  triobole,  n.  9,  dont  la  tete  est  la  m£me,  mais  sur 
lequel  le  carre  creux  est  encore  tres  apparent,  a  done  etc* 
emis  quelques  annees  auparavant,  avant  400  peut-£tre. 

A  en  juger  par  ce  triobole,  lasos  parait  s'etre  relevee 
assez  promptement  du  desastre  qui  venait  de  1'atteindre. 
II  n'y  aurait  pas  lieu  de  s'en  etonner.  Tissapherne,  des 
qu'il  y  fut  le  maitre,  se  sera  empresse*  de  re*parer  de  son 
mieux  les  maux  causes  par  1'invasion  lacedemonienne. 
Thucydide  nous  dit  qu'il  y  rait  une  garni  son.  II  irapor- 
tait  de  ne  pas  miner  une  cite*  prospere  qui  avait  paye 
un  tribut  annuel  d'abord  d'un  talent  et  plus  tard  de  trois 
talents  a  la  symmacbie  atbe*nienne  et  qui  pourrait  en 
contribuer  autant  an  grand  roi. 

C'est  bien  alors  et  jusqu'a  ce  qu'il  fut  reraplace, 
en  408,40  par  Cyrus  le  jeune,41  que  Tissapberne  a  pu  battre 
monnaie  au  nom  du  roi  de  Perse,  &  sa  propre  image  et  au 
type  de  la  ville,  dont  il  e"tait  devenu  seigneur  et  maitre  en 
en  prenant  possession  au  nom  de  son  souverain.42 

A  moins  done  que  le  satrape  n'ait  copie*  la  lyre  de 
Colopnon  pour  assurer  un  meilleur  cours  a  sea  stateres, 
je  proposerais  de  dater  les  trioboles  autonomes  d'lasos, 

disent  quelques  editions  de  Diodore,  XIII,  104.     Les  MSS.  ne 
portent  pas  "Icurov,  mais  ©ao-ov,  ce  qui  me  semble  a  corriger  en 

®ao-(^ap)ov.  Les  ©a^ap^s  sont  mentionnes  parmi  les  peuplades 
cariennes  dans  les  listes  des  tributaires,  Coi-p.  inscr.  Att.  I, 
n.  229,  281,  239. 

40  Krumbholz,  de  Asiae  win.  Satrap,  persic.  p.  41. 

41  L'opinion  de  Ch.  Lenormant,  Annales  de  VInstit.  Archeol. 
T.  XIX,  p.  880  suiv.,  qui  proposait  de  voir  dans  la  tete  de 
satrape,  n.  8,  le  portrait  de  Cyrus  le  jeune,  a  ete  refutee  par 
M.  Waddington,  I  c.  p.  18. 

42  Les  portraits  de  dynastes  et  de  satrapes,  frequents  sous  le 
regne  du  faible  Artaxerxes  II,  ne  se  voyent  plus  sous  son  etier- 
gique  successeur.     Ochus  ne  semble  pas  avoir  tolere  ces  signes 
d'independance  relative.     Nous  avons,  par  centre,  sur  le  bronze, 
la  tete  du  roi  lui-mcme  —  Head,  Coins  of  Lydia,  PI.  Ill,  9. 


n.  9,  d'un  peu  avant  la  de*faite  d'Amorges.  Quelques- 
unes  peuvent  avoir  etc"  £mises  pendant  la  reVolte,  aux 
frais  ou  par  ordre  d'Amorges,  pour  la  solde  des  nombreux 
mercenaires  qu'il  avait  enroles.  L'idee  de  copier  la 
monnaie  de  Colophon  convient  encore  mieux  a  ce  fils 
revolte*  de  Pissuthnes  qu'au  puissant  satrapo. 

Si  mon  attribution  etait  acceptee  1'ingenieuse  hypothese 
du  Due  de  Luynes  serait  devenue  certitude  et  nous  serions 
en  possession  d'un  admirable  portrait  du  celebre  Tissa- 
pherne,  le  plus  beau,  sans  doute,  de  tous  ceux  que  nous 
offre  la  numismatique  grecque  du  5°  et  du  4°  siecle. 

Serait-ce  le  seul  qui  nous  reste  de  ce  satrape  ? 

M.  Waddington  a  cru  reconnaitre  la  meme  tete  sur 
un  statere  d'or  de  Lampsaque,  dont  le  seul  exeraplaire 
connu  est  conserve  dans  le  Musee  Hunter  a  Glasgow43 
et  sur  les  monnaies  suivantes. 

11.  Tete  semblable  a  celle  du  n.  1. 

Rev. — BAZIAEQZ,  lo  roi  de  Perse,  la  tiare  droite, 
crenelee,  en  tete,  courant  h  droite,  tenant  de  la  main 
droite  la  haste  et  de  la  gauche  1'arc.  Dans  le  champ, 
a  gauche,  un  navire  d  la  rame.  Carre  creux. 

M  5.  14,92.  Mus.  de  Berlin.  Fox,  Un.  Gr.  Coins,  II, 
p.  31,  PI.  VIII,  164 ;  Waddington,  /.  c.  p.  16,  PI.  II, 
5;  K.  Miinzk.  Berlin,  1877,  n.  812  ;  Head,  Coins  of 
Lydia,  p.  50,  PI.  Ill,  25. 

12.  Meme  tete. 

Rev. — BAZI,  meme  type,  sans  navire.     Carre  creux. 
M  8.  8,42.  Brit.  Mus.  Head,  I.  c.  n.  26. 

En  effet,  la  tete  de  satrape  de  ces  deux  dernieres 
monnaies  est  assez  semblable  a  celle  du  statere,  n  8,  pour 

43  Mns.  Hunter,  p.  165,  1,  T.  81,  22;  Rev.  Kum.  1861,  p.  16, 
PL  II,  6. 


admettre  que  la  legere  difference  entre  les  deux  profils  ne 
provient  que  de  ce  que  ces  deux  pieces,  dont  les  revers 
sont  d'un  style  bien  mauvais,  ont  ete  executees  par  un 
graveur  tres  mediocre,  tandis  que  le  statere  a  la  lyre  est 
1'ceuvre  d'un  artiste  grec  de  premier  ordre. 

II  est  done  fort  probable  qu'elles  ont  ete  frappe"es  par 
ordre  de  Tissapherne,  peut-etre  en  Carie, — comme  1'a 
propose  M.  Waddington, — ou  il  residait  habituellement. 
Mais,  comme  le  navire  a  ]a  rame,  dans  le  champ  du  n.  11, 
ne  ressemble  pas  a  un  vaisseau  grec,  mais,  par  contre,  tres 
exactement  a  un  de  ces  navires  qui  forment  le  type  du 
droit  des  monnaies  pheniciennes,44  et  que  le  roi  de  Perse 
avait  place  la  flotte  phenicienne  sous  les  ordres  de  Tissa- 
pherne,45 je  voudrais  assigner  cette  emission  a  Tan  411, 
quand  le  satrape  se  rendit  a  Aspendos,  ou  Pattendait  une 
flotte  de  147  vaisseaux  de  guerre  pheniciens.46  Cette 
flotte  resta  inactive  et  ne  vint  en  aide  ni  a  Sparte  ni  d 
Athenes,  mais  Tissapherne  aura  du  pourvoir  a  son  entretien 
et  il  peut  avoir  eu  ses  raisons  pour  payer  la  solde  en 
monnaies  a  sa  tete  et  au  nom  comme  a  1'effigie  du  grand 
roi.  C'est  1'explication  la  plus  plausible  de  cette  emission 
reinarquable  qui  me  soit  venue  a  1' esprit. 

Le  statere  d'or  de  Lampsaque  du  Musee  Hunter  est  de 
beaucoup  plus  recent. 

Lorsqu'on  range  les  stateres  de  Lampsaque47  du  meme 

41  Head,  Coins  of  Lydia,  PI.  II. 

15  Krumbholz,  /.  c.  p.  40;  Thucyd.  VIII,  46,  81,  &c. 

6  Thucyd.  VIII,  87. 

47  La  plupart  de  ces  stateres  ont  ete  decrits  par  M.  Head, 
Hist.  Numrp.  457.  J'ai  ajoute  a  sa  liste  les  n.  6,  9,  11.  Le 
n.  7  n'estpas  Demeter  voilee,  comme  dit  M.  Head,  mais  Apollon 


genre  en  ordre  chronologique  d'apres  le  style  du  demi- 
cheval  aile,  qui  forme  le  type  du  revers,  on  s'apercoit 
bientot  que  les  pieces  les  plus  ancieDnes  sont  celles  qui 
portent :  1,  Hercule  enfant  etouffant  les  serpents,  type 
be*otien  adopt£  par  les  villes  confederees  en  394,  et,  2, 
Helle  monte  sur  le  belier.  Le  demi-cheval  est  tourne  a 
droite,  le  carre*  creux  tres  apparent.  Sur  les  stateres 
suivants  le  cheval  aile  est  tourne*  a  gauche  et  le  carre" 
creux  disparait  de  plus  en  plus.  Les  types  sont :  3, 
The"tis  sur  un  dauphin  portant  les  armes  d'Achille  ;  4, 
Nike  sacrifiant  un  belier ;  5,  tete  d'Helios  sur  son  disque 
radie';  6,  tete  jeunede  femme  (Nike?)  ;  7,  tete  d'Apollon; 
8,  tete  voilee,  couronnee  de  fleurs  de  grenade  ?  9,  tete 
couronnee  de  lierre,  avec  boucles  d'oreille ;  10,  tete  de 
satrape ;  11,  tete  de  Pallas  ;  12,  Nik^  erigeant  un  trophee; 
13,  Gaia  tenant  des  e*pis,  aya\pa  F?/9  iKerevovatjs  veal 
ol  TOV  Ala,  Pausan.  I,  24,  3;48  14,  tete  barbue  portant 
un  casque  laure  et  pointu ;  15,  tete  de  Zeus;  16,  tete 
lauree  de  Nik£  ailee ;  17,  tete  de  Menade  couronnee  de 
lierre  avec  boucles  d'oreilles  et  collier  et  diademe  royal 
(la  reine-mere  Olympias)  ;  49  18,  tete  couronnee  de  lierre, 
avec  boucles  d'oreilles  et  collier,  les  oreilles  de  chevre ; 
19,  tete  d'Ammon  de  face ;  20,  tete  imberbe,  qui  me 
semble  celle  d'Achille,  Tancetre  d'Alexandre  le  grand, 
avec  le  profil  du  jeune  roi  lui-meme. 

Ces  dernier s  stateres,  17,  19,  20,  nous  menent  a  Tan 
331,  quand  Alexandre  visita  1'oracle  d'Ammon  et  fut 
declare  fils  de  ce  dieu  egyptien  et  a  Fan  334,  quand 

48  Drexler,  en  Roscher's  Lexik.  d.  Griech.  u.  Rom.  Mythol. 
I,  p.  1577,  1581, 

49  Droysen,    Gresch.    des    Hellen.    I,    1,     p.    90,     "  In   den 
nachtlichen  Orgien  sah  man  sie  vor  Allen — in  wilder  Begeis- 
terung — durch  die  Berge  stiirmen."     Plutarque,  Alex.  c.  2. 


Lampsaque  fut  epargnee  par  Alexandre,  a  la  requete 
d'Anaximene.50  La  ville  avait  done  une  raison  toute 
speciale  de  rendre  hommage  au  jeune  roi,  en  placant  sur 
ces  stateres  la  tete  de  sa  mere  Olympias,  divinisee  eu 
Menade,  celle  de  son  pere  Ammon,  et  la  sienne  propre, 
idealisee  en  Achille,  dont  il  se  disait  descendre. 

Ces  vingt  stateres  dateraient  done  de  394  a  330 
environ  et  la  tete  de  satrapa,  n.  10,  se  placerait  au-milieu 
de  cette  periode,  vers  360.  Or,  en  362,  en  352  et  en  348 
les  textes  et  les  inscriptions  mentionnent  un  satrape  du 
nom  d'Orontas,  qui  d'abord  se  revolta  centre  Artaxerxes, 
avec  lequel  il  se  reconcilia  plus  tard  et  qui  parait  s'etre 
maintenu  assez  longtemps  en  Mysie,  aux  environs  de 
Pergame,  et  y  avoir  install^  une  petite  dynastie  inde- 

Les  monnaies  d'Oronte,  en  argent  et  en  bronze,  ont 
pour  revers  un  demi-cheval  aile,  tout-a-fait  pareil  a  celui 
du  statere  d'or.  De  plus  les  bronzes  du  plus  petit 
module  offrent  au  droit  la  meme  tete  de  satrape  et, 
d'apres  mon  exemplaire,  avec  le  meme  profil.52 

60  Ibid.  p.  188. 

51  Waddington,  Rev.  Num.,  1863,  p.  286  suiv.  ;  Krumbholz, 
1.  c.  p.  75,  n.  2  ;  Diodore,  XV,  91  (362)  O<  8'  afao-TyKOTcs  TOV 
y3ao-iXeo)s  —  elXovro  <TT  par^y  ov  'Opovrrjv.  OVTOS  Se  7ra/oaA.a^3o>i/ 
rt\v  ^ye/xoviav  KOL  xprjpara  irpos  ^evoXo-y/av,  SwfJivptQts  o-Tpartwrats 
fViav<Tiov  /u,io-Sov,  Trpo^orrjs  TOOV  TrioTttxrai/Tan'.  'YiroXafiuv 
yap  Trapa  TOV  /SacriXecos  Swpcwv  re  /teyaAcuv  rcv^eo-^at  KOLL  r^s  irapa- 
SaXarriov  TrdfTijs  irapaXi/j{f/ea$ai  rrjv  o-arpaTrtav,  etc."  Inscr.  de 
Pergame,  Die  Ergebn.  d.  Ausgrab.  zu  Peryamon,  1883—1886, 
p.  56  :^  'Opovr^s  8c  'Aprao-v(pou,  TO  yeVjos  BaKrpios,  aTroaras  ctTro 
'  - 

etc.  —  EtTa'Opovr^s  (rr)j/  TroXtv  €)7rt(rpev//as  ' 

Polyen  VII,  14,  2,  3,  4  :   'OpoVrijs  ei/  Kvpy  Traperalero  Avro<J>pa- 

IdTT)  —  avTOS  €X<»V  f-vp/ovs  OTrXtVas  "EXXrjvas. 

62  Iinhoof,  Monn.  Grecg.  p.  246,  247,  n.  89,  95  —  956. 


Pourquoi  done  ne  reconnaitrions  nous  pas  la  tete 
d'Oronte  sur  le  statere  de  Lampsaque  ?  Meme  en  ad- 
mettant  que  cette  ville  n'ait  pas  ete  en  son  pouvoir  et  que 
la  plupart  de  ses  monnaies  aient  ete  f rappees  a  Adramytion, 
comme  le  propose  M.  Imhoof,53  il  n'y  a  rien  qui  s'oppose, 
a  mon  avis,  a  croire,  avec  M.  Krumbholz,54  que  le  dynaste 
.ait  fait  executer,  a  ses  frais,  dans  1'atelier  de  Lampsaque, 
les  stateres  d'or  dont  il  avait  besoin  pour  la  solde  de  ses 
troupes,  d'autant  plus  que  les  dariques  royales  ont  du  lui 
faire  defaut,  tant  que  dura  son  insurrection. 

Reste  a  expliquer  comment  il  se  fait  que  le  profil 
d'Oronte  ressemble  tant  a  celui  de  Tissapherne  que  M. 
Waddington  ait  cru  voir  dans  les  deux  portraits  un  seul 
et  meme  personnage. 

Ce  n'esfc  pas — si  j'ai  bien  compris  M.  Imhoof,55 — parce 
que  les  graveurs  de  ce  temps  avaient  une  tete  de  barbare 
ideale,  dont  ils  se  servaient  en  Mysie  comme  en  Carie,  en 
Lycie  comme  en  Cilicie,  quand  il  s'agissait  de  representer 
un  dynaste  indigene  ou  un  noble  Perse,  mais  plutot,  il 
me  semble,  parcequ'Oronte,  comme  Tissapherne,  etaient 
issus  des  families  les  plus  nobles,  toutes  plus  ou  moins 
apparentees  avec  les  Achemenides  et  qu'ils  avaient  par  la 
un  air  de  famille,  qui  doit  avoir  rendu  difficile  aux 
Grecs  de  les  distinguer  a  premiere  vue  et  qui  nous  oblige 
parfois  EI  y  regarder  de  bien  pres  pour  ne  pas  les  con- 

Pourtant  je  ne  crois  pas  me   tromper  en   separant  le 

63  Ibid.  p.  245—248. 

54  1.  c.  p.  75  n.  2.     Nummi  autem  illi  Lampsaceni  nihil  pro- 
bant,  cum  satrapa,  qui  defecerat  et  exercitui  praeerat,  facile  in 
alius  satrapise  urbe  nunimos  facere  posset. 

55  Portrait^,  p.  4,  22. — Je  ne  vois  aucune  ressemblance  entre 
le  portrait  de  Tissapherne  et  celui  de  Pharnabaze,  ib.  T.  Ill, 



statere  d'Oronte,  qui  date,  comme  les  pieces  en  argent 
et  en  bronze  a  son  nom,  du  milieu  du  4e  siecle,  d'avec  les 
Emissions  en  argent  de  Tissapherne,  qui  me  paraissent 
etre  d'un  demi-siecle  au  moins  plus  anciennes.  D'autant 
plus  que  la  coiffure  est  essentiellement  differente.  Les 
satrapes  fi  deles  au  grand  roi,  Pharnabaze,  Tissapherne, 
nouent  la  tiare  autour  du  menton,  selon  Tetiquette  perse. 
Chez  les  dynastes — et  les  satrapes  revoltes  ? — les  bouts 
de  la  coiffure  pendent  librement  le  long  du  cou.  Aussi 
le  dynaste  de  Cilicie,  Tarcomos,  ne  se  couvre  le  menton, 
si  j'ai  bien  vu,  que  depuis  qu'il  est  investi  de  la  dignite 
de  satrape  perse.56 

Enfin,  c'est  encore  la  tete  d'Oronte  que  je  voudrais 
reconnaitre  sur  une  hecte  de  2  gr.  50  de  ma  collection,57 
qui  d'apres  le  style  et  le  carre  creux  me  semble  avoir  etc* 
frappee  dans  1'atelier  de  Phocee,  quoique  le  petit  phoque 
usuel  ne  paraisse  pas,  peut-etre  parceque  ce  n'est  pas  une 
monnaie  autonome  de  la  ville. 

IY. — Issos. 

18.  Partie  anterieure  de  lion,  la  gueule  beante,  &  gauche ; 
la  patte  gauche  est  seule  exprimee. 

Rev. — Carre   creux,  a  fond  brut  et  inegal,  divise  en  deux 
triangles  par  une  large  barre. 

M  Imhoof,  Portraitk.  T.  Ill,  3— 5.— La  monnaie  de  Spithri- 
date,  que  M.  Wroth  vient  de  publier  plus  haut,  p.  17,  PI.  1, 14, 
est  venue  a  ma  connaissance  trop  tard  pour  m'en  servir  dans 
cet  article.  Elle  parait  posterieure  aux  emissions  d'Oronte  et 
frappee  dans  la  meme  localite,  Adramytion,  ou  peut-etre  lolla, 
dont  Spithridate  aurait  ete  dynaste,  en  meme  temps  ou  avant 
qu'il  etait  satrape  d'lonie  et  de  Lydie  vers  334. 

57  Incorrectement  gravee  Zeitschr.f.  Num.  VI,  1879,  p.  98, 
1 J-  111,  4lo. 


M  4J/4.  10,68.  Brit.  Mus.,  Cat.  Whittall,  1884,  n.  1070, 
Greenwell,  Num.  Chron.  1885,  p.  10,  PI.  I,  10,  1  ; 
Gardner,  ibid.  1886,  p.  259,  n.  1. 

14.  Aulre,  la  barre  moins  large,  et  le  fond  divise  en  losanges 

par  des  lignes  qui  se  croiseut. 

M  6/5.  10,82.  Cab.  de  Munich.—  PI.  V,  8. 
„  4£.    10,24.  Brit.  Mus.,  Greenwell,  I.  c.  p.  10,  2,  PI.  I, 

Ces  deux  exemplaires  sont  de  coin  different. 

15.  Type  du  n.  13  et  de  meme  style,  mais  les  deux  pattes 

du  lion  sont  exprimees. 

Rev.  —  Homme  barbu,  vetu  d'un  chiton  court,  retenu  par 
une  ceinture,  debout,  a  droite,  et  percant  d'une  longue 
lance  un  lion  dresse*  devant  lui.  En  haut  et  en  bas 

M  />  I 

tout  dans  un  carre  creux  profond. 

Au  milieu  du  champ,  ft  dans  une  contrernarque 
ronde.  Sur  le  bord  du  statere,  O  dans  une  contre- 
niarque  oblongue.  ^^ 

M  6/4.  10,60.  Ma  coll.—  PI.  V,  9. 

La  derniere  lettre  de  la  legende  I  ^^  A  I  ON  est  a  peine 
visible  ;  pourtant  il  semble  que  ce  soit  un  N  plutot 
qu'un  2. 

Les  stateres,  n.  13  et  14,  ont  ete  classes  a  Cnidos  dans 
le  catalogue  Whittall  et  par  M.  Greenwell  qui  les  publia  le 
premier  ;  mais  cette  attribution  n'a  pas  paru  satisfaisante 
a  M.  Gardner,  /.  c.t  ni  a  M.  Head,  Hist.  Num.  p.  523,  n.  1. 

En  effet,  quoique  le  type  convienne  a  Cnidos,  ou  un 
lion  fort  semblable,  mais  presque  toujours  tourne  a  droite, 
se  voit  sur  la  plupart  des  monnaies  archai'ques  de  la  ville, 
le  poids  est  fort  au-dessous  de  celui  d'environ  12  gr., 
usite  a  Cnide  et  a  Chersonese,58  et  le  carre  creux  difiere 

88  Chersonesos  :  12  gr.  59,  Cab.  de  France,  Mion.  VI,  p.  630  n. 
128,  Eec.  PL  L,  5  ;—  12  gr.  57,  Mus.  de  Berlin,  Beschreib.  d. 


entitlement,  comme  M.  Greenwell  1'a  remarqu^  lui- 
merne,  de  ceux  qu'on  rencontre  sur  les  monnaies  cari- 

Par  contra,  le  poids  de  10  gr.  82  re*pond  exactement  a 
celui  des  stateres  ciliciens59  et  le  lion,  quoiqu'il  soit  peut- 
etre  copie  d'apres  les  monnaies  cnidiennes,  est  tellement 
semblable  au  meme  animal  represente  sur  le  statere  inedit 
d'Issos,  decrit  sous  le  n.  15,  qu'il  n'est  pas  necessaire, 
ce  me  semble,  de  chercher  d'autres  arguments,  pour  pro- 
poser Issos  de  Cilicie  au  lieu  de  Cnidos  de  Carie  comme 
lieu  d'emission  de  ces  rares  stateres  anepigraphes. 

Le  singulier  carre  creux,  tout  couvert  de  losanges  qui 
rappellent  1'ecusson  de  Baviere,  se  comprend  mieux  aussi  au 
fin  fond  de  la  Cilicie  qu'en  Carie  ou  il  n'a  pas  d'analogie. 

Le  statere,  n.  15,  est  le  premier  qui  nous  donne  1'eth- 
nique  d'Issos,  tel  que  Findique  Etienne  de  Byzance  : 
'lcr<709,  TroXts  fjiera^v  ^vpias  xal  Kf\f  KICLS  G0  —  6  TroX/T^s" 
'Iffaaios,  et  par  consequent  la  premiere  monnaie  autonome 
certaine  de  la  ville.  Toutes  celles  qui  ont  ete  publiees 
jusqu'ici  ont  pour  legende  I  $^  IKON  61  en  signe  qu'elles 

antik.  Munz.  I,  1888,  p.  249,  1  ;  Prokesch,  Ined.  1859,  p.  5;  — 
11  gr.  88,  Brit.  Mus.,  Head,  Guide,  p.  6,  n.  26.—  Cnidos: 
11  gr.  70,  Inihoof,  Monn.  grecq.  p.  309,  n.  44.  —  Les  hemi- 
stateres  montent  jusqu'a  6  gr.  34,  Imhoof,  I.  c.  p.  308,  n.  36. 
D'uii  autre  cote,  le  poids  de  10  gr.  82  est  trop  eleve  pour  con- 
venir  a  la  Lycie  a  laquelle  M.  Gardner  a  pense. 

59  Celenderis,  10  gr.  Sl.—Nagidos,  10  gr.  78.—  Soli,  10  gr.  88. 
Brandis,  p.  498,  499. 

Xenophon,  Anabas.  I,  iv.  1.   et»s  'IcrrrowT^s  KtXi/c/ag,  €7rt  TJ)  SaXaTTrj  oiKovptvrjv  fJicyaXrjv  KCU  cvocu/tova.  Du  temps 
d'Herodote  (V,  52),  la  Cilicie  s'etendait,  du  cote  de  1'Armeme 
jusqu'a  1'Euphrate  et  (III,  92)  au  sud  jusqu'a  Poseidion,  et 
par  consequent  bien  au-dela  d'Issos. 

31  Sur  le  statere,  a  types  communs  ^  au  moins  quatre  villes 
ciliciennes,  decrit  par  M.  Head,  Hist.  Num.  p.  604,  IZ  peut 
etre  complete  en  IZZIKON  tout  aussi  bien  qu'en 
—PI.  V,  n.  10. 


furent  e*mises  d  Tssos  sous  1'autorite  d'un  dynaste  ou  d'un 
des  satrapes  commandant  I'arnie'e  perse  et  non,  comme  le  n. 
15,  par  les  citoyens  d'une  ville  libre,  en  vertude  leur  droit  de 
battre  monnaie.62  Elles  sont  d'un  siecle  posterieures  a  celles- 
ci,  qui,  malgr£  leur  aspect  fort  archa'ique,  ne  me  semblent 
pourtant  pas  aussi  anciennes  qu'elles  en  ont  1'air  au  pre- 
mier abord. 

Le  carre  creux  est  trop  orne  pour  etre  de  beaucoup 
anterieur  au  5e  siecle.  Le  n.  15  porteune  legende  grecque 
et  convient  le  mieux  a  1'epoque  ou  Xerxes  confia  a 
un  grec,  Xenagoras  d'Halicarnasse,  le  gouvernement  de 
la,  Cilicie,63  ou,  apres  le  bataille  de  1'Eurymedon,  la  sym- 
machie  athenienne  avait  acquis  sa  plus  grande  extension, 
et  ou  la  flotte  d'Athenes,  sous  Cimon,  venait  en  aide  au 
roi  d'Egypte,  assiegait  les  villes  de  Cypre  et  battait  les 
navires  pheniciens  et  ciliciens  que  lui  opposaient  les 
Perses.  C'est  done  dans  la  premiere  moitie  du  5e  siecle 
que  je  voudrais  placer  cette  petite  serie. 

Elle  ne  consiste  encore  qu'en  stateres.  Les  divisions 
apparaitront,  sans  doute,  des  qu'on  aura  recherche  parmi 
les  pieces  incertaines,  au  type  d'un  lion,  qui  se  trouvent 
dans  toutes  les  collections,  celles  que  le  style  et  le  poids 
permettront  de  classer  a  Issos. 

Le  type,  au  revers  du  n.  15,  n'est  pas  difficile  a  recon- 
naitre.  C'est  un  chasseur  qui  tue  un  lion  d'un  coup  de 
lance.  On  voit  un  chasseur  pareil,  vetu  de  me  me,  accom- 
pagner  le  roi  qui  chasse  les  lions,  monte  sur  un  char,  sur 
le  basrelief,  trouve  a  Saktchegheuksou,  non  loin  d'lssos, 

62  C'est  M.  Waddington  qui  a  determine  le  sens  de  ces  dif- 
ferentes   formes  des  legendes   ciliciennes.     Eev.  Num.    1856, 
p.  60. 

63  Herodote,  IX,  107. 


decrit  et  figure*  dans  Perrot  et  Chipiez,  Hist,  de  VArt,  IV. 
p.  534,  553—555,  vign.  n.  279. 

Ce  n'est  done  pas  un  roi 64  ou  dynaste,  qui  d'ailleurs 
est  represente  tout  differemment  tant  sur  le  basrelief  que 
sur  les  monnaies  de  Tarse  et  sur  celles  que  j'ai  propose" 
de  classer  a  Sidon.  La,  le  roi,  reconnaissable  a  son  cos- 
tume et  a  sa  tiare,  perce  le  lion,  debout  devant  lui,  de  son 
glaive.65  Ce  n'est  pas  non  plus,  comme  a  Tarse,66  Hercule 
qui  e*toufie  le  lion  de  ses  bras,  ou  qui  I'assomme  de  sa 
inassue  et  qui,  coinme  d'autres  divinite*s  orientales,  par  sa 
force  surhumaine,  se  joue  des  betes  fauves  et  les  enleve  en 
les  tenant  suspendues  par  la  queue. 

Pourtant  ce  ne  doit  pas  etre  un  chasseur  ordinaire, 
mais  plutot  le  heros  phenicien,  eponyme  des  chasseurs, 
qui  est  mentionne*  dans  les  extraits  de  Sanchoniathon, 
traduit  par  Philon  de  Byblos,  que  nous  a  conserves  Eusebe, 
Praep.  Evang.  I.  10  :  XpoVots1  5e  varepov  TroXXo??  a?ro 
'\^rovpaviov  yevea.9  yevea^ai  'A<y/9ea  Kal  'AXtea, 
ciypav  KOL  a\ieia.9  evperas,  e£  wv  K\vfit]vai  aypevras 
ical  aXteiV.  C'est  cet  Agreus,  en  phenicien  "T^,  Sad  ou 
Sid,  a  ce  qu'il  parait,67  Tinventeur  de  la  chasse,  que  je  crois 

64  A  moins  que  le  sujet  ne  soit  empruute  a  un  tableau  pareil 
a  celui  qui  se  voyait,  forme  de  briques  emaillees,  sur  le  mur  de 
1'enceinte  interieure  du  palais  royal  a  Babylone.     II  represen- 
tait  une  grande  chasse  de  toutes  sortes  d'animaux.     Semiramis, 
a  cheval,  lan^ait  un  javelot  centre  une  pan  there,  et  Ninos,  & 
pied,  percait  un  lion  de  sa  lance,  NtVos  TratW  IK  \eipbs  Xeoi/ra 
\6yxy-     I)iodore,  II,  8,  d'apres  Ctesias. — Le  meme  chasseur  se 
retrouve  sur   un  petit   objet  en  or  et  sur   un  des   poignards 
provenants  des   fouilles   de  Mycenes.      Schliemann,   MykentB, 
p.  202,  Fig.  n.  253  ;  L.  Mitchell,  Hist,  of  Anc.  Sculpt.   1883, 
p.  155,  Fig.  80  ;  Perrot,  Bull,  de  Corr.  Hell.  X,  1886,  p.  341 
suiv.  PL  II,  3. 

65  Head,   Coins  of  Lydia  and  Persia,  PI.  II,  7,  10,  17,  III, 
4,  6,  11,  12;  Num.  Chron.,  1877,  p.  202,  2 ;  1884,  p.  153,  4. 

65  Ibid.,  1884,  p.  152,  2,  3;  PL  V,  1,  p.  156,  15. 

67  Vogue,  Mel.  d'arch.  Orient,  Suppl.  p.  38 :  "  Les  conimen- 


repre*sente  sur  le  statere,  de  preference  a  Ousoos  qui, 
d'apres  Sandioniathon,  inventa  de  se  vetir  de  la  peau  des 
animaux  sauvages  dont  il  parvenait  a  s'emparer  et  dont 
le  sang  lui  servait  de  libation  aux  steles  qu'il  avait  erigees 
et  devant  lesquelles  il  se  prosternait.  Qvaoov,  09 
rw  awjjLaTi  Trpwros  iit  cep/uLaTcw  wv  ta^vae 
wv  evpe'  —  aviepwaai  8e  —  ari'jXas  —  KCU 
8e  aTTcv'tieiv  aura??  c£  wv  tfrypeve  <&rjptwv-  Car  ces 
animaux,  offerts  en  sacrifice,  n'etaient  probablement  pas 
des  lions,  mais  des  betes  moins  feroces  et  plus  faciles  a 
saisir  dans  des  pieges  ou  des  fosses,  tandis  qu'une  chasse 
plus  importante  et  plus  perilleuse  est  representee  sur  le 
statere  d'Issos. 

Quoique  cette  ville  n'etait  pas  situee  en  Phenicie  meme, 
elle  n'en  etait  pas  fort  eloignee  et  la  ville  voisine,  Myri- 
andos,  etait  habitee  par  des  Pheniciens.68  On  peut  done 
bien  admettre  que  les  divinites  et  les  heros  qu'on 
venerait  a  Issos,  ne  differaient  guere  de  ceux  que 
Sancnoniathon  attribue  aux  Pneniciens.69 

tateurs  de  Sanchoniathon  ont  remarque  que  le  mot  'AAuus  etait 
la  traduction  de  ps  (Hebr.  1*11^),  dieu  eponyme  de  la  ville  de 
Sidon,  dont  le  nom  signifie  pecheur,  peche.  'Ay/aevs,  traduction 
de  TSi  chasseur,  paraissait  un  pleonasme  ;  DOS  inscriptions 
prouvent  que  le  texte  original  portait  bien  la  mention  de  deux 
personnages  divins  distincts,  1'un  du  nom  de  is,  Tsid,  1'autre 
du  nom  de  pS,  Tsidon"  —  Le  nom  du  dieu  12  entre  dans 
la  composition  de  plusieurs  noms  propres  puniques,  "TS3.IT, 
^n^lS*  ISnn.  "TS1D3?,  Corp.  inscr.  semit.  I,  n.  102a,  135,  184, 
235,  302,  etc.  ;  voir  la  note  an  n.  102a,  p.  123  :  "  Quinam 
autem  sit  ille  deus  (is,  Sad),  incertum.  Eenan  'Aypea  Kat 
'AAtea  illos  a  Philone  Bybliensi  memoratos  Phoenicio  sermoue 
pS*)  IS,  hue  referendos  putat.  Habes  quoque  in  fragmentis 
Sanchoniathonis  SaStSov." 

68  Xenoph.   Anab.   I,  iv.  6  :  ets   Mvp/av8pov   TTU\LV 

V7TO  QotVlKW  CTTt   T"fj    ^aXaTTT/,     IfJLTTOplOV    ft'ty    TO    ^(OptO 

c.  102  :  MvpmvSos  &oiviK<Dv. 

69  Imhoof,  Monn.  yrecq.  p.  860,  a  propos  des  divinites  ailees 
sur  les  monnaies  de  Mallos. 


Le  type  du  cbasseur  de  lions  se  retrouve,  mais  traite 
dans  un  style  beaucoup  plus  recent,  sur  une  petite  mon- 
naie  dont  je  me  suis  deja  occupe  plus  d'une  fois,  mais 
sans  pouvoir  en  determiner  le  lieu  d'emission. 

16.  Tete  barbue  a  droite.     Devant  ^  (to).     Peut-etre  le  por- 
trait d'un  dynaste. 

jfet,. — Personnage  nu,  s'avancant  a  droite,  vers  un  lion 
dresse  devant  lui,  qu'il  perce  de  sa  lance.  Dessous 

^l  1.  0,52.  Coll.  Imboof,  Monn.  grecq.  p.  448,  n.  52, 
Clwix,  PI.  VII,  230;  Num.  Chron.  1877,  p.  211,  7, 
1878,  p.  123,  1,  PI.  VI,  7. 

Si  cette  obole  est  d'Issos,  comme  le  type  le  fait  supposer, 
les  lettres  to  et  ^to  pourraient  etre  considerees  comme  les 
initiales  du  nom  d'un  dynaste,  car  le  nom  de  la  ville 
parait  avoir  ete  ^  F*\\~>  U£^>  Ssissos.  C'est  du  moins 
ce  que  je  crois  voir  sur  le  statere  public  par  M.  Imboof, 
Monn.  grecq.  p.  355,  n.  24%  PL  F,  21.  Les  Grecs,  chez 
qui  un  nom  ne  pouvait  commencer  par  un  double  S,  en 
auront  fait  Issos,  pour  Ississos,  comme  les  LXX  ont 
rendu  y%  2  Cbr.  20,  16,  par  'Aao-eis. 

Cette  obole,  qui  ne  porte  plus  de  traces  d'un  carre 
creux,  date  sans  doute  du  quatrieme  siecle,  comme  lea 
autres  monnaies  d'Issos,  publiees  jusqu'ici,  que  M.  Head 
a  e*numerees.70  Leur  poids,  10  gr.  70  et  10  gr.  82,  reste 
toujours  celui  des  anciens  stateres  et  confirmeainsi  1'attri- 
bution  proposee  pour  les  n.  13  et  14. 

Issos   ne  parait    plus  avoir  battu  monnaie  depuis  la 

70  Hist.  Num.  p.  604,  ou  il  faut  lire  165  et  167  au  lieu  de  166 
et  168 — 164  gr.  Voir  aussi  Imhoof,  Monn.  grecq.  p.  355  n.  24, 
24a,  et  Von  Sallet,  Zeitschr.  f.  Num.  TV.  p.  145,  10  gr.  40, 


fondation  de  Nicopolis 71  par  Alexandre  en  memoire  de  la 
victoire  qu'il  remporta  pres  d'Issos  sur  Darius.  Aussi  le 
nom  d'Issos  ne  parait  plus  sur  les  monnaies  que  dans  la 
legende  AASHANAPeilN  KAT  1C  CON  d'une  suite 
de  bronzes  de  1'epoque  imperiale.72 


17.  Figure  nue,73  sans  indication  de  sexe  masculin,  munie 
d'ailes  aux  talons  et  de  grandes  ailes  recoquillees  aux 
epaules,  marchant  a  droite,  la  main  gauche  etendue. 
Style  archa'ique. 

Rev. — Taureau  debout  a  droite ;   au-dessus  A.     Le  tout 
dans  un  carre  creux  borde  de  perles. 

M  5/3.  11,60.  Ma  coll.— PI.  V,  n.  11. 

II  est  dommage  que  la  tete  et  le  bras  droit  de  la  deesse 
ne  soient  pas  venus  a  la  frappe  et  qu'il  soit  incertain,  par 
consequent,  si  la  tete  etait  en  profil  ou  de  face  et  si  le 
bras  droit  etait  baisse  ou  etendu. 

Pourtant  il  est  vraisemblable  que  le  bras  manquant 
etait  dans  la  meme  position  que  1'autre,  si  on  compare 
une  figure  tres  ressemblante  qui  se  voit  sur  un  Cyzicene 
environ  contemporain  74  et  qui  pourrait  bien  etre  imitee 
de  celle-ci,  suivant  la  coutume  a  Cyzique  de  copier  les 
types  monetaires,  meme  des  villes  les  plus  eloignees,  avec 
1'addition,  s'entend,  d'un  ou  de  deux  thons,  le  vrai  type 
de  Cyzique.  Malheureusement  cette  figure  est  trop  peu 
distincte  pour  pouvoir  servir  a  expliquer  celle-ci. 

71  Steph.  Byz.,  v.  'lo-o-os,  identifie  Nicopolis  avec  Issos. 

72  Head,  Hist.  Num.  p.  598. 

73  Une  ligne  a  travers  la  poitrine,   qu'on  pourrait  prendre 
pour  une  ceinture,  ne  provient  que  d'une  cassure  du  coin,  dont 
les  traces  se  laissent  poursuivre  le  long  du  bras  jusqu'au  bout 
des  doigts. 

74  Greenwell,  Num.  Chron.  1887,  PI.  Ill,  10. 



Aussi  je  laisse  volontiers  a  d'autres  le  soin  de  chercher 
un  nom  a  donner  a  cette  deesse  que  ses  sandales  ailees 
semblent  caracteriser  comme  un  messager  des  dieux  et  je 
me  borne  a  noter  qu'une  deesse  ailee  et  nue,  mais  dans 
une  pose  toute  differente,  se  voit  sur  un  bas-relief  decouvert 
a  Djerablus75  et  que,  d'apres  Sancnoniathon,76  tous  les 
dieux  pheniciens  etaient  muriis  d'ailes  pour  pouvoir  suivre 
le  dieu  supreme,  Cronos,  dans  son  vol  a  travers  1'espace. 

Ce  qui  me  parait  le  plus  remarquable  c'est  que  la 
deesse  Cypriote,  malgre  ses  ailes  levees  et  ses  bras 
etendus,  ne  semble  pas  bouger  de  place.  C'est  environ 
la  pose  de  la  Nike  sur  un  tres  ancien  tetradrachme  de 
Syracuse,77  qui  date  comme  le  statere  Cypriote  du  com- 
mencement du  5e  siecle.  Evidemment  le  graveur  n'avait 
pas  encore  appris  des  sculpteurs  de  Chios,  Micciades  et 
Arcnermos,  1'art  de  representer  une  figure  volante78  et 
se  bornait,  suivant  les  traditions  de  Tart  oriental,  a 
indiquer  par  le  nombre  des  ailes,  la  plus  ou  moins  grande 
vitesse  de  la  course  des  divinites. 

Le  caractere  Cypriote  A,  A-O  ou  ry0,  concourt  avec  le 
poids  pour  faire  classer  ce  statere  archaique  a  une  des 
villes  de  Cypre.  Le  meme  signe  se  lit  au-dessus  d'un 
taureau  cornupete  sur  des  stateres  plus  recents,79  et  sur 
des  monnaies  en  or  d'Evagoras  I  de  Salamine.80  II  est 
done  peu  probable  que  cet  A  soit  Tinitiale  d'un  nom  de 
roi  ;  c'est  plutot  le  nom  d'une  ville,  que  ce  soit  Golgoi, 
Corone  ou  une  autre. 

75  Perrot  et  Chipiez,  Hist,  de  Vart,  IV,  p.  808,  Fig.  390. 
•6   Sanchon.   p.  38,    Orelli.      TotS  8^   XOLTTO^  ^eols   gv'o   blurr 

pco/iara  eVt  TWV  tf/xwi/,  (o?  OTL  $rj  awL-nravTO  rw  Kpoi/w. 

7  Head,  Guide,  PL  9,  35. 

6  Petersen,  Mitth.  d.  D.  Arch.  Inst.  am  Athen.  1886,  p.  386. 
'9  Rev.  Num.  1883,  p.  305,  n    11 
80  Ibid,  p.  280. 



Plusieurs  inscriptions  et  quelques  monnaies,  re*cemment 
de'couvertes,  sont  venues  eclaircir  quelque  peu  1'histoire 
encore  bien  obscure  des  rois  pheniciens  de  Citium  et  me 
permettent  de  rectifier,  sur  plusieurs  points,  le  classement 
propose  dans  la  Revue  Numismatique  de  1883,81  pour  les 
monnaies  anterieures  an  roi  Pumiaton. 

La  premiere  inscription,  copiee  en  Mars  1887  par 
M.  Onefalsch  Richter  a  Dali,  a  e'te'  publiee,  plus  ou 
moins  completement,  par  M.  Ph.  Berger,82  M.  Pierides,83  et 
par  M.  J.  Euting.84  II  y  est  dit  qu'en  Tan  III  de  son 
regne,  Baal(melek),  roi  de  Citium  et  d'Idalie,  fils  du  roi 
Azbaal,  roi  de  Citium  et  d'Idalie,  fils  du  roi  Baalmelek, 
roi  de  Citium,  offrit  un  objet  en  cuivre  repousse  (une 
vasque)  a  la  deesse  Anath. 

La  seconde  moitie  du  nom  de  1'auteur  de  la  dedicace  est 
tres  indistincte  sur  la  pierre.  M.  Berger  a  restitue  Baal- 
melek,  ^bab^n,  MM.  Richter,85  Pierides  et  Euting  ont  pre- 
fere  Baalra?7?,  rrhyz.  Mais  M.  Euting  a  bien  voulu  m'in- 
former  qu'un  nouvel  examen  a  conduit  MM.  Richter  et 
Pierides  a  reconnaitre  que  la  lecon  m,  ram,  ne  Concorde 
pas  avec  ce  qui  reste  des  lettres  et  que  lui-meme  prefere 
en  ce  moment  Baalwe'M*.86 

L'examen  attentif  des  monnaies  royales  de  Citium  m'a 
conduit  a  la  meme  conclusion. 

81  Revue  Numism.  1883,  p.  324—337,  n.  6—49. 

82  Comptes  rendus  de  fAcad.  des  inscr.  et  belles-lettres,  1887, 
p.  203 — 210.    (Tirag9  a  part :  Mem.  s.  deux  nouv.  inscr.  phenic. 
de  Chypre,  p.  15—22.) 

83  Academy,  23  Apr.  et  7  Mai,  1887,  p.  293  et  329. 

84  Sitzungsber.  d.  Berl  Akad.  d.  Wiss.  1887,  p.  420—422. 
i5  Comptes-rendus,  1.  c.  p.  205,  n.  1. 

88  Voir  maintenant  Berger,  Meinoire  cite,  p.  30. 


Celles  qui  portent  le  nom  de  Baalmelek  se  divisent  en 
deux  groupes  distincts.  Le  premier  est  forme  par  les 
pieces,  de  style  archa'ique,  qui  ont  au  revers  un  lion 
accronpi*1  et  ne  peut  etre  attribue  qu'au  premier  Baal- 
melek, pere  du  roi  Azbaal. 

Le  second  groupe  consiste  en  monnaies,  au  revers  d'un 
claim  attaque  par  un  lion,88  de  style  plus  recent,  dont  la 
plupart  ressemblent  tellement  aux  monnaies  dj  Azbaal, 
aux  memes  types,89  qu'on  les  dirait  contemporaines  et 
gravees  par  les  memes  artistes  et  qu'il  ne  parait  pas,  au 
premier  abord,  si  elles  sont  anterieures  ou  posterieures90  a 
son  regne  et  si,  par  consequent,  il  faut  les  assigner  a  son 
pere  Baalmelek  ou  a  un  fils  d'Azbaal  qui  aurait  porte  le 
nom  de  son  grand-pere. 

La  seule  difference  que  j'ai  pu  constater  c'est  que,  sur 
quelques  pieces — non  sur  toufces,  comme  la  planche  du 
Due  de  Luynes  91  pourrait  le  faire  supposer — les  lettres 
37  et  n  sont  ouvertes  par  en  haut,  detail  qui  ne  se  voit  ni 
sous  Azbaal,  ni  sur  les  monnaies  de  Baalram  dont  il  sera 
question  tantot,  mais  qui  semble  etre  1'indice  d'une  epoque 
assez  recente. 

II  est  aussi  plus  rationnel  d'admettre  que  le  changement 
de  type  ait  eu  lieu  au  commencement  du  regne  d' Azbaal 
apres  la  conquete  d'Idalie,  que  pendant  le  regne  de  son 
pere  qui  n'etuit  roi  que  de  Citium. 

87  Revue  Num.  1883,  p.  324—327,  n.  6—19. 

'8  Ibid,  p.  327—329,  n.  21—27.  Le  D.  20,  s'il  est  de  Baal- 
melek, conviendrait  mieux  au  second  roi  de  ce  nom  qu'au 

>i*v^ep-  33  330)  D-  28>  29;  Lu^nes'  8atr"P-  et  Panicle, 
ri.  AY,  do — 40. 

"  M.   de  Yogue  place  Azbaal  avant  Baalmelek,  Rev.   Num. 
#7,  p.  368,  Mel.  d'Arch.  Orient.  App.  p.  7,  mais  les  stateres 
au  type  du  lion  accroupi  ne  lui  ctaient  pas  encore  connus 
Luynes,  Satrap.  PI.  XIV,  n.  22— 25bis 


Heureusement  que  quelques  rares  stateres  de  Baalmelek 
permettent  de  decider  la  question.  Us  font  voir,  en 
meme  temps,  qu'un  roi  de  ce  nom  a  eu  pour  successeur 
immediat  le  roi  Baalram,92  comme  il  a  succede  lui-meme  a 
Azbaal.  M.  Berger  a  done  vu  juste  en  donnant  au  fils 
d'Azbaal  le  nom  de  son  grand-pere. 

Ces  stateres  qui  ne  proviennent  pas,  comme  ceux  de 
Baalmelek  I,  de  la  grande  trouvaille  de  Dali,  mais  dont 
un  exemplaire  a  ete  recueilli  au  meme  lieu  dans  un  petit 
tresor  de  date  plus  recente,93  ou  il  n'y  avait  pas  d'autre 
statere,  se  distinguent  par  une  croix  ansee  placee  dans  le 
champ  du  droit  et  par  leur  style,  bien  superieur  a  celui 
des  autres  stateres  de  Baalmelek  et  d'Azbaal.  Us  se 
relient  par  la  aux  monnaies  de  Baalram,  qui  ont  le  meme 
symbole  et  sont  du  meme  style.  En  voici  la  description. 


18.  Hercule,  revetu  de  la  peau  de  lion,  marchant  a  droite, 

tenant  de  la  main  gauche  etendue  1'arc  et  brandis- 
sant  de  la  droite  levee  la  massue.  Devant  lui  croix 

Rev. — Lion,  a  droite,  attaquant  un  daim,  couch e  a  droite  ; 
au-dessus  y/vy4—  o<J^,  (ibftb— 37 H1/) ;  le  tout  dans 
un  carre  creux  borde  de  perles.  Beau  style. 

M  6/5.  10,90.  Coll.  Imhoof.94 

19.  Autre,  .  .  -fA  o  —  £  .  ,  (-p)EM-n(b). 

92  Quand  j'ai  place  Baalram  aprds  Demonicus,  Zeltschr.f. 
Numism.    XIV,  1886,   p.   144,  je   ne   savais  pas  encore    que 
Melekiaton  a  regne  30  ans  au-moins. 

93  Num.  Ghron.  1871,  p.  1—3. 

94  Sur  1'exemplaire  du  Cab.  de  France,  Luyn.  Satrap.  Pi.  XIV, 
22,  du  reste  tout  pareil,  1'arc  et  le  symbole  ne  paraissent  pas 
etre  visibles. 


Al  5.  11,01.  Brit.  Mus.  Num..  Chron.,  1871,  p.  17  n.  1. 
Rev.  Num.,  1883,  p.  827  n.  21,  trouvaille  de  Dali. 
10,48  fruste.     Ma  coll.   Cat.  Badeigs  de  La  Borde, 
n.  512  ;  Rev.  Num.  1.  c.  n.  22,  incorrectement. 

20.  Autre, 

Al  2.  Drachme.  Luynes,  Clioix,  PL  XI,  13. 


21.  Memes    types    et    probablement    meine    syrubole  ; 

^\L  c  9  _  Z-,  n-ibsn-b. 

M  5.  11,05.  M.  Sorlin-Dorigny,  Rev.  Num.,  1884,  p.  290 

22.  Autre,  wwww?  symbole, 

^  2£.  3,50.  Ma  coll.,  Rev.  Num.  1883  /.  c.  n.  23. 

23.  Autre,  me  me  symbole,  sans  Uyende. 

M  2.  1,80.  Ma  coll.,  Rev.  Num.  1.  c.  n.  30  ;   Num.  Chron. 
1871,  p.  17,  n.  5,  6. 

24.  Tete  d'Hercule,  dans  la  peau  de  lion,  a  droite. 

Rev.  —  Meme  revers,  sans  legende. 

M  1.  0,97  ;  0,90  ;  Rev.  Num.  1.  c.  n.  31  ;  Num.  Chr.  I.  c.  n.  7,  10. 
„  1.  0,50—0,33  „          „     n.  32          „  ,,    n.  8. 

„  i.  0,24,    0,20  „         „     n.  33          „  „    n.  9. 

Ces  divisions,  qui  proviennent  du  meme  depot  que  le 
n.  14,  me  semblent  de  trop  beau  style  pour  les  classer  au 
regne  precedent.  L'absence  de  legende  s'explique  par 
Fexiguite  du  flan. 

25.  Hercule  combattant  du  n.  18.     Meme  symbole. 

Rev.—  M£me  revers, 
Meme  beau  style. 

M  4^.  10,92.  Coll.  de  M.  Irnhoof,  a  1'amitie  duquel  je 
dois  le  plaisir  de  pouvoir  publier  cette  monnaie  im- 
portante.—  PI.  V,  n.  12. 


Quoique  plusieurs  de  ces  legendes  soient  incompletes, 
elles  se  laissent  pourtant  toutes  restituer  avec  certitude. 

Sur  le  statere  n.  25  et  la  drachme  n  22,  il  n'y  a  place 
apres  le  b  que  pour  deux  lettres  dont  la  premiere  est  a 
moitie  visible  ;  il  faut  done  lire  Baal  raw.  Sur  le  statere 
n.  19,  par  contre,  il  y  a  place  pour  trois  lettres  et  il  reste 
assez  de  la  premiere  pour  s'assurer  que  c'est  un  to.  En 
outre,  la  maniere  dont  la  legende  est  divisee  d'ordinaire 
par  le  bois  du  daim,  est  diffe  rente  sous  les  trois  regnes. 
En  rangeant  les  empreintes  que  M.  Head  et  M.  Imhoof 
ont  bien  voulu  me  donner,  en  ordre  cnronologique, 
d'apres  la  difference  ou  1'identite  des  coins,  j'ai  obtenu  le 
resultat  suivant :  bsn-rob,  bint-^b,  bsQT^-b  ;  -fbfcbsnb. 

lbtob-3?nb, -fbab^-nb ;  nnbsn-b,  Dnbrrn-bab.  On  pent 

done,  meme  quand  les  lettres  finales  font  defaut,  dis- 
tinguer  les  emissions  de  Baalme'lek  de  celles  de  Baalram. 

II  resulte  des  monnaies  qui  viennent  d'etre  decrites 
que  Baalram  a  d'abord  suivi  la  coutume  de  ses  prede- 
cesseurs  qui,  quoique  rois,  ne  s'intitulent  pas  ainsi  sur 
leurs  monnaies,  et  qu'il  n'a  place  son  titre  que  sur  ses 
emissions  posterieures,  exemple  suivi  par  ses  successeurs 
Melekiaton  et  Pumiaton.  C'est  ce  que  nous  ignorions 
encore  et  c'est  le  statere  de  M.  Imhoof  qui  nous  1'apprend. 

II  s'en  suit  aussi  que  ce  roi  Baalram  n'est  pas  le  Baal- 
ram, pere  de  Melekiaton.  que  mentionnent  les  inscriptions 
idaliennes  de  la  IIe  et  III6  annee  de  ce  roi,95  et  qui  ne 
porte  aucun  titre.  Ce  n'est  pas  non  plus,  comme  le  sup- 
pose M.  Sorlin-Dori gn 3^,  Yanax  Baalram,  fils  d'Abdimilcon 
(Abdmelek),  qui  dedie  une  statue  la  IYe  annee96  et  qui  a 
ete  identifie  par  M.  Renan  avec  le  pere  du  roi.97 

95  Corp.  inscr.  Scmit.  I,  p.  106,  n.  90  et  p.  101,  n.  88. 

96  Ibid.  p.  104,  n.  89. 

97  Ibid.  p.  106. 


A  moms  done  de  supposer  que  le  roi  Baalram  ait  ete 
oblige  par  une  revolution  ou  par  ordre  du  roi  de  Perse 
d'abdiquer  en  faveur  de  son  fils,  ce  qui  me  parait  peu 
probable,  vu  que  son  fils  lui  aurait  toujours  conserve* 
son  titre  dans  les  inscriptions,  il  vaut  mieux,  ce  me 
semble,  admettre  que  Baalram  est  mort,  apres  un  regne 
fort  court, — d'apres  la  rarete'  de  ses  monnaies, — sans 
laisser  de  fils,  et  qu'il  a  ete  succede  par  son  plus  procbe 
parent, — et  son  gendre  ? 98 —  Melekiaton,  issu  d'un  autre 
Baalram,  cousin  "  peut-etre  du  roi  defunt. 

Si  ce  second  Baalram  est  a  identifier  avec  I9 anax  Baal- 
ram, comme  Tadmet  M.  Renan,  son  pere  Abdmelek  pour- 
rait  etre  considere  comme  le  fils  cadet  de  Baalmelek  I  et 
nous  obtlendrions  la  genealogie  suivante,  ou  les  mots  Baal 
et  Melek  alternent  d'une  facon  tres  reguliere. 

Les  dates  appose'es  seront  discutees  plus  loin. 

(470)— (450)                             Roi  Baalmelek  I. 

(450)—  (425)       Roi  Azbaal.  Abdmelek. 

(425)— (405)  Roi  Baalmelek  II.         Anax  Baalram. 

(405)— 394  Roi  Baalram. 

393—362  Fffle?-    — Roi  Melekiaton. 

387suiv.  RoiDemonicus. 

361—312  R, 

38  Si  Melekiaton  n'avait  pas  ete  le  gendre  du  roi,  on  ne  voit 
pas  pourquoi  il  aurait  succede  au  trone  de  preference  a  son 
pere  qui  vivait  encore. 

anax  est  en  Cypre  le  titre  des  fils  et  des  freres  du 
roi,  il  ne  m'a  pas  semble  trop  hardi  de  voir  en  Baalram  le  petit- 
nls  du  premier  Baalmelek. 


Les  inscriptions  publics  dans  le  Corpus  inscr.  Semitic. 
ne  mentionnent  que  la  2e,  3e,  4e  et  6e  anne*e  du  regne  de 
Melekiaton  et  comme  les  monnaies  qui  portent  son  nom 
sont  peu  nombreuses  et  ne  sont  point  datees,  j'ai  cru 
autrefois  pouvoir  bonier  eon  regne  a  ces  six  annees  et  le 
placer  entre  368  et  362. 10°  Depuis,  deux  nouvelles  in- 
scriptions bilingues,  trouvees  en  1885  a  Tamassos,  sont 
venues  me  tirer  d'erreur.101  L'une  est  datee  de  1'an  17,  ou 
plus  probablement  18  ou  19,  1'autre  de  1'an  30  du  roi.  Mele*- 
kiaton  a  done  compte  au-moins  30  ans  de  regne  et  comme 
1'accession  de  son  fils  Pumiaton  tombe  en  361,  ainsi  que 
j'ai  tache  de  le  deinontrer,102  le  pere  est  a  placer  d'avant 
392  a  362. 

Comment  se  fait-il  que  nous  n'ayons  que  si  peu  de 
monnaies  pour  un  si  long  regne  ? 

La  vraie  cause  me  semble  avoir  ete  indiquee,  plutot 
qu'exposee,  par  M.  Euting.103  En  387,  les  Atbeniens, 
sous  le  commandement  de  Chabrias,  aiderent  Evagoras  I 
a  se  rendre  maitre  de  1'ile  entiere.104  C'est  alors  que  le  roi 
de  Citium  aura  ete  detrone'  et  remplace  par  un  grec, 
designe  par  le  roi  de  Salamine  et  il  ne  sera  parvenu  £ 

100  Rev.  Num.  1883,  p.  335,  ou  468—462  est  une  faute  d'iin- 
pression  que  je  regrette  fort  de  n'avoir  pas  remarque"e  a  temps. 
M.  de  Vogue  donne  une  dixaine  d'annees  a  Melekiaton,  Rev. 
Num.  1867,  p.  372,  Mel.  d'arch.  App.  p.  11. 

101  Deecke,  Philol  Wochenschr.  1886,  n.  42,  col.  1322  suiv.  ; 
Proceed.    Soc.    of    Bill.    Arch.    1886/7,    Wright,    p.    47—51, 
Berger,  p.   100 — 104,    153 — 156;    Berger,    Comptes-rendus  d& 
VAcad.  des  Imcr.,XV,  1887,  p.  187—198,  Memoirs  cite, p.  1—14; 
Euting,  Sitzungsb.  d.  Berl.  Akad.  1887,  IX,  p.  115—123. 

102  Rev.   Num.  1883,  p.  338—342.     Depuis  j'ai  acquis  une 
hemidarique  de  1'an  28  de  Purniaton,  et  j'ai  constate  que  la 
date  de  celle  du  Cab.  de  la  Haye  n'eet  pas  25,  mais  47. 

103  1.  c.  p.  119. 

104  Nepos,  Chabr.  2  ;  Diodor.   XV,  2  ;  Beloch,   Att.  Politik 
seit  Perikles,  1884,  p.  356,  359; 

VOL.    VIII.    TH1RP    SERIES.  S 


reconquerir  son  autorite*  que  quelques  annees  plus  tard, 
pendant  qu'Evagoras  etait  bloque  dans  Salamine  par  les 
Perses  ou  meme  en  379/8,  quand  la  paix  fut  con- 

Les  inscriptions  ne  s'opposent  pas  a  cette  hypothese. 
Si  on  place  les  six  premieres  annees  avant  387,  de  393  a 
388,  la  duree  du  regne  de  Melekiaton  aurait  ete  de  32  ans. 
Les  dates  17/19  et  30  tomberaient  en  377/375  et  en  364 
et  il  resterait  une  dixaine  d'annees,  de  387  a  378,  pour  le 
regne  passager  d'un  grec.  Get  espace  est  plus  que  suffi- 
sant  pour  y  placer  les  rares  monnaies  que  M.  de  Vogue 
a  assignees  a  un  roi  de  Citium  du  nom  de  Demonicus 106  et 
celles  que  j'y  ai  ajoutees,  surtout  depuis  que  j'ai  reconnu 
que  ce  nom  ne  se  lit  pas,  comme  je  1'ai  cru  a  tort,  sur  le 
statere  du  British  Museum,  aux  types  de  Zeus  assis  et 
d'Aphrodite  debout  devant  un  thymiaterion.107  La  legende 
du  revers  est  en  realite,  fiaaiXefos  TV/xo%a/9*/~b9  et  non 
paatXefos  Aa/zoV*  icaaiye  .  ,  et  M.  Head,  qui  a  bien  voulu 
examiner  le  statere  confie  a  sa  garde,  confirme  ma  lecture 

Si  done,  comme  les  types  et  les  le*gendes  semblent  Pin- 
diquer,  un  Demonicus  a  regne  sur  Citium  et  Idalie,109  ce 
regne  ephemere  peut  etre  place  de  387  jusqu'a  379  peut- 

105  J.  Scharfe,  de  Euagora  vita,  1866,  p.  30. 

106  Eev.  Num.  1867,  p.  377—379;  Mel.  d'arch.  ^pp.-p.  16, 18. 

107  Num.  Chron.  1882,  p.  89—102,  PI.  V.;  Rev.  Num.  1883, 
p.  287,  n.  24,  PL  VI,  13. 

108  Hist.  Num.  p.  625.     J'ai  deja  eu  1'occasion  d'indiquer  la 
correction  dans  la  Z.f,  N.  XIV,  1886,  p.  144. 

109  Comme  1'Hercule  combattant  est  le  type  de  Citium,  la 
Pallas  armee  des  monnaies  de  Demonicus  me  semble  etre  le 
type  d'Idalie,  ou,  d'apres  les  inscriptions  Cyriotes,  cette  deesse 
etait  veneree  specialement.     Le  type  de  Pallas,  assise  sur  la 
proue,  ferait  allusion  a  la  flotte  Athenienne ;  sans  son  secours 
Demonicus  ne  serait  pas  monte  sur  le  trone. 


etre,  celui  de  Melekiaton  d'environ.  393  jusqu'en  387  et 
d'environ  379  jusqu'en  362  et  par  consequent  celui  de 
Baalram  d'environ  405  a  394. 

Les  dates  a  assignor  aux  trois  premiers  rois  seront  alors, 
en  donnant  25  ans  a  Azbaal  dont  les  monnaies  sont  nom- 
breuses,  et  20  ans  a  chacun  des  deux  autres,  470  a  450 
pour  Baalmelek  I,  450  a  425  pour  Azbaal  et  425  a  405 
pour  Baalmelek  II. 

Puisque  Baalmelek  I  ne  porte  pas  le  titre  de  roi  d'Idalie, 
comme  ses  successeurs,  cette  ville  parait  avoir  etc*  encore 
autonome  sous  son  regne,  quoique  les  stateres  du  roi  soient 
sou  vent  surfrappes  sur  ceux  de  la  ville.  C'est  done  Azbaal 
qui  s'en  sera  rendu  maitre,  bien  probablement  lorsque 
les  Atheniens  apres  avoir  vainement  assiege  Citium  en 
449,110  eurent  renonce  a  soutenir  les  villes  grecques  de 
Cypre  contre  les  Perses.111 

C'est  encore  a  1'epoque  de  Baalram,  sin  on  a  son  regne, 
qu'on  pour  rait  assigner  la  drachme  anepigraphe  suivante, 
jusqu'ici  inedite. 

26.  Hercule  marchant  a  droite,  sans  peau  de  lion,  brandis- 
sant  la  massue  de  la  main  droite  levee,  et  saisissant 
de  la  gauche  etendue  un  petit  lion  qui,  retournant  la 
tete,  grimpe  sur  la  cuisse  gauche  du  heros.  Derriere 
lui  croix  ansee.  Grenetis. 

Rev. — Lion  rugissant,  accroupi  a  gauche,  la  patte  droite 
levee.  Dans  le  fond,  derriere  la  patte  gauche  du  lion, 
un  bceuf  marchant  &  gauche,  la  tete  levee.  Le  tout 
dans  un  carre  creux,  peu  profond,  borde  de  perles. 

M  3.  3.20.  Coll.  Imhoof.— PI.  V,  13. 

110  Busolt,  Griecli.  GescUclite  II,  1888,  p.  509. 

111  Je  n'ai  pas  admis  dans  ma  liste  Abdemon,  qui  ne  parait 
pas  avoir  regne  a  Citium,  mais  a  Salamine,  dont  ses  monnaies, 
encore  inedites,  portent  les  types. 


Quoiqu'un  lion  accroupi  soit  le  type  des  plus  anciennes 
inonnaies  de  Citium  et  de  celles  de  Baalmelek  I,  cette 
drachme-ci  est  d'un  style  beaucoup  trop  recent  pour  la 
classer  parmi  les  emissions  du  5e  siecle.  II  est  plus  pro- 
bable qu'au  commencement  du  siecle  suivant,  on  aura 
renouvele  les  anciens  types  de  la  ville  en  leur  donnant 
une  forme  plus  recente.  Cela  doit  avoir  eu  lieu  avant 
Demonicus,  dont  les  monnaies  portent  un  Hercule  luttant 
contre  le  lion,  de  style  bien  posterieur  a  celui-ci  et  apres 
Taccession  d'Evagoras  I,  puisque  le  seul  boeuf  qui  res- 
semble  a  celui  de  la  drachme,  se  voit  sur  la  plus  ancienne 
monnaie  d'Evagoras,  ou  il  est  conduit  par  Nike,112  ce  qui 
motive  sa  pose. 


Voici  enfin  quelques  monnaies  qui  ne  sont  pas  incon- 
nues,  mais  dont  la  legende,  en  caracteres  arameens,  est 
reste"e  obscure  jusqu'ici.  Le  poids  et  les  types  sont  ceux 
des  tetradrachmes  d'Athenes  du  4e  siecle ;  aussi  est-ce  a 
la  suite  des  monnaies  d'Athenes  qu'elles  ont  ^te  classees. 

27.  Tete  de  Pallas  Athena,  portant  le  casque  athenien,  a 
cimier,  orne  d'un  sarment  de  vigne  et  de  trois  feuilles 
d'olivier,  a  droite. 

Rev.-- -Chouette  debout  a  droite.     Derriere  elle,  pousse 
d'olivier  et  croissant ;  devant,  croissant  au-dessus  de 
,  et  *JMM>  TID;  beau  style. 

112  Zeitschr.  f.  Niimi&m,  XIV,  1886,  p.  147  n.  1. 


a.  M  7.  17,20.  Empreinte    communiquee    par   M.    Feu- 

ardent  ;  provenance  Egypte. 

b.  M  7.  16,21.  Coll.  de  M.  H.  B.  Earle  Fox,  a  Athenes. 

Autre,  ^  \  1  V\  . 

c.  M  7.  --  Coll.  de  Luynes,  Beule,  Monn.  d'  Athenes, 

p.  45  vign.  ;  Blau,  Numism.  Zeitsckr.  IV,  1872,  p.  133 
vign.  ;  Num.  Chron.  1877,  p.  223,  n.  14. 

d.  Si  6i.  14,97  fruste.  Brit.  Mas.,    Cat.    Attica,  p.   25, 

n.  263,  PI.  VII,  1. 

e.  M  7±.  15,98.  Ibid.  n.  264,  legende  illisible. 
/.    „  6.    15,08.  Ibid.  n.  265. 

Ces  trois  exemplaires  proviennent  d'Egypte. 

Autre,  H  \  \  « 
g.  JSi  6.  16,69.  Ma  coll. 

28.   Autre,    meme   legende,    et    a   gauche    de    la    chouette, 
b^113  ou 

M  6.  --  fruste.  M.  le  Dr.  W.  Froehner,  a  Paris,  Num. 
Chron.  1.  c. 

29.  Autre,  U/s^-\X»  et,  a  gauche,  •^tj,  yn?114  sans  pousse 

-31  5£.  16,27.  Mus.  de  Berlin  ;  Von  Sallet,  Zeitschr.  fur 
Numism.  XV,  1887,  p.  14  vign.     Trouve  a  Beyrouth. 

Une  entaille,  plus  ou  moms  profonde,  en  forme  de  «£» 
a  e*te*  apposee,  en  contremarque,  sur  la  tete  de  Pallas,  ct  et 
sur  la  chouette,  a,  b,  c,  /,  g.  En  outre,  une  rosette  est 
poinconnee  sur  la  chouette  d,  et  ^ooD  sur  la  chouette  g 
et  la  tete  a. 

La  legende,  tracee  d'abord  en  caracteres  tres  reguliers 
et  bien  forme's,  devient  a  la  fin  si  cursive  qu'elle  n'est 

113  Cp.  n9\ 

114  Cp.  r?*?  et  V7. 


lisible  qu'en  la  comparant  a  celle  des  Emissions  an- 

Elle  est  a  transcrire  -p3»  car  la  derniere  lettre  n'est 
pas  un  nun,  comme  1'a  cru  Blau,  mais  un  caph,  comme  je 
crois  1'avoir  demontre  ailleurs.115 

Pendant  longtemps  je  n'ai  pu  deviner  quel  nom  se 
cachait  sous  ces  quatre  lettres,  jusqu'a  ce  qu'enfin  la  pro- 
venance egyptienne  de  plusieurs  exemplaires  me  fit  penser 
qu'il  s'agissait  d'un  nom  propre  egyptien  se  terminant 
en  ky  comme  Psamtik,  ^Ta^^TL^o^  et  autres.  Or  les  noms 
>>  2«<™xt9?  Ilao-oux^,  Ylerecrov^,  Soir^a?,  Se- 
var-  2eu>7XW9,116  derives  de  celui  du  dieu  Sebek, 
m'induisent  a  transcrire  -pD  par  2ew%w?  ou  Se^t'x^9' 
comme  les  grecs  nommaient  le  second  roi  de  la  25e  dynas- 
tie  egyptienne,  Sabataka,  tandis  que  son  predecesseur 
Sabaka  est  nomme  Sa|3a/cwi/.117 

D'apres  Arrien,  le  satrape  d'Egypte,  tu^  a  la  bataille 
d'Issos,  en  Novembre  333,  se  nommait  SctjSa^?,118  et  c'est 
a  ce  personnage  que  je  voudrais  attribuer  les  tetradrachmes 
attiques  qui  viennent  d'etre  deer  its. 

Us  sont  du  moins  de  son  temps  ;  le  style  en  est  identique 
d  celui  des  tetradrachmes  d'Athenes  que  M.  Head  date, 
avec  raison,  d'avant  322  et  ils  sont  mieux  graves  que  ceux 
qu'il  a  fait  figurer  sur  sa  planche.119 

Une  emission  de  tetradrachmes  atheniens  au  nom  du 

115  Num.  Chron.  1884,  p.  115. 

116  Parthey,  Mgypt.  Personennamen,  1864.     Sur  la  prononcia- 
tion  v  du  b  egyptien  dans  plusieurs  mots,  v.  de  Rouge,  Mem.  sur 
Vorig.  egypt.  de  V alphabet  phen.  p.  82. 

"'  SlD,  2  Rois  17,  4 ;   Wiedemann,  Aegypt.  Gesch.,  p.  583. 

118  Arrien,  Anab.  II,  11,  8;    Quinte  Curce  III,  11,   10,  et 
IV.,  1,  28,  donne  Sabaces,  Sataces,  et  autres  variantes.     Dans 
Diodore  XVIII,  34,  le  nom  est  corrompu  en  Ta<ria/o;s. 

119  Cat.  Brit  Mus.,  Attica,  f I  V,  3—6,  p.  13, 14,  n.  132^-147. 


satrape  d'Egypte  convient  aussi  parfaitement  aux  circon- 

Quand  le  roi  Darius  III  apprit  la  mort  de  Memnon, 
auquel  il  avait  confie,  apres  la  bataille  du  Granique,  le 
commandement  de  la  flotte  et  de  1'armee  d'Asie-mineure, 
il  resolut  de  marcher  lui-meme  en  tete  de  1'armee  a  la 
rencontre  d'Alexandre  et  donna  Pordre  d'enroler  le  plus 
grand  nombre  possible  de  mercenaires  grecs  et  de  les  faire 
transporter  par  la  flotte  perse  a  Tripolis,  d'ou  Thymondas, 
le  fils  de  Mentor,  les  conduisit  vers  Parmee  perse.120 

Les  preparatifs  de  la  guerre  et  la  solde  de  tant  de 
mercenaires  exigeaient  de  fortes  sommes,  et  les  satrapes 
de  Syrie,  de  Phenicie  et  d'Egypte,  les  plus  proches  du 
theatre  de  la  guerre,  ont  du  etre  requis  les  premiers  a 
faire  battre  monnaie  en  quantite  suffisante.  Nous 
connaissons  les  emissions  faites  alors  par  ordre  du  satrape 
de  Syrie,  Mazaios.121  Pourquoi  n'en  admettrions  nous  pas 
de  Sabaces  ? 

Mais  les  Egyptiens  n'avaient  pas  de  monnaies  a  eux  ;  il 
fallait  en  outre  des  especes  que  les  mercenaires  accepteraient 
avec  confiance.  Le  satrape  n'avait  done  le  choix  qu'entre 
des  dariques  d'or,  solde  ordinaire  des  grecs122  et  des 
chouettes  atheniennes  qui  circulaient  de  longue  date  en 
masse  en  Egypte,  ou  les  apportait  le  commerce  et  les 
relations  in  times  qu'Athenes  a  toujours  entretenues  avec 
1J Egypte.  II  est  bien  probable  que  le  satrape  n'avait  pas 
Tautorisation  de  battre  de  Tor ;  il  ne  lui  restait  done 
qu'une  emission  de  chouettes  et  je  suis  persuade  qu'il  l'a 

120  Arrien,  Anab.  II,  13,  2 ;  Q.  Gurce,  III,  3,  1  ;  8,  1 ;  9,  2 ; 
Droysen,  Hellen.  I,  1,  p.  239—241,  267. 

121  Num.  Chron.  1884,  p.  115. 

122  Xenophon,  Anab.  I,  3,  21 ;  VII,  6,  1. 


Mais  ou  ont-elles  £te  frappees  s'il  n'y  avait  pas  d'atelier 
monetaire  en  Egypte  ? 

En  comparant  attentivement  les  tetradrachmes  de 
Sabaces  avec  ceux  d'Athenes,  je  n'ai  pu  constater  aucune 
difference  de  style  ou  d'execution ;  c'est  tout-a-fait  le 
meme  faire.  Seulement  ceux  du  satrape  semblent  frappes 
avec  plus  de  soin  et  le  flan  en  est  plus  large  ;  il  leur 
manque  cet  aspect  d'archaisme  affecte  qui  caracte*rise  les 
dernier es  emissions  atheniennes,  anterieures  a  1'an  322. 

II  faut  done  admettre  que  le  satrape  ait  trouve  en  Egypte 
des  ouvriers  capables  de  graver  des  coins  qui  ne  se  laissent 
pas  distinguer  de  ceux  de  1'atelier  d'Athenes,  ou  bien, 
ce  qui  ne  me  parait  pas  improbable,  qu'il  s'est  adresse 
aux  Atheriiens  et  que  ceux-ci  lui  ont  procure  les  coins  d 
son  nom  et  peut-etre  meme  les  tetradrachmes  tout  frappes, 
contre  remboursement  en  ble  ou  autre  marchandise.  Cette 
supposition  serait  trop  hasardee  si  nous  ne  savions  que 
les  Atheniens  etaient  fort  hostiles  au  roi  de  Macedoine, 
que  leur  ambassadeur  se  trouvait  alors  a  la  cour  de  Darius 
avec  ceux  de  Thebes  et  de  Sparte,  et  qu'eux-memes 
n'attendaient  qu'un  revers  de  1'arm^e  grecque  pour  se 
declarer  ouvertement  contre  Alexandre.123  Auraient-ils 
neglige  de  profiter  de  1' occasion  pour  rendre  service  au 
satrape  d5 Egypte,  surtout  s'il  etait  egyptien,  comme  son 
nom  semble  1'indiquer  ? 

Ce  qui  me  confirme  dans  cette  opinion,  c'est  que  les 
contremarques  et  les  entailles,  souvent  tres  profondes, 
apposees  au  beau  milieu  de  presque  tous  les  exemplaires 
du  n.  27,  s'expliquent  le  mieux  comme  marques  de  con- 
trole  ;  avant  d'accepter  les  pieces  re9ues  de  Tetranger,  le 

Droysen,  1.  c.  p.  242,  272—275,  277. 


satrape  les  aura  fait  peser  et  poinconner  une  a  une,  pour 
s'assurer  qu'elles  n'etaient  pas  fourrees. 

Quoi  qu'il  en  soit  de  cette  hypothese  et .  que  les  coins 
soient  I'oBuvre  d'artistes  egyptiens  ou  ath^niens,  il  ne  me 
semble  pas  douteux  que  les  tetradrachmes  en  question  ont 
et&  ^mis  par  ordre  de  Sabaces,  dans  Panne'e  meme  de  sa 
mort  a  Issos,  en  333. 

Les  noras,  peu  distincts,  qui  se  lisent,  outre  le  sien,  sur 
les  n.  28  et  29,  a  gauche  de  la  chouette,  sont  peut-etre 
ceux  de  questeurs,  charges  du  payernent  de  la  solde  aux 
mercenaires  debarques  a  Tripolis.  C'est  dans  cette  ville, 
qui  possedait  sans  doute  un  atelier  monetaire,  que  cee 
chouettea,  dont  la  legende  est  bien  moins  soignee,  auront 
^t^  executees  en  grande  hate,  a  Tapproche  d^Alexandre. 

II  se  peut  que  ces  tetradrachmes  ne  sont  pas  les  seules 
mommies  aux  types  d'Athenes,  emises  en  Egypte  avant 
que  ce  pays  ne  se  soumit  a  Alexandre,  mais  jusqu'ici  je 
n'en  ai  pas  rencontr^  q\ii  puissent  etre  attributes  avec 
certitude  a  cette  contree,  tandis  que  celles  qui  ont  ^te 
f rappees  en  Arabic  sont  nombreuses  et  variees.124 

J.  P.  Six. 


™  Head,  Hist.  Num.  p.  687,  688- 




A  CURIOUS  little  coin  came  into  the  possession  of  my  friend 
Mr.  W.  S.  Churchill,  of  Manchester,  not  long  ago,  and 
in  studying  it  a  question  was  raised  in  my  mind  which, 
unorthodox  as  it  is,  seems  to  be  worth  bringing  before 
the  Numismatic  Society.  The  coin  may  be  described  as 
follows : — 

Obv. — +REXXEVNAM.  Rude  bust,  resembling  the  so- 
called  Irish  type  of  ^Ethelred  II.  (Hawkins,  207)  to 
right ;  four  pellets  •  ">•  in  place  of  mouth. 

jftw._+LEFVINE  ON  LINE0.  In  inner  circle  a  simple 
cross,  cantonned  with  four  crescents,  the  ends  of 
each  crescent  terminating  in  pellets.  Size  *7  in. 
Weight  11  grs. 

I  attribute  this  coin  to  Magnus  the  Good,  King  of  Den- 
mark, 1042 — 1047,  believing  the  obverse  legend  to  be 
partially  retrograde,  EVNAM  for  MANVE,  and  I  am  con- 
firmed in  this  by  the  following  coins  : — 1st.  The  coin 
described  in  Herr  C.  F.  Herbst's  letter  to  the  late  Mr. 
Henfrey,  published  in  Num.  Chron.  N.S.  xx.  p.  230. 


Obv.— +MS1]NVX  EEX.     Type  as  Hawkius,    218  (ffilde- 
brand,  Danish). 

Rev.-  +LEFJ7INE   0N  LINE0.     Type   as  Hawkins,  217 
(Hildebrand,  type  A). 

2nd.  A  coin  described  in  the  catalogue  of  the  mediaeval 
coins  of  the  late  Herr  C.  J.  Thomsen,  No.  9,975. 

Obv. — +MAHNVS  +  LI.     Buste  a  gauche  avec  un  casque 
raye  ;  devant,  une  petite  tete  de  face. 

Rev. — +AEEIL  ON  LVND.     Oroix  simple,    cantonnee  de 
quatre  croissants,  dans  un  cercle. 

This  coin,  of  which  the  type  closely  resembles  Mr. 
Churchill's,  is  of  nearly  the  same  size  and  weight.  Size, 
17  mm. ;  weight,  about  '80  gramme. 

With  reference  to  the  reverse  of  the  first  coin,  Herr 
Herbst  writes,  "  Of  course  Magnus  could  not  strike  money 
in  Lincoln.  But  it  is  easy  to  read  the  riddle.  In  the 
royal  Danish  cabinet  is  an  English  penny  of  Magnus's 
predecessor,  Harthacnut,  struck  with  exactly  the  same 
reverse  die  as  the  above-described  coin  of  Magnus.  Thus 
it  appears  that  Lefwine  was  mint-master  at  Lincoln  under 
Harthacnut,  at  whose  death  he  takes  service  under  King 
Magnus  and  removes  to  Denmark.  When  here,  quite 
disregarding  the  changes  which  had  taken  place,  on  one 
of  the  coins  which  he  strikes  for  his  new  master,  Magnus, 
he  uses  one  of  his  old  dies  which  he  had  brought  over 
with  him  from  England." 

The  late  Herr  Hildebrand,  in  the  second  edition  of  his 
Anglosachsiska  Mynt,  in  a  note  on  page  196,  also  states 
that  English  moneyers  were  employed  in  the  Scandinavian 
kingdoms.  "Examples  are  also  found  that  English 
moneyers  in  foreign  lands  struck  coins,  upon  which  they 
placed  the  names  of  the  English  towns  from  which  they 
came.  In  the  Royal  Swedish  Coin  Cabinet  there  is  a 


coin  of  Olof  Skotkonung,  of  .ZEthelred's  type  C,  on  the 
reverse  of  which  is  read  ^LFRIE  A  pALIINBFOD  ( JElfrie, 
under  King  ^Ethelred,  struck  a  number  of  coins  of  dif- 
ferent types  in  Wallingford).  It  is  not  probable  that 
Olof  Skotkonung  had  coins  struck  in  England,  but  he 
employed  English  moneyers."  See  again,  on  page  390, 
in  his  remarks  on  the  types  of  Harthacnut.  Further,  the 
editor  of  the  catalogue  of  Herr  Thomsen's  mediaeval  coins 
adds  the  following  note  to  the  description  of  the  coin 
above  mentioned.  "  This  coin  is  very  remarkable.  Ac- 
cording to  the  legend  it  was  struck  at  Lund ;  but  the 
types  and  its  light  weight  cause  us  to  attribute  it  with 
certainty  to  Jutland.  Examples  are  even  known  of  coins- 
belonging  indisputably  to  Jutland,  which  claim  by  their 
legends  to  have  been  struck  in  English  mints."  And  he 
further  refers  to  another  coin  in  the  same  catalogue, 
No.  10,141,  attributed  to  Sven  ^Estrithsen,  Magnus's  suc- 
cessor, of  the  Danish  Byzantine  type,  with  Obv.}  Christ 
standing,  and  Rev.,  a  modification  of  .ZEthelred's  Irish 
type  and  the  legend  +  LEOEPINE  Oil  DOF. 

Seeing  that  it  is  now  allowed  that  "the  first  coins 
certainly  struck  in  Denmark,  Norway,  or  Sweden  are  all 
copied  from  types  of  -ZEthelred  IL's  coins  "  (Keary's  In- 
troduction to  the  Catalogue  of  English  Coins  in  the  British 
Museum,  p.  xxx.),  it  is  not  unreasonable  to  suppose  that 
English  moneyers  were  employed  to  start  the  coinage  in 
those  countries.  In  confirmation  of  this  it  may  be  noted 
that  JELFKIE,  who  appears  in  Hildebrand's  list  of  money- 
ers at  Wallingford  under  ^Ethelred  II.,  on  coins  Nos. 
3,891  and  3,899,  does  not  again  appear  in  Hildebrand's 
lists  of  moneyers  at  that  town  under  any  of  the  succeed- 
ing kings.  The  Lefwine,  Lefvine,  or  Leofwine,  who 
appears  in  Hildebrand's  lists  of  moneyers  at  Lincoln 


under  Cnut,  Nos.  1,593—4,  and  1,608—1,621,  under 
Harold  I.,  Nos.  405 — 6  and  415 — 16,  and  who,  according 
to  Herr  Herbst,  also  figures  on  an  English  penny  of  Har- 
thacnut,  does  not  appear  under  Lincoln  on  any  coin  of 
Edward  the  Confessor  in  Hildebrand,  nor  in  Mr.  Head's 
account  of  the  Chancton  find  (Num.  Chron.  N.S.  vii.  p.  63), 
but  his  name  does  appear  in  Mr.  Willett's  list  of  the  City 
hoard  (Num.  Chron.,  N.S.  xvi.  p.  354),  and  in  Dr.  Evans's 
further  account  of  the  same  (Num.  Chron.,  3rd  S.  v. 
p.  271)  as  occurring  on  Mr.  Willett's  type  I  (Hilde- 
brand, type  A,  var.  C),  and  the  Leofwine,  Leoffwine,  or 
Lufwine,  who  appears  in  Hildebrand's  lists  of  moneyers 
at  Dover,  under  Cnut,  Nos.  335  and  347,  under  Harthac- 
nut  on  a  coin  of  type  A,  No.  27,  and  under  Edward  the 
Confessor  on  two  coins  of  type  C,  Nos.  78  and  79,  does 
not  appear  on  any  Dover  coin  in  the  Chancton  find  nor  in 
the  City  hoard. 

From  which  it  would  appear  that  the  three  above- 
named  moneyers  were  not  actively  employed  in  England 
at  the  times  when  the  coins  bearing  their  names  were 
struck  for  the  Scandinavian  kings ;  and  it  is  therefore 
not  improbable  that  ^Elfric  on  Wallingford,  moneyer 
under  ^thelred  II.,  took  service  under  King  Olof,  and 
perhaps  settled  in  Sweden ;  that  Lef  wine  on  Lincoln, 
moneyer  in  England  under  Cnut,  Harold,  and  Hartha- 
cnut,  after  the  latter's  death  (as  suggested  by  Herr 
Herbst),  or  perhaps  in  his  lifetime,  took  service  in  Den- 
mark, but  returned  to  England  towards  the  close  of  the 
reign  of  Edward  the  Confessor ;  whilst  Leofwine  on 
Dover,  moneyer  in  England  under  Cnut  and  Harthacnut, 
and  during  the  early  part  of  Edward  the  Confessor's 
reign,  afterwards  went  to  Denmark,  and  was  a  moneyer 
there  under  Sven  ^Estrithsen. 


With  the  evidence  afforded  by  these  coins,  confirming 
the  statement  of  the  great  Swedish  numismatist,  that 
"  English  moneyers  in  foreign  lands  struck  coins  upon 
which  they  placed  the  name  of  the  English  towns  from  which 
they  came,"  the  question  suggested  itself,  Is  it  quite 
certain  that  the  towns  named  on  the  coins  of  the  Anglo- 
Saxon  kings  always  represent  the  mints  where  the  coins 
were  struck  ?  or  may  they  not  be  simply  the  names  of 
the  towns  from  which  the  various  moneyers  came  ? 

Such  an  interpretation  would  explain  the  curious  and 
puzzling  coins  of  ^Ethelred  II.  with  the  names  of  Irish 
towns,  and  those  of  the  Irish  king  Sihtric  with  the  names 
of  English  towns  ;  for  if  the  Scandinavian  kings  called  in 
the  aid  of  English  moneyers  at  home,  it  seems  probable 
enough  that  the  Hiberno-Scandinavian  king,  under 
whom,  as  Dr.  Aquilla  Smith  has  shown  (Num.  Chron., 
3rd  S.,  ii.  p.  308),  the  Irish  coinage  began,  did  likewise  at 
his  newly  established  mint  in  Dublin,  nor  would  it  be  un- 
reasonable to  suppose  that  he  also  sent  some  of  his  own 
subjects  to  be  instructed  in  the  art  of  coining  at  one  or 
more  of  the  English  mints.  Here,  however,  Hildebrand 
fails  to  support  my  suggestion,  for  in  his  introductory 
remarks  on  Sihtric's  coins,  after  noticing  some  previously 
offered  explanations,  he  ventures  on  no  more  decided 
opinion  than  that  "  one  should  perhaps  simply  assume 
that  both  English  and  Irish  moneyers,  each  one  in  his 
own  home,  sometimes  found  themselves  induced  to 
strike  coins  with  the  names  of  contemporary  foreign 
princes  on.  the  obverse."  A  rather  unsatisfactory  con- 
clusion. He  might  have  applied  the  same  reasoning  to 
the  coin  of  Olof  Skotkonung,  already  cited  ;  perhaps  even 
to  the  coin  of  Magnus,  described  by  Herr  Herbst,  for 
Hawkins  includes  the  obverse  type  of  this  coin  in  his 


English  types  of  Harthacnut.  It  is  true  that  Hildebrand 
does  not  agree  with  him,  believing  the  type  to  be  Danish 
(A.  M.,  p.  391).  But  Mr.  Churchill's  coin  and  the  coin  of 
Sven  JEstrithsen  in  Thomsen's  catalogue  are  both  evidently 
Danish,  and  require  some  other  explanation.  The  sugges- 
tion quoted  in  the  second  edition  of  Hawkins's  English 
Silver  Coins,  p.  150,  that  Edgar  had  possessed  himself  of 
Ireland,  and  that  it  therefore  was  not  surprising  that  his 
son  should  have  struck  money  there,  would  no  doubt,  if 
tenable,  explain  ^Ethelred's  coins  with  the  names  of  Irish 
towns ;  but  it  would  leave  those  of  Sihtric  with  the  names 
of  English  towns  unexplained.  Whereas  if  we  could 
believe  that  Sih trie's  coins  with  the  names  of  English 
towns  were  struck  by  English  moneyers  in  his  employ, 
and  that  -ZEthelred's  and  Cnut's  coins  with  the  names  of 
Irish  towns  were  struck  by  subjects  of  Sihtric,  who  were 
learning  their  business  in  English  mints,  both  would  be 

If  the  reason  given  by  Hawkins  (p.  428)  for  placing 
the  moneyers'  names  on  the  coins  be  true,  viz.  :  "It  was 
probably  in  order  that  each  moneyer's  coins  might  be 
separated  at  the  trials  of  the  Pix,  and  that  each  might  be 
responsible  only  for  his  own  works,"  it  was  the  money er's 
name  which  was  of  importance,  for  doubtless  the  coins 
sent  for  trial  from  each  mint  would  not  be  sent  singly, 
but  in  quantity,  so  that  there  would  be  no  difficulty  in 
keeping  the  pieces  from  each  mint  separate. 

The  papers  by  the  late  Archdeacon  Pownall  (Num. 
Chron.,  ii.  p.  236,  and  xx.  p.  67)  and  by  Mr.  Willett 
(Num.  Chron.,  N.S.  xvi.  p.  327,  and  3rd  S.,  i.  p.  32)  on 
the  meaning  of  the  word  "  ON,"  and  the  evidence  afforded 
by  Danish  coins  in  favour  of  Archdeacon  Pownall's  read- 
ing of  it  as  IN,  the  Danish  I  replacing  the  Anglo-Saxon 


ON  on  the  coins  of  the  later  Danish  kings,  published  in 
Thomsen's  catalogue,  make  me  feel  some  diffidence  in 
bringing  this  question  before  the  Numismatic  Society,  and 
I  only  do  so  in  the  hope  that,  if  it  be  thought  worth  con- 
sidering, some  other  member  may  have  more  time  and 
better  opportunities  of  studying  it  than  I  have  here. 

In  conclusion,  from  the  weight  of  Mr.  ChurchilFs  coin, 
viz.  11  grains,  or  '71  gramme,  it  would  appear,  according 
to  the  editor  of  Thomson's  catalogue,  to  have  been  struck 
for  Jutland,  and  the  same  test  of  weight  applied  to  the 
curious  coin  which  gave  rise  to  the  correspondence  between 
Herr  Herbst  and  the  late  Mr.  Henfrey,  described  by  the 
latter  in  Num.  Chron.  N.S.,  xix.  p.  220,  confirms  Herr 
Herbst's  attribution  of  it  to  Denmark.  Mr.  Henfrey 
described  the  coin  as  being  in  "  very  perfect  preservation," 
and  yet  as  weighing  only  11  \  grains ;  now  Hildebrand,  who 
gives  the  highest  and  lowest  weights  of  each  type  of  the 
3,869  English  coins  of  Cnut  described  by  him,  had 
apparently  met  with  no  coin  amongst  them  weighing  less 
than  -90  gramme,  or  nearly  14  grains. 

Since  writing  the  above  I  find  that  the  type  of  Mr. 
Churchill's  coin  was  also  in  use  under  Harthacnut. 
Thomsen  had  a  coin,  No.  9,891,  described  as:  "Type, 
Buste  a  gauche,  avec  un  casque  forme*  de  rais,  dans  un  cercle. 
Ren,  Croix  simple,  cantonnee  de  quatre  croissants,  dans  un 
cercle.  Obv.  +  N-AEDEENVT.  Rev.  AEDEIN  ON  OEBEZ." 
Size  17-18  mm.,  weight  about  -75  gramme.  It  should  be 
noted  that,  in  his  catalogue,  the  coins  of  Denmark  are 
divided  into  those  of  Eastern  and  Western  Denmark.  To 
the  first,  comprising  .Scania  and  Zealand,  he  assigns  the 
coins  weighing  1  gramme ;  to  the  latter,  comprising  Jut- 
land, Schleswig,  and  Fiinen,  he  assigns  the  smaller  coins, 
weighing  70  to  *80  gramme. 




To  M.  Adolf  Erman,  attached  to  the  Royal  Cabinet  of 
Medals  at  Berlin,  we  are  indebted  for  the  first  attempt 
to  distinguish  and  classify  the  works  of  the  German 
medallists  of  the  sixteenth  and  seventeenth  centuries. 
This  tentative  sketch,  for  such  it  admittedly  is,  de- 
serves more  prominent  notice  than  it  has  hitherto 

The  German  medallists  differ  essentially  from  the  Italian 
in  this  respect,  that,  as  a  rule,  they  abstain  from  adding  a 
signature  to  their  work,  and  such  a  tribute  to  the  amour 
propre  of  the  artists  as  is  familiar  to  the  students  of 
Pisano,  Sperandeo,  Boldu,  and  others,  is  generally  want- 
ing beyond  the  Alps.  Even  when  a  name  is  hinted  at 
it  is  only  by  means  of  initials,  monogram,  or  mysterious 
cipher,  and  there  is  hardly  an  instance  in  the  whole  of 
M.  Erman's  work  of  a  full  signature  being  given. 
Hence  it  occurs  that  previous  writers  have  either 
ignored  the  subject  of  authorship  altogether,  or  at- 
tempted attributions  have  turned  out  to  be  palpable 

1  Deutsche  Medailleure  des  Sechszehnten  und  Siebzehnten 
Jahrhunderts,  von  Adolf  Erman.  Berlin :  Wiedmannsche 
Buchhandlung,  1884. 



blunders.  However,  science  is  advancing,  museums 
and  private  persons  have  been  collecting  and  collat- 
ing, and  archives  have  been  searched,  till  at  last  we 
are  in  a  fair  way  not  only  to  distinguish  with  certainty 
the  different  schools,  such  as  those  of  Nuremberg,  Augs- 
burg, Austria,  and  Saxony,  but  to  range  in  order  the  pro- 
ductions of  the  different  medallists.  Thus  one  monogram 
discovered  on  a  medal  may  easily  become  the  key  to  the 
authorship  of  a  whole  series,  for  in  some  cases  there  is 
enough  individuality  to  enable  it  to  be  identified  without 
the  closest  scrutiny.  Others,  of  course,  are  more  difficult 
to  determine  by  the  style  alone. 

M.  Erman  sweeps  away  as  untrustworthy  the  traditional 
information  supplied  by  the  earlier  writers  (with  the  single 
exception  of  Bergmann),  taking  contemporary  records  as 
the  only  source  of  certain  knowledge,  and  applying  the 
methods  of  his  late  chief,  Dr.  Friedlander,  when  dealing 
with  the  Italian  medallists.  His  plan  has  been  to  bring 
together  all  the  medals  bearing  a  similar  signature,  and 
to  add  to  each  list  such  others  as  may  be  indisputably 
assigned  to  the  same  hand,  the  precaution  being  taken  of 
distinguishing  by  an  asterisk  the  pieces  that  are  unsigned. 
As  in  the  case  of  the  Italian  medals,  a  grave  difficulty  is 
encountered  when  a  whole  series  is  found  without  a  single 
signature,  and  this  unfortunately  occurs  with  some  of  the 
best  work.  In  such  cases  the  artist  is  described  by  the 
leading  date  of  his  work,  as,  for  example,  the  medallist  of 
1525-6,  a  year  in  which  portraiture  in  medals  seems  to 
have  reached  its  most  brilliant  point  at  Nuremberg  and 

M.  Erman  well  remarks  that  a  particular  artist  was  in 
fashion  at  a  particular  time,  so  that  one  favourite  succeeded 
another  somewhat  rapidly,  and  the  greater  part  of  one 


individual's  work  was  not  spread  over  a  long  period.  At 
any  rate  an  artist  would  exhaust  one  place  or  court  and 
proceed  to  another.  This  fact  greatly  assists  the  work  of 
scientific  attribution,  so  far  as  it  is  affected  by  considera- 
tions of  time  and  place. 

An  important  feature  of  M.  Erman's  study  is  that  it 
relates  only  to  the  cast  medals,  as  opposed  to  those  that 
were  struck.  The  Germans  of  the  sixteenth  century 
excelled  all  others  in  the  perfection  of  their  casting,  and 
it  is  only  with  medals  obtained  from  models  in  relief  that 
we  are  now  concerned.  This  leads  to  the  question  of  the 
nature  of  the  material  of  the  models.  At  first  wood  seems 
to  have  been  the  usual  medium,  but  the  use  of  stone  soon 
followed,  a  species  of  hone  stone  of  the  hardest  quality 
being  chosen,  such  as  was  obtained  from  the  noted  quarries 
of  Kelheim,  in  Bavaria.  This  material  in  the  hands  of  the 
great  German  masters  was  capable  of  yielding  work  of 
extraordinarily  fine  character,  and,  owing  to  the  highly 
successful  methods  of  casting  above  referred  to,  the  medal 
that  resulted  almost  equalled  the  model  itself  in  sharpness. 
The  models  in  wood,  on  the  other  hand,  costing  much  less 
labour,  admitted  of  that  bold,  free,  and  strikingly  artistic 
style  which  is  to  be  observed  in  the  incomparable  work  of 
Hans  Schwartz.  Another  material  was  a  composition  of 
the  nature  of  putty,  which  had  the  double  advantage  of 
being  easily  manipulated,  and  of  becoming  hard  enough  to 
admit  of  a  mould  being  made  from  it.  Wax  models  do 
not  appear  to  have  been  used  in  Germany  till  after  the 
middle  of  the  sixteenth  century,  having  no  doubt  been 
introduced  from  Italy.  Specimens  of  models  in  all  these 
substances  may  be  seen  in  most  collections  of  importance. 

That  the  carved  portrait  model  was  the  parent  of  the 
medal,  and  that  this  mode  of  producing  the  medal  in 


Germany  was  indigenous,  seems  to  be  clearly  shown. 
Italy,  however,  must  be  taken  to  be  indirectly  responsible 
for  the  custom,  which  had  prevailed  there  for  more  than 
half  a  century,  of  the  friendly  exchange  of  these  portable 
likenesses.  They  answered  exactly  the  same  social  require- 
ment as  the  modern  photograph,  and  it  was  precisely  the 
necessity  of  multiplying  the  original  that  caused  the 
medal  to  proceed  from  the  portrait  in  wood  or  stone.  In 
the  first  instance  it  was  without  a  reverse,  but  that  soon 
followed.  M.  Erman  assigns  1510  as  the  date  when  the 
use  of  medals  began,  generally  with  an  obverse  only,  and 
in  1526  we  get  the  complete  reverse  executed  on  distinct 
rules.  The  fashion  then  became  completely  established, 
first  about  the  courts  of  Germany,  both  temporal  and 
spiritual,  and  as  "  where  the  great  ones  lead  the  smaller 
follow,"  it  descended  through  the  different  classes  of 
society  that  were  able  to  afford  such  expensive  luxuries. 

Some  interesting  information  is  given  as  to  the  letter- 
ing of  the  legends.  It  is  not  uncommon  to  find  that  the 
original  model,  from  which  complete  medals  with  legends 
have  been  cast,  has  no  lettering  whatever.  The  explana- 
tion is  that  some  of  the  early  masters  (e.g.  Hans  Schwartz) 
impressed  on  the  mould  the  letters  of  the  legend,  appa- 
rently one  by  one — a  proceeding  somewhat  clumsy  and 
tending  to  inaccuracy,  while  others  seem  to  have  glued 
them  on  to  the  model  before  making  the  mould.  Some 
wax  models  on  slate  by  Abondio  and  Valentine  Maler,  are 
without  any  form  of  letters,  which  must  have  been  im- 
printed on  the  mould,  probably  with  ordinary  printing 
type.  This  accounts  for  the  changes  in  the  legend  so 
often  to  be  observed. 

With  regard  to  the  metal  used  and  the  method  of  cast- 
ing M.  Erman  also  gives  some  instruction.  In  the  older 


medals,  owing  to  their  large  size,  bronze  was  the  usual 
substance,  and  the  earliest  date  of  the  use  of  silver  known 
to  the  author  is  1526.  The  question  whether  medals  in 
tin  and  lead  were  in  common  use  is  answered  in  the 
affirmative.  It  appears  that  such  medals  have  been  found 
with  others  in  gold  and  silver,  deposited  for  commemora- 
tion purposes  in  the  foundations  of  buildings,  and  it  is 
well  known  that  the  goldsmiths  used  to  take  castings  in 
lead  of  their  productions,  either  as  souvenirs  or  trial  pieces, 
or  for  communication  to  other  craftsmen.  The  Italian 
artists,  from  Pisano  downwards,  did  the  same  thing. 

The  earlier  German  medallists,  when  employing  a  re- 
verse at  all,  cast  their  medals  in  one  piece,  but  the  best 
artists  of  the  middle  of  the  sixteenth  century  cast  from 
two  moulds  (i.e.  one  for  each  side),  always  maintaining  a 
thin  substance.  This  method  would  naturally  result  from 
the  great  liability  to  imperfections  in  the  process,  as  it 
reduced  by  half  the  risk  of  the  medal  being  spoilt. 

The  quality  of  thinness,  it  is  to  be  noted,  is  one  of  the 
first  tests  of  a  genuine  German  medal  and  is  a  remark- 
able "point." 

Another  peculiar  method  sometimes  adopted  was  to 
cast  the  portrait  and  the  reverse  separately,  and  to  attach 
them  with  pins  to  a  silver  plate,  which  thus  formed  the 
field  of  the  medal. 

The  fact  that  certain  artists,  such  as  Schwartz,  Hagen- 
auer,  Valentine  Maler,  and  Tobias  Wolff,  from  their  gene- 
rally recognised  excellence,  became  so  highly  in  favour, 
caused  them  by  reason  of  the  pressure  on  their  time  to 
make  their  work  too  much  of  a  trade  routine,  and  this 
accounts  for  the  strong  resemblance  running  through  their 
respective  series.  The  same  reproach  has  been  levelled  at 
Sperandeo,  Pastorino,  and  others  among  the  Italians, 


Turning  to  the  more  immediate  subject  of  the  work,  we 
find  the  list  beginning  with  a  good  name — Peter  Yiseher 
(1507 — 1511),  not  the  father,  but  the  son.  Whether 
Diirer  is  to  rank  among  medallists  is  not  absolutely  de- 
cided, but  at  any  rate  three  pieces  bear  his  monogram. 
Passing  to  Hans  Schwartz,  the  author  is  on  safer  ground, 
for  he  has  discovered  a  medal  of  the  artist  himself,  which 
he  gives  good  reasons  for  assigning  to  his  own  hand. 
Those  who  have  not  closely  studied  the  magnificent  series 
of  Nuremberg  and  Augsburg  medals  will  find  a  rich  field 
in  the  work  of  this  exponent  of  the  art.  His  medals  are 
numerous,  but  (so  far  as  they  are  dated)  range  over  but  a 
short  period  (1518 — 1523).  He  was  evidently  one  of 
those  whom  fashion  favoured,  and  an  examination  of  the, 
specimens  figured  in  M.  Erman's  work,  or  in  the  Tresor  de 
Numismatique  (Med.  Allem.),  will  show  how  deservedly  this 
predilection  was  bestowed.  He  was  the  person  to  whom 
Albert  Diirer  himself  entrusted  the  execution  of  his  por- 
trait (Erman,  PL  I.  4),  and  for  which,  as  the  author  states 
in  a  note,  he  entered  in  his  diary  at  Antwerp  the  payment 
of  two  florins  in  gold.  Besides  this  his  list  presents  an, 
array  of  important  and  familiar  names :  the  Pfinzings, 
the  Imhofs,  the  Tuchers,  Tetzel,  Behaim,  Frederick  II.  of 
the  Palatinate,  Joachim  I.  of  Brandenburg,  Burgkmair 
the  painter,  Cardinal  Lang,  and  all  the  aristocracy  of 

The  next  long  list  is  attached  to  an  anonymous  artist  of 
the  years  1525-6,  whose  work  is  of  very  special  merit, 
and  the  discovery  of  whose  name  is  to  be  awaited  with 
interest.  The  epoch  of  the  use  of  silver  medals  begins 
with  his  time.  The  following  specimens  belonging  to  his, 
series  may  be  found  in  the  Tresor  de  Num.,  Bastian  Starcz 
(5,  7),  Hedwig  of  Miinsterberg  (45,  3  ter),  Ambrosius 


Quez  (6,  1),  Johannes  von  Gutenberg  (6,  8),  Frederick, 
Marquis  of  Brandenburg  (6,  2),  George  Koetzler  (6,  7), 
Christopher  Fiierer  (6,  4),  Jordan  von  Herzheim  (5,  8), 
Lypold  von  Kliezenk  (5,  4),  Friedrich  Behaim  (6,  9), 
Linhat  Wickel  (6,  6),  and  others. 

The  famous  Friedrich  Hagenauer  follows  on  from  this 
date  to  1546,  thus  covering  a  space  of  twenty  years.  Some 
of  his  medals  are  signed  with  the  familiar  "  H  "  in  the 
field  (wrongly  ascribed  to  Jean  Heel  by  the  authors  of 
the  Tresor),  while  a  considerable  proportion  are  without 
signature.  He  was  probably  a  native  of  Strasburg,  and 
worked  at  Cologne  and  other  places,  but  is  more  especially 
associated  with  Augsburg.  Many  of  his  medals  are  figured 
in  Bergmann  and  in  the  Tresor,  and  they  include  portraits 
of  Otto  Heinrich,  Count  Palatine  of  the  Rhine,  Joachim  I. 
of  Brandenburg  (Tresor,  45,  2),  Melancthon  (Tresor,  16, 
2  &  3),  Herman,  Archbishop  of  Cologne,  and  others  of  the 
Reformers.  The  evidences  of  his  work  are  said  to  consist 
of  low  relief,  thin  casting,  peculiar  reverses  (for  the  most 
part  only  a  sentiment  or  a  date),  and  especially  the 
peculiar  form  of  the  lettering,  which  is  distinguished  by 
small  low  characters,  the  up  and  down  strokes  being 
imperfectly  defined.  His  earlier  medals  represent  chiefly 
citizens  of  Augsburg,  or  persons  who  were  present  at  the 
Diet,  his  work  at  Cologne  being  of  later  date. 

The  familiar  medals  of  John  Frederick  of  Saxony 
(Tresor,  14,  3)  and  Charles  Y.  (Trtsor,  20,  5),  signed  H*, 
and  formerly  attributed  to  Heinrich  Reitz,  are  now 
declared  to  be  the  work  of  Hans  Reinhard,  of  Leipzig. 

Among  the  medallists  of  the  latter  part  of  the  sixteenth 
century  Valentine  Maler,  of  Nuremberg,  was  the  most 
prolific,  his  medals  ranging  from  1568  to  1593.  His 
marriage  with  the  daughter  of  Wenzel  Jamnitzer,  the 


greatest  of  German  goldsmiths,  gave  him  a  high  position 
in  the  artistic  world.  He  executed  both  cast  and  struck 
medals,  the  latter  being  produced  chiefly  as  articles  of 
commerce,  and  he  enjoyed  by  imperial  grant  the  privilege 
of  issuing  them  as  marketable  commodities.  It  was 
perhaps  to  certify  to  purchasers  the  correctness  of  the 
portraits  that  such  expressions  as  "  Imago  ad  vivam  effi- 
giem  expressa,"  "  Warhaftig  conterfeit,"  are  to  be  found 
even  in  the  earlier  medals  executed  for  sale. 

Another  important  artist  of  about  the  same  date  is 
Tobias  Wolff,  of  Breslau.  His  works  form  the  subject  of 
an  interesting  paper  in  the  Zeitschrift  fur  Numismatik, 
(viii.  S.  199)  by  Dr.  A.  von  Sallet.  His  monogram,  W, 
was  formerly  supposed  to  stand  for  Tobias  Wost,  but  his 
identity  is  now  satisfactorily  proved.  His  portraits  are 
strikingly  true  to  life,  and  possess  a  powerful  charm  on 
that  account,  as  well  as  for  their  delicate  casting  and 
chasing.  Dr.  von  Sallet  considers  him  to  be  of  the 
highest  rank,  and  quite  the  equal  of  Jamnitzer. 

The  seventeenth  century  presents  but  few  names  of 
interest,  though  the  list  includes  those  of  Hans  Petzoldt, 
who  reproduced  Schwartz's  medal  of  Diirer  ;  Christian 
Maler,  the  son  of  Valentine,  Gaspar  Enderlein,  Paul 
Zeggin,  and  I.D.B.,  the  author  of  the  pretty  medal  of 
Frederick  IV.,  of  the  Palatinate,  and  his  wife  Elizabeth, 
the  daughter  of  James  I.  of  England. 

To  sum  up,  M.  Erman  has  collected  fifty -seven  com- 
plete names  of  medallists,  and  eighty-seven  known  only 
by  their  monogram  ;  and  though  not  a  single  medal  is 
fully  described,  some  eight  hundred  are  referred  to  under 
the  headings  of  the  different  artists.  A  valuable  addition 
to  the  text  will  be  found  in  ten  plates,  giving  represents- 


tive  specimens  of  the  medals,  admirably  reproduced  by  the 
autotype  process.  Unpretentious,  therefore,  as  the  work 
is,  and  claiming  only  to  be  a  forerunner  of  greater  things, 
it  must  be  considered  as  of  the  highest  value  in  treating  a 
most  difficult  subject,  and  it  is  only  to  be  hoped  that  its 
further  development  may  fulfil  the  hopes  of  its  author 
with  the  attainment  of  equal  success. 




Beschreibung  der  antiken  Milnzen  (Konigliclie  Museen  zu 
Berlin}.  Bd.'  I.  Berlin,  1888.  Price  25  marks. 

In  the  neatly  printed  little  volume  before  us  we  have  at  last 
the  long-expected  first  instalment  of  the  Catalogue  of  the  Ber- 
lin Coin-Cabinet.  For  some  reason,  doubtless  a  good  one, 
the  learned  director  of  the  Berlin  Miinzkabinet,  Dr.  Alfred  von 
Sallet,  has  seen  fit  to  deviate  from  the  time-honoured  order  of 
Eckhel,  and  to  begin  his  catalogue  with  the  Tauric  Chersonesus. 
The  present  volume  contains  the  coins  of  the  Tauric  Cher- 
sonesus, Sarmatia,  Dacia,  Pannonia,  Moesia,  and  Thrace,  in- 
cluding the  kings  and  dynasts  of  that  region.  The  compiler  in 
a  short  preface  acknowledges  his  indebtedness  to  his  prede- 
cessor, the  late  Julius  Friedlaender,  whose  manuscript  he  has, 
however,  to  a  great  extent  re-written,  incorporating  with  it  all 
the  recent  acquisitions,  including  those  from  the  famous  collec- 
tions of  Gen.  Fox  and  Count  von  Prokesch  Osten,  which  have 
added  so  enormously  to  the  value  and  importance  of  the  German 
Coin-Cabinet.  Dr.  von  Sallet  has  also  been  assisted  in  some 
portion  of  the  work  by  Dr.  B.  Pick.  The  volume  ia  illustrated 
by  eight  autotype  plates  representing  about  seventy-five  coins, 
and  by  sixty-three  zincographic  cuts  in  the  text. 

In  form  and  general  arrangement,  the  method  of  our  own 
British  Museum  catalogues,  now  familiar  to  all  numismatists,  is 
closely  followed,  i.e.  the  obverses  and  reverses  are  described  in 
parallel  columns.  There  is,  however,  an  additional  column 
which  gives  the  names  of  the  collections  from  which  the  coins 
have  passed  into  the  Royal  collection. 

In  the  case  of  certain  famous  cabinets  this  is  an  undoubted 
improvement,  but  the  space  available  for  the  descriptions, 
already  far  too  narrow,  is  seriously  encroached  upon  by  this 
extra  side-column.  Another  innovation  which  we  may  here 
mention  (and  this  last  is  of  more  practical  utility),  is  the  addi- 
tion of  short  explanatory  notes  in  the  text  in  which  the  writer 
gives,  as  often  as  occasion  requires,  references  to  works  where 
similar  coins  are  published,  or  adds  concise  remarks  of  his  own 
which  cannot  fail  to  be  a  great  help  to  the  student. 


A  comparison  of  this  volume  with  the  corresponding  volume 
of  the  British  Museum  catalogue  by  Head  and  Gardner,  which 
appeared  as  long  ago  as  1877,  shows  how  very  much  richer  in 
this  portion  of  the  collection  the  Berlin  Museum  is  than  our  own, 
as  a  few  instances  taken  at  random  will  suffice  to  show  : — Thus 
of  Panticapaeum  the  Germans  have  108  coins,  while  the 
British  Museum  has  only  53 ;  of  Olbia  they  have  145  against 
23  in  our  own  cabinet;  of  Viminacium  138  as  against  48  ;  of 
Abdera  144  against  our  108 ;  of  Aenus  75  against  49 ;  of 
Maronea  115  against  99 ;  of  the  towns  of  the  Thracian  Cher- 
sonesus  268  against  146,  and  so  throughout. 

The  great  advantage  in  absolute  weight  of  material  possessed 
by  the  German  catalogue  over  the  English  is,  we  confess,  a 
matter  of  no  small  surprise  to  us,  accustomed  as  we  have  been 
to  look  upon  our  national  collection  as  second  only,  and  not 
always  second,  to  that  of  France  ;  and  this  advantage  largely 
compensates  for  some  of  the  small  failings  of  the  new  volume, 
regarded  from  a  scientific  point  of  view,  to  which  we  feel  bound 
to  call  attention,  not  in  any  carping  spirit,  but  in  the  hope  that 
a  too  strict  attention  to  mere  outward  uniformity,  a  matter  of 
very  slight  consequence,  may  not  prevent  the  adoption  of  useful 
improvements  in  future  volumes. 

The  greatest  defect  in  our  opinion  is  the  entire  omission  of 
chronological  headings  in  the  autonomous  series  of  the  various 
towns.  Surely  a  numismatist  of  such  eminent  skill  and  accu- 
rate insight  as  Dr.  von  Sallet  might  have  ventured  to  give  us 
his  idea  of  the  approximate  dates  of  the  coins  which  he  de- 
scribes. Without  too  much  dogmatism  it  would  have  been  for 
him  an  easy  matter  to  have  classed  the  autonomous  coins 
under  at  least  five  distinct  periods,  such  as  (i.)  archaic, 
(ii.)  fifth  century,  (iii.)  fourth  century  to  Alexander  the  Great, 
(iv.)  after  Alexander,  (v.)  Period  of  Eoman  Dominion.  And 
yet,  except  for  a  note  here  and  there,  and  that  but  rarely, 
appended  to  a  description,  we  search  in  vain  for  dates.  As  the 
illustrations  are  far  too  scanty,  it  is  for  the  most  part  quite 
impossible  for  one  who  is  unacquainted  with  the  originals  to 
form  any  judgment  of  the  periods  to  which  they  belong  merely 
from  the  verbal  descriptions,  admirably  accurate  as  they 
generally  are. 

Another,  though  far  less  striking  blemish,  appears  to  have 
arisen  from  a  too  strict  adherence  to  the  order  and  classifica- 
tion of  the  coins  as  they  lie  in  the  trays.  Thus  on  p.  48,  seven 
coins  are  catalogued  under  Callatia,  with  an  added  note  in  the 
text  stating  that  they  belong  probably  to  Calchedon.  Again,  on 
p.  137  the  silver  coins  with  a  lion's  scalp  on  the  obverse,  and 


APOA  on  the  reverse,  are  retained  under  the  heading  of 
Apollonia  in  Thrace,  while  the  writer  nevertheless  accept* 
Giel's  recent  restoration  of  these  pieces  to  Pantieapaeum,  on 
the  ground  that  they  are  always  found  at  Kertsch,  which  appa- 
rently was  at  one  time  called  Apollonia,  Also  on  p.  166  we  are 
referred  to  Eubrogis  Galatiase  for  the  coins  reading  EYBP, 
which  as  Imhoof  has  shown  (Mew.  Gr.  p.  461)  belong  in 
reality  to  a  Thracian  dynast  of  the  fourth  century.  As  Dr.  von 
Sal  let  acknowledges  the  justice  of  all  these  reattributions  there 
would  seem  to  be  no  sufficient  reason  for  his  retention  of  obso- 
lete classifications.  Would  it  not  have  been  a  simpler  matter 
to  transfer  all  these  coins  to  the  towns  to  which  the  writer 
believes  they  properly  belong,  rather  than  to  deliberately  cata- 
logue them  under  wrong  headings  ?  All  these ,  however,  are 
but  small  defects,  and,  as  they  are  not  numerous,  detract  but 
little  from  the  value  of  the  catalogue  as  a  whole. 

The  notes  appended  to  the  descriptions  contain  a  mass  of 
interesting  information  which  will  be  invaluable  to  serious 
students,  and  they  compensate  in  some  measure  for  the  want 
of  a  general  historical  introduction,  the  absence  of  which  is  never- 
theless to  be  regretted.  Among  these  notes  we  have  space 
only  to  refer  to  two  of  the  most  important :  on  p.  55  we  learn 
that  Dr.  Pick  reads  the  letters  YP  which  precede  the  name  of 
the  Roman  Governor  on  the  coins  of  Marcianopolis  and  Nico- 
polis_notas  YPO,  but  as  YP[ATIKOY],  and  similarly 
HFOYM  on  coins  of  Marcianopolis  (p.  65)  »ot  as  HFOYM- 
[ENOY]  but  as  Hr[EMONOZ}  followed  by  a  gentile  name 
beginning  with  the  syllable  OYM  (Urn).  The  Roman  Go- 
vernor (Legatus  Consularis)  was  therefore  called  in  Greek  either 
j/ye/x-wv  or  vTrariKos.  The  coins  of  Marcianopolis  and  Nicopolia 
here  described  furnish  a  long  series  of  these  Legati  Consulares. 

We  conclude  these  remarks  with  an  earnest  hops  that  the 
learned  and  zealous  Director  of  the  Berlin  Coin-Cabinet  will 
before  long  give  us  another  volume  of  a  work,  which  taken  in 
connection  with  our  British  Museum  Catalogue  of  Greek  coins 
will  go  far  to  lay  the  foundations  for  the  corpus  of  Greek  coins 
which  cannot  be  satisfactorily  compiled  until  the  contents  of  all 
the  great  collections  of  Europe  have  been  put  on  record. 

B.  V.  H. 

Chr.  Giel,  Kleine  Beitrage  zur  antiken  Numismatik  Sudruss- 
l>mds.  Moscow,  1886.  4to,  pp.  43.  With  5  Plates. 

Russian  numismatists  have  naturally  some  peculiar  facilities 
for  studying  the  ancient  coinages  of  the  Crimea  and  the  Kingdom 


of  Bosporus,  and  during  the  last  few  years  contributions  to  this 
section  of  Greek  numismatics  have  been  made  by  several 
writers,  among  whom  may  be  mentioned  Burachkov,  Oresch- 
nikow,  and  Podschiwalow.  Another  Russian  numismatist,  Mr. 
Giel,  must  be  thanked  for  publishing  in  the  little  volume  now 
before  us  a  description  of  several  interesting  coins  in  his  own 
collection  (photographed  in  Plates  I.  and  II),  and  for  discussing 
some  of  the  problems  suggested  by  other  coins  which  he  illus- 
trates in  his  Plates  III.,  IV.,  V.  The  coins  described  by  Mr. 
Giel  are  as  follows  :  1.  Olbia.  2.  Tyra.  3.  T auric  Chersonese. 
4.  Nymphaeum.  5.  Panticapaeum.  6.  Sindika.  Several  speci- 
mens of  the  coinage  of  the  Sindi  are  here  published.  Mr.  Giel 
(p.  6)  attributes  a  curious  silver  coin  with  obv.,  Herakles 
kneeling  r.  Rev.  XINAjQ[N]  owl  with  spread  wings,  in  incuse 
square,  to  the  beginning  of  the  third  century  B.C.,  but  this  ap- 
pears to  be  far  too  late,  as  the  style  of  the  coin  is  that  of  the 
early  part  of  the  fourth  century.  7.  Mithradates  Eupator.  A 
tetradrachm  dated  209  (Pontic  Era)  ==  B.C.  89 — 88,  with  an 
interesting  and  somewhat  unusual  portrait  of  Mithradates. 
8.  Pharnaces  II.  9.  Asander.  Mr.  Giel  considers  that 
Asander  did  not  portray  his  own  head  on  his  coins  until  he 
became  king  ;  the  heads  which  appear  on  the  coins  issued  by 
Asander  as  Archon  (Giel.  PI.  II,  22;  V.  7,  8)  are  here 
named  J.  Caesar  and  M.  Antonius.  But  the  resemblance  in 
both  cases  is  very  slight.  10.  An  important  coin  of  Pythodoris, 
obv.  Head  of  Augustus.  Rev.  BAZIAIZZA  flYeOAIlPIZ 
ETOYZ  —  r  Capricorn  r.  ;  behind,  cornucopiae.  JR.  wt.  3'92 
grammes.  The  date  JE  F  (63)  is  unpublished,  and  involves  a 
modification  of  the  usual  chronology  of  the  reign  of  Pythodoris 
as  Queen  of  Pontus.  Oreschnikow  (whom  Giel  cites  at  length) 
is  of  opinion  that  the  era  employed  by  Pythodoris  on  her  coins 
begins  in  B.C.  31,  and  not  in  B.C.  47  as  hitherto  supposed. 
The  coin  dated  63  would  thus  correspond  to  A.D.  32 — 33. 
11.  Polemo  II.  A  new  silver  coin  with  the  date  '  13 '  and  the 
heads  of  Claudius  and  Nero  facing  one  another.  Also  a  silver 
coin  with  date  *  17  '  and  obv.  Head  of  Nero.  12.  Sauromates  I. 
M.  Rev.  King  galloping  r.  There  does  not  appear  to  be  any 
special  reason  for  attributing  this  coin  to  Sauromates  I.  rather 
than  to  the  king  usually  called  Sauromates  II.  13.  Sauro- 
mates II.  14.  Ininthimeiis.  A  stater  with  the  rare  date 
<  534.' 

Pages  20 — 24  deal  with  a  class  of  small  silver  coins  with  the 
types  of  an  ant  or  a  lion's  head  facing,  and  (in  many  cases)  the 
inscription  APOA.  (Cp.  Imhoof,  Monn.  Gr.,  pp.  41 — 43.) 
A  list  of  these  is  drawn  up  with  illustrations  (Plate  III.).  Mr. 


Giel,  relying  chiefly  on  the  evidence  of  the  find-spots,  attributes 
them  all  to  Panticapaeum.  He  supposes  Apollouia  (APOA) 
to  have  been  another  name  of  that  city. 

Pages  25  ff.  deal  with  certain  monograms  which  appear  on 
the  earlier  coins  of  the  Kingdom  of  Bosporus,  (a)  The  first  of 
these  is  the  much-discussed  monogram  $£  on  various  bronze 
coins  which  (as  Mr.  Giel  shows)  were  struck  for  Bosporus. 
These  coins  are  generally  supposed  to  have  been  issued  by 
Mithradates  Eupator  (the  Great).  Mr.  Giel  admits  that  the 
monogram  is  that  of  Mithradates  Eupator,  but  shows  that  there 
are  good  reasons  for  thinking  that  the  coins  were  actually  issued 
by  his  son  Machares,  who  ruled  in  Bosporus,  at  first,  doubtless, 
in  dependence  upon  his  father,  (ft)  The  monogram  BAY  on 
other  bronze  coins  of  Bosporus  is  also  attributed  to  Machares, 
Mr.  Giel  reading  it  as  BacrtXews  Ma^apov  Ytov  MttfpaSarov.  Von 
Sallet  has  read  the  monogram  as  BAM  I,  and  referred  the  coins 
to  Mithradates  Eupator.  (y)  Giel  next  discusses  the  mono- 
grams £,  "j^\£,  f$p,  which  occur  on  a  series  of  gold  staters, 
having  on  the  obverse  a  head  of  Augustus  and  on  the  reverse  a 
beardless  male  head.  He  maintains  that  the  head  on  the  re- 
verse is  that  of  Agrippa,  though  the  resemblance  is  certainly 
very  slight.  The  coins  with  these  three  monograms  have  been 
sometimes  assigned  to  three  different  kings,  but  Giel,  on 
reasonable  grounds,  assigns  them  all  to  Aspurgus,  a  King  of 
Bosporus  known  from  lapidary  inscriptions.  This  attribution 
had  already  been  determined  on  (independently  of  Mr.  Giel)  for 
the  arrangement  of  these  coins  in  the  British  Museum.  Mr. 
Giel's  interpretation  of  these  three  monograms  is  ingenious,  pos- 
sibly too  ingenious.  In  p£P  he  sees  the  letters  AZF1P 
(Aspurgus);  in  £,  A  (Aspurgus),  AY  (Dynamis,  mother  of 
Aspurgus),  and  M  (Mithradates  Eupator,  uncle  of  Dynamis) ; 
in  "R\E  Kai<rap  Tt/3epios  Nepwv  or  TtjSfjOtos  KAai'Stos  Nepwv. 
(3)  In  the  monogram  YrF  which  occurs  on  coins  of  Pantica- 
paeum, Gorgippia  and  Phanagoria  in  the  time  of  Mithra- 
dates Eupator,  Giel  considers  that  we  have  the  name 


The  Revue  Numismatique,  1887,  Pt.  IV.  contains  the  following 
articles  : — 

1.  Th.  Reinach.  Essay  on  the  numismatics  of  the  kings  of 
Bithynia.  M.  Reinach  has  followed  up  his  valuable  paper  on 
the  kings  of  Cappadocia,  with  another  no  less  important  investi- 


gation  of  the  coinage  of  the  kings  of  Bithynia.  The  chief 
points  which  the  writer  has  satisfactorily  established  are  the 
following: — First,  that  the  so-called  Pontic  eia  was  in  reality 
the  royal  Bithynian  era,  adopted  by  Nicomedes  II.  in  B.C.  148, 
and  calculated  from  B.C.  297,  the  year  in  which  Zipoetes,  dynast 
of  Bithynia,  first  adopted  the  royal  title.  This  era  continued 
to  be  used  down  to  B.C.  74,  when  Nicomedes  III.  left  his  king- 
dom to  the  Romans.  The  first  occurrence  of  this  Bithynian 
era  on  coins  of  Pontus  was  not  until  B.C.  96.  Secondly,  that  the 
era  according  to  which  the  Roman  Proconsuls  of  Bithynia  dated 
their  coins  was  distinct  from  the  royal  era,  and  was  in  fact  the 
local  era  of  the  city  of  Nicaea  B.C.  283,  extended  by  the  Romans 
to  the  whole  province  of  Bithynia.  With  regard  to  the  rare 
coins  of  the  two  Queens  of  Prusias  ad  mare,  named  Orsobaris 
Musa,  and  Oradaltis,  daughter  of  King  Lycomedes,  M.  Reinach 
here  proposes  to  identify  the  former  with  Orsobaris,  a  daughter 
of  Mithradates,  whom  he  supposes  to  have  been  installed  as 
ruler  of  the  city  of  Prusias  by  Pompey,  and  the  latter  with  a 
daughter  of  Lycomedes,  a  noble  Bithynian,  whom  Caesar  made 
High  Priest  of  Comana  in  Pontus  B.C.  47 — 31.  He  further 
supposes  that  this  Lycomedes  was  identical  with  Nicomedes,  a 
son  of  Nicomedes  III  (Philopator),  the  last  King  of  Bithynia, 
and  a  grandson  on  his  mother's  side  of  Ariarathes  VI.,  Epi- 
phanes,  of  Cappadocia.  In  virtue  of  this  double  royal  descent, 
Lycomedes  appears  to  have  been  allowed  by  Ca3sar  to  retain 
the  title  of  king.  Appended  to  M.  Reinach's  paper  is  a  useful 
genealogical  stemma  of  the  kings  of  Bithynia  which  covers  a 
period  of  nearly  four  centuries. 

2.  A.  Sorlin-Dorigriy  and  E.  Babelon.     Unpublished  Naba- 
thaean  coins.     The  most  important  of  the  new  varieties  here 
published  is  a  silver  didrachm  of  Obodas  I.,  having  on  the  ob- 
verse jugate  busts  of  the  king  and  his  queen. 

3.  E.   Babelon.      Tarcondimotus,  dynast   of  Cilicia.       The 
coin  of  this  king  here  published   is  the  first  which  gives  the 
true  legend  of  the  reverse,  viz.,  BAZIAEHZ  TAPKONAI 
MOTOY   <NAANTQN[iW|.     Hitherto  numismatists   have 
read  A  .  ANTflNlOY,  but  it  is  now  proved  that  Tarcondi- 
motus, who  took  the  side  of  Antony  against  Octavius,  and  was 
killed  at  the  battle  of  Actium  B.C.  81,  formally  adopted  the  title 

Of  4>t\OD  'Al/TCOVtOV. 

4.  A.  Engel.     Notes  on  some  ancient  countermarks  and  on 
some  numismatic  peculiarities.      The  writer,  out  of  a   large 
number  of  countermarks  chiefly  on  Roman  coins,  is  only  able 
here  and  there  to  suggest  a  probable  explanation.  The  subject  is 
not  a  very  attractive  one,  as  owing  to  the  difficulties  of  explain- 


ing  these  marks    satisfactorily,  it  offers   few   inducements   to 

5.  E.  Caron.     On  a  coin  of  Jean  de  Chateauvillain,  Baron 
of  Bourbon-Lancy,    probably  struck  at  the  beginning   of   the 
fourteenth  century. 

6.  J.  Rouyer.     On  jetons,  apparently  French,  struck  at  Sedan 
in  the  time  of  Louis  XIII.   before  that  town  was  united  to 

The  Revue  Numismatique,  1888,  Pt.  I.,  contains  the  following 

articles  : 

1.  A.  Sorlin-Dorigny.     On   a  funeral  gold  obol  of  Cyzicus. 
The  piece  here  described  is  a  thin  gold  bracteate  with  a  Capri- 
corn upon  it. 

2.  E.  Drouin.     Chronology  and  Numismatics  of   the  Indo- 
Scythian   kings.     This    is   the    first   portion  of  an   important 
treatise  which  will  throw  much  light  upon  a  very  obscure  and 
difficult  subject.     We  hope  to  notice  it  at  greater  length  when 
the  work  is  completed. 

3.  J.  N.  Svoronos.     On  some  unpublished  Cretan  coins  of 
the  towns  Anopolis,  Dreros,  Erannos,  and  Myrina.    These  coins 
are   of  late  and  very   rude  work.     M.  Svoronos's  attributions 
seem  to  be   quite  incontrovertible,  except,  perhaps,  those  to 
Erannos,  for  the  monogram  on  these  coins  appears  to  stand  for 
the  letters  NEA  rather  than  EPAN. 

4.  M.  Prou.     On  Merovingian  trientes  in  the  British  Museum. 

5.  P.  C.  Robert.     On  a  double  Mouton  d'or  of  the  Chapter  of 

6.  M.  de  Vienne.     On  the  establishment  and  reductions   of 
the  silver  pound  of  account  from  the  time  of  Charlemagne  to 
the  twelfth  century. 

7.  N.    Rondot.     Claude    Warin,    Engraver    and     Medallist, 

The  Zeitschrift  fur  Nwnismatlk,  Bd.  XV.  Parts  II.  and  III., 

contain  the  following  articles : — 

1.  J.  Menadier.     On   finds  of  German    medieval   coins   in 
Holstein,  Silesia,  Posen,  &c. 

2.  Th.  Mommsen.     On  the  coins  of  C.  Clodius  Vestalis. 

3.  Th.  Mommsen.     Mithradates  Philopator  Philadelphus.    In 
this  paper  Prof.  Mommsen  combats  M.  de   Ballet's  attribution 
of  the  tetradrachms  reading  BAZIAEIiZ  MI0PAAATOY 
4>IAOriATOPOZ  KAI   <NAAAEA<K)Y  to    Mithradates 


Euergetes,  the  father  of  Mithradates  the  Great.  The  writer,  on 
the  strength  of  an  inscription  lately  published  in  the  Bullettino 
della  comm.  arch,  mimic,  di  Roma,  1886,  p.  403,  in  which 
Mithradates  Philopator  Philadelphus  is  said  to  have  been  a  son 
of  Mithradates,  endeavours  to  prove  that  he  was  a  son  of 
Mithradates  the  Great.  We  think,  however,  that  most  numis- 
matists will  agree  with  M.  de  Sallet  and  with  M.  Th.  Reinach 
that  the  coin  is  distinctly  earlier  in  date  than  the  time  of  Mith- 
radates Eupator. 

4.  Weber.     On  two  interesting  mediaeval  coins  of  uncertain 

5.  F.  van  Vleuten.     On  a  double-struck  coin  of  Brabant. 
The  Part  concludes  with   notices   of  Keary's    Catalogue  of 

English  Coins  in  the  British  Museum,  Anglo-Saxon  Series,  Vol.  I., 
and  of  Head's  Historia  Numorum. 

The  Zeitschrift  fur  JVumismatik,  Band  XV.  Part  IV.,  contains 
the  following  articles  : — 

1.  Th.  Mommsen.  The  fifteen  mints  of  the  fifteen  Dioceses 
of  Diocletian.  The  writer  here  shows  that  after  the  reorganiza- 
tion of  the  empire  by  Diocletian,  circ.  A.D.  296 — 301,  each  of 
the  fifteen  dioceses  of  the  empire  had  its  own  special  mint  and 
procurator  monetae  as  follows  : 

1.  Orientis  mint  A      r=Antiochia. 

2.  Aegypti  ,,     ALE  —  Alexandria. 
8.  Asiana                                  ,,     KV    =Kyzicus. 

4.  Pontica  ,,  N       =Nicomedia. 

5.  Thraciarum  ,,  HT    ^Heraclea  Thracum. 

6.  Macedoniae  ,,  TS     =Thessalonica. 

7.  Daciae  „  SD     =Serdica. 

8.  Italiae  „  AQ    =Aquileia. 

9.  Urbis  Romae  „  ROM  or  R=Roma. 

10.  Pannoniarum  or  Illyrici  „  SO  or  SIS=Siscia. 

11.  Africae  „  K       =Karthago. 

12.  Hispaniae  „  T       =Tarraco. 

13.  Galliarum  „  TR     =Treveri. 

14.  Viennensis  ,,  L  or  LG=Lugudunum. 

15.  Britanniae  „  L       — Londinium. 

The  coins  of  Carausius  and  Allectus  struck  in  Britain  with 
the  mint-mark  C,  standing  for  Camulodunum,  belong  to  the 
period  before  A.D.  296.  When  the  coinage  was  reorganized  by 



Diocletian  the  mint  of  Camulodunum  appears   to   have   been 

2.  Th.  Mommsen.     Equitius.     This  paper  must  be  read  in 
connection  with  Missong's  article  in  Num.  Zeit.  1873,  p.  102, 
on  the  meaning  of  the  letters  occurring  on  coins  of  the  Emperor 
Probus  struck  at  Rome  and  Tarraco.     According  to  Mommsen, 
these  letters  A,  E,  Q,  V,  I,  T,  I,  &c.,  distributed  on  different 
specimens  in  conjunction  with  marks  of  value,  conceal  the  name 
of  the  official  who  superintended  the  coinage  under  Probus,  viz. 
Aequitius  or  Equitius. 

3.  M.  Schmidt.     On  the  meaning  of  the  letters  |\K£XC  on 
Roman  gold  coins  struck  at  Nicomedia.     The  writer  suggests 
that  this  curious  combination  of  letters  may  stand  for  the  words 
Nicomedensi  lege  valente  XC  =  £-Q  of  the  Nicomedian  gold  pound. 
Prof.  Mommsen.  on  the  other  hand,  p.  243,  note  1,  quotes  the 
description  as  equivalent  to  Nucofu?$cui  lux  Cpvitatum],     Some 
remarks  upon  this  singular  legend  will  be  found  in  the  Numis- 
matic Chronicle,  Third  Series,  Vol.  VI.,  p.  281,  which  suggest 
still  another  interpretation. 

4.  J.  N.  Svoronos.      On  the  Cretan   coin  with  the  legend 
M-QAAIflN.     These  rare  didrachmas,  obv.  Head  of  Zeus,  rev. 
Bull's  head  facing,  must  have  been  struck  in  the  earlier  half  of 
the  fourth  century  at  an  unknown  town  called  Modaia,  which  is 
probably  identical  with  the   present  village   of  Mode,  in   the 
neighbourhood  of  Polyrhenium. 

5.  H.  Buchenau.     On  coins  of  the  Provosts  of  Wildeshausen 
(Oldenburg)  of  the  thirteenth  and  fourteenth  centuries. 

6.  H.  Dannenberg.     On  three  finds  of  tenth  and    eleventh 
century  German  coins, 

7.  K.  E.  H.  Krause.      On  the    Frisian  words    Tuna   and 

8.  H.  Dannenberg.     On  the  Ribnitz  find,  consisting  chiefly  of 
long-cross  pennies  of  Henry  III.  of  England. 

9.  U.  Wilcken.    On  the  current  value  of  the  Egyptian  drachm 
in  the  middle  of  the  third  century  A.D. 

10.  U.    Wilcken.      On   the   titles  of  Vabalathus  on  Syrian 
and  Alexandrian  coins,  viz.  VCRIMDR  =  V[ir]  CQarissimus] 
R[ex]    IM[perator]    D[ux]    R[omanorum]     and     YACP     or 

•  AYTCPQ=cY[waTtKds]  AvT^OKparup  Ofi-parm/os]  'PcoraatWl 

B.  V.  H.  ' 


FIND  OF  ROMAN  COINS  ON  GREAT  ORME'S  HEAD.  — A  short  time 
ago  Mr.  Thomas  Kendrick,  the  proprietor  of  a  small  museum  and 
camera  obscura  on  Great  Orme's  Head,  while  engaged  upon  an 
alteration  of  the  roadway,  came  upon  what  he  believes  to  have 
been  an  ancient  fire-place,  near  which,  embedded  in  the  clay, 
were  seventeen  Roman  coins  with  one  piece  of  pottery.  The 
coins,  which  have  been  kindly  forwarded  to  me  by  Dr.  H. 
Thomas,  of  Llandudno,  may  be  thus  described: — 


Bust  r.,  radiate. 

GALLIENUS,  A.D.  253—268. 


Trophy,  on  either  side  of 
which  a  captive  .  . 

.    Gaul? 

YICTORINUS,  A.D.  265 — 267. 

Bust  r.,  radiate. 


SALTS  AVG.  Salus  stand- 
ing 1.,  holding  sceptre  and 
patera,  towards  which  a 
serpent  rises  from  an  altar 
in  front  of  Salus  ....  Gaul. 

SALYSAVG.  Salus  stand- 
ing r.,  feeding  serpent 
from  patera Gaul. 

TETRICUS,  A.D.  267—273. 

t.  TE[TRI]CVS  P.  F. 
Bust  r.,  radiate. 


PAX  AVG.  Pax  standing 
1.,  holding  olive-branch 
and  sceptre Gaul. 

5.  IMP.  CARAYSIVS  P.  F.  AYG. 
Bust  r.,  radiate. 




CARAUSIUS,  A.D.  287 — 293. 

A    DYX    (sic}. 

For  tuna  Redux  seated  1., 
•  holding  rudder  and  cornu- 

copiae.       Wheel    beneath 

her  seat. 

No  mint  letters. 

Hilaritas  standing  r., 
holding  branch  and  cornu- 

In  field,  F— O. 

In  ex.,  ML,      .     .     London. 

[MAR]S    YICTOR.      Mars 
walking        r.,       holding 
trophy  and  spear. 
No  mint  letters  ? 




8.  IMP.  C.  CARAVSIVS  .  P.  F.  AVG. 
Bust  r.,  radiate. 

9.  IMP  .  CARAVSIVS  .  P.  F.  AVG. 

Bust  r.,  radiate. 








Bust  r.,  radiate. 

16.  IMP.  C.  CARAVSIVS  P.  F.  AVG. 

Bust  r.,  radiate. 

17.  IMP  CARAVSIVS  P.  F.  AVG. 

Bust  r.,  radiate. 


PAX  AVG.  Pax  standing 
1.,  holding  "branch  and 

No  mint  letters. 

PAX  AVG.  Pax  standing 
1.,  holding  branch  and 
spear,  and  with  shield  on 
ground  behind  her. 

In  field,  B— E. 

In  ex.,     ML?  .     .     . 



[PA]X  AVG.  Pax  stand- 
ing 1.,  holding  branch  and 

In  field,  F-0. 
In  ex.     ? 

Do.     Small  size. 

In  field,  F— 0. 

PAX  AVG.     Pax  as  above. 
In  field,  F— 0. 
In  ex.,     ML.          .     . 


PAX  AVG.     Pax  as  above. 
In  field,  F— 0. 
In  ex.,     ML London. 

PAX  AVG.     Pax  as  above. 
In  field,  L. 
In  ex.,     ML London. 

PAX  AVG.    Pax  as  above. 

In  ex.,  C.      .     .     .      Camulodunum. 

PAX  AVG.    Pax  as  above. 
In  field,  S— C. 
In  ex.,  C Camulodunum. 

videntia  standing  1.,  hold- 
ing globe  and  transverse 

In  field,  B— E. 

In  ex.,  [ML]XXI. 

.     .  London. 
B.  V.  HEAD. 

Num.  C 



IN  submitting  the  following  translation  of  an  article 
written  by  the  learned  Dr.  Grraetz,  of  Breslau,  our  chief 
living  authority  on  Jewish  history,  and  on  all  that  per- 
tains to  it,  I  add  no  comment  or  criticism  of  my  own. 
The  article  was  written  for  the  purpose  of  being  read 
by  its  author  at  one  of  the  meetings  lately  held  in  connec- 
tion with  the  Anglo- Jewish  Exhibition.  At  this  Exhi- 
bition selections  of  ancient  Jewish  coins  were  sent  from  all 
the  principal  collections,  always  excepting  those  of  the 
British  Museum,  which,  under  its  rules  and  regulations, 
could  not  be  lent  for  that  purpose,  but  were,  by  the  kind- 
ness of  the  authorities,  exhibited  separately  at  the  same 
time  within  the  precincts  of  the  Museum.  I  was  entrusted 
with  the  pleasurable  task  of  cataloguing  and  of  writing  a 
short  account  of  these  coins  in  the  official  catalogue  of  the 
Exhibition,  and  hence  my  having  been  authorised  by  Dr. 
Graetz  at  the  same  time  to  translate  his  contribution.  I 
may  fairly  ask  some  of  our  friends  who  have  made  a 
special  study  of  the  coins  of  the  period  referred  to  by 
him  to  give  their  views  on  the  subject  of  the  propositions 
which  he  has  enunciated. 








JEWISH  numismatics — for  there  are  such — bear  eloquent 
testimony  to  the  struggles  and  victories  of  the  Jewish 
people  from  the  Maccabaean  period  until,  perhaps,  after  the 
destruction  of  the  Second  Temple.  The  coins  which  come 
within  the  scope  of  this  study  are  invaluable  records, 
inasmuch  as  they  not  only  faithfully  represent  historical 
facts  connected  with  personages  and  events,  but  also 
reflect,  without  distortion,  their  sense  and  importance. 
In  addition  to  this,  such  of  them  as  bear  dates  furnish 
fixed  and  certain  aids  to  chronology. 

For  two  centuries  those  who  presided  over  the  Jewish 
mints  issued  coins  with  Hebrew  legends  for  current  use ; 
Simon  Maccabaeus  and  his  successors,  the  Asmonaean 
princes  and  kings,  in  the  beginning,  and,  afterwards,  vari- 
ous eminent  personages  at  the  time  of  the  defection  from 
Rome  and  of  the  great  war  under  Vespasian,  and  perhaps 
even  in  later  times.  These  last  come  under  the  denomination 
of  coins  of  the  Revolts.  All  these  coins  have  acquired  so 
great  an  importance  that  historians  whose  work  extends 
over  the  period  of  their  issue  study  them,  and  are  com- 
pelled to  study  them,  and  the  public  museums  of  all 
European  States  have  zealously  devoted  their  energies 
towards  the  acquisition  of  genuine  specimens,  for  which 
payment  is  at  times  made  to  the  extent  of  a  thousandfold 
their  intrinsic  value.  Jewish  numismatics  have  at  the 
present  day  become  the  subject  of  a  study  of  itself. 

It  is  interesting  to  trace  how  this  branch  of  archaeology 


has  from  rudiments  originally  so  slight  attained  the  im- 
portance now  attributed  to  it.  It  was  always  known  in 
Jewish  circles  that  there  were  once  Jewish  coins  with 
Hebrew  inscriptions  and  with  lettering  similar  to  the 
Samaritan  characters.  Maimuni  saw  some  of  these  in 
Egypt  in  the  twelfth  century.  When  Machmani  was 
exiled,  and  sought  an  asylum  in  Palestine  owing  to  the 
persecution  of  the  Dominicans,  he  found,  on  his  arrival  at 
Acre  in  the  year  1267,  shekels  and  half  shekels  in  the 
possession  of  the  Jews  there  settled.  This  did  not  in  the 
least  astonish  him ;  he  was  more  interested  in  considering 
the  question  whether  their  weight  was  in  harmony  with 
the  declarations  of  the  Talmud.  In  the  first  quarter  of  the 
sixteenth  century  Moses  Alaschkar  saw,  in  Tunis,  several 
similar  specimens  in  silver  and  copper,  and  with  varied 
types  and  legends.  He  was  also  informed  that  three  or 
four  examples  in  gold,  of  the  extraordinary  value  of  six 
ducats  each,  were  in  the  possession  of  a  certain  magnate 
there.  In  the  same  century  the  existence  of  similar  pieces 
with  the  so-called  Samaritan  lettering  was  not  unknown 
to  the  Jews  in  Italy.  No  one,  however,  devoted  any 
attention  to  them,  or  seemed  to  have  any  knowledge  of 
their  historical  value.  Neither  did  the  savants  in 
Christian  circles  devote  much  more  attention  to  Jewish 
numismatics  even  in  the  seventeenth  and  eighteenth  cen- 
turies, although  Hebrew  literature  and  archaeological 
studies  were  then  fostered  and  led  to  fame,  and  although  a 
considerable  number  of  specimens  of  this  class  of  coins  had 
been  brought  together  and  were  accessible  in  public  and 
private  collections.  Many  Orientalists  doubted  their 
genuineness,  owing  to  their  peculiar  striking  and  letter- 
ing, and  considered  them  to  be  fabrications  of  astute 
dealers  in  Jerusalem  or  Italy,  and  bestowed  more  -atten- 


tion  upon  the  formation  of  the  letters  than  upon  the 
importance  of  the  legends. 

It  was  only  towards  the  end  of  the  eighteenth  century 
that  the  study  of  Jewish  numismatics  was  treated  with  more 
consideration  and  zeal,  and  thereby  attained  the  rank  of  a 
study  in  itself.  A  Spanish  priest  with  a  German  patro- 
nymic, the  Archdeacon  of  Valencia,  Francisco  Perez 
Bayer,  gave  to  it  a  lasting  impulse.  His  treatise,  De 
numis  Hebrceo-Samaritanis  (1781),  to  which  he  added 
drawings  of  a  substantial  number  of  different  specimens, 
marked  an  era  in  this  branch  of  archaeology  chiefly  owing 
to  the  opposition  which  he  at  first  experienced. 

Tychsen,  a  German  professor  of  Rostock,  who  had 
learnt  Hebrew  from  the  heretical  Rabbi,  Jonathan  Eibe- 
schiitz,  of  Altona,  and  who  wished  to  utilise  this  know- 
ledge for  the  conversion  of  the  Jews,  maintained,  without 
any  valid  reason,  that  all  the  specimens  preserved  as  such 
rare  treasures  in  public  museums  and  private  collections 
were  the  productions  of  forgers  in  Palestine  or  Italy.  It 
was,  however,  just  this  dogmatical  opinion  (behind  which 
lurked  his  own  idiosyncrasy),  and  the  manner  also  in 
which  he  treated  the  honourable  and  well-informed 
Bayer,  that  awakened  interest  in  the  study  of  Jewish 
numismatics,  and  its  defender,  Bayer,  in  his  reply, 
Vindicia  Numorum  Hebrceo-Samaritanorum  (1790),  pro- 
duced more  evidence  as  to  the  genuineness  of  the  coins, 
and  published  several  more  specimens,  which  he  had 
discovered  on  his  journey  through  Spain.  Numismatists 
of  authority  confirmed  his  arguments.  The  venerable 
French  archaeologist,  Jean  Jacques  Barthelemy,  whose 
opinion  was  of  importance,  remarked,  "  Si  Ton  doutait  de 
leur  authenticite  (des  medailles  hebreo-samaritaines)  il 
faudrait  douter  de  celles  des  medailles  grecques  et 

ON   THE    JEWISH     "  LULAB  "    AND    "PORTAL"    COINS.   169 

time,  Joseph  Eckhel,  of  Vienna,  treated  of  the  Jewish 
coins  in  his  great  work,  Doctrina  Numorum  (1794),  and 
entirely  disposed  of  Tychsen  by  his  superior  authority.  In 
the  meanwhile,  owing  to  the  French  Revolution  and  the 
great  wars,  the  study  of  Jewish  numismatics  made  no  pro- 
gress for  a  long  time.  It  was  only  in  the  middle  of  the 
present  century  that  it  gained  further  strength  and  eluci- 
dation. M.  de  Saulcy,  a  captain  of  artillery,  mainly  con- 
tributed to  this.  Entrusted  with  the  task  of  writing  the 
history  of  the  Jewish  nation  before  and  after  the  second 
destruction  of  Jerusalem,  and  full  of  love  for  his  subject, 
and  especially  for  Judaism,  as  he  averred  in  Les  dernier s 
jours  de  Jerusalem,  he  was  so  fortunate  on  his  journey 
through  Palestine  as  to  obtain  a  large  collection  of  Jewish 
coins.  His  work  Recherches  stir  la  Numismatique  juda'ique 
(1854)  marked  a  second  epoch  in  the  treatment  of  this  sub- 
ject. On  the  one  hand  he  excited  emulation  in  connection 
with  his  acquisition  of  such  genuine  coins,  inasmuch  as  he 
at  the  same  time  furnished  proofs  of  their  genuineness ; 
and  on  the  other  hand  he  advanced  the  cause  of  original 
research  into  the  history  of  the  Jews  from  the  Maccabaean 
era  until  the  time  of  Hadrian,  this  being  found  indispensable 
to  a  proper  understanding  of  the  coins.  In  the  same  way 
as,  formerly,  theologians  sought  to  verify  the  chronology 
of  the  New  Testament  by  reference  to  historical  records 
and  to  Jewish  literature  generally,  so  were  the  same 
sources  of  knowledge  now  examined  by  those  learned 
in  the  matter  in  the  interests  of  Jewish  numismatics. 
The  Talmud,  hitherto  a  sealed  book,  not  to  say  an  object 
of  abhorrence  so  far  as  Christian  savants  were  concerned, 
was  now  honoured  by  being  called  into  the  councils  of 
the  investigators,  to  throw,  if  possible,  some  light  upon 


obscure  numismatic  points.  To  this  also  De  Saulcy  gave 
an  impetus,  and  he  thereby  showed  his  right  appreciation 
of  the  subject.  For,  in  fact,  without  a  knowledge  of  the 
hints  which  are  given,  or,  perhaps  rather,  let  fall  unde- 
signedly,  and,  therefore,  all  the  more  credibly,  in  the 
Talmud  with  respect  to  the  customs  and  events  connected 
with  the  actual  life  of  the  time  in  which  the  coins 
originate,  or  are  said  to  originate,  the  history  of  that 
epoch  is  not  altogether  intelligible. 

The  evidences  of  Josephus,  notwithstanding  their  great 
worth,  might  excite  some  suspicion,  owing  to  the  fact  that 
out  of  consideration  for  his  Greek  and  Roman  readers,  he 
either  wilfully  or  unintentionally  effaced  the  original 
colouring  as  being  too  glaring  for  such  readers.  Much 
less  information  is  on  purely  secular  matters  afforded  by 
the  Gospels,  with  their  epics,  dialogues,  and  monologues. 
For,  independently  of  the  fact  that  these  are  not  contem- 
poraneous, the  circle  from  whom  they  originate  held  aloof 
from  public  life,  and  despised  it  too  much  to  understand 
it.  "  Render  to  Ccesar  the  things  that  are  Ccesar's "  is  a 
sentence  which  reflects  clearly  the  Ebionitic  conception 
of  Mammon  or  of  money.  On  the  other  hand,  the  Tal- 
mudic  literature  gives  a  faithful  representation  of  the 
different  aspects  of  public  life  within  the  cycle  to  which 
these  coins  belong,  and  to  which,  therefore,  numismatic 
science  must  have  regard.  It  is  proposed  to  demonstrate 
in  the  following  pages  how  certain  casual  expressions  in 
the  Talmud  with  reference  to  ancient  customs  indisputably 
elucidate  an  obscure  point  in  Jewish  numismatics.  Al- 
though all  difficulties  connected  with  that  portion  which 
relates  to  the  Maccabaean  period  have  for  the  most  part 
been  dissipated,  there  still  exists  a  difference  of  opinion 
concerning  that  portion  of  which  the  chronological 
position  and  date  are  not  clearly  defined. 


There  is  especially  a  great  controversy  as  to  the  class  of 
coins  upon  which  the  name  of  Simon  more  or  less  dis- 
tinctly appears.  Some  numismatists  identify  this  Simon 
with  the  elder  or  younger  Simon  Ben  Gamaliel  (of  Hillel 
descent),  the  latter  being  the  grandson  of  the  former,  or 
to  some  extent  also  with  Simon  Bar-Gioras,  the  wild  hero 
of  the  zealots ;  others  ascribe  the  coins  of  this  class,  or  a 
section  of  them,  to  the  heroic  Simon  Bar-Cochab,  who,  in 
the  time  of  Hadrian,  kept  the  Roman  legions  at  bay  for 
three  years.  There  are  some  pieces,  too,  which  are  called 
Eleazar  coins.  There  is  a  controversy  also  as  to  these. 
Some  attribute  them  to  Eleazar,  a  leader  of  the  zealots 
during  the  revolt  of  the  Jews  against  the  Romans,  but,  on 
the  other  hand,  De  Saulcy  refers  them  to  the  little-known 
Eleazar  of  Modin,  a  Hagadist.  It  has,  in  short,  been  found 
impracticable  hitherto  to  decide  with  any  degree  of  cer- 
tainty which  coins  belong  to  the  first  and  which  to  the 
second  Revolt,  notwithstanding  the  amount  of  discussion 
that  has  taken  place. 

There  is  a  series  of  coins  also  concerning  which  the 
same  doubts  have  arisen,  and  which  are  called  "  lulab  " 
pieces.  They  are  all  of  almost  identical  types,  but  their 
legends  differ.  The  types  are  of  the  following  varieties, 
viz.,  on  the  one  side  is  a  bundle  of  branches  better  known 
by  the  name  of  a  lulab  (composed  of  a  long  palm-branch 
between  two  shorter  ones  of  myrtle  and  willow),  and  near 
it  is  the  representation  of  a  fruit  which  is  rightly  considered 
to  be  the  citron  or  ethrog,  and  is  inseparably  connected 
with  the  lulab.  On  the  other  side  of  these  pieces  the  type 
is  that  of  a  portal  or  colonnade ;  four  columns  with  an 
architrave,  and  other  ornamentations  above.  This  tetra- 
style  portal  is  not,  however,  struck  in  identically  the 
same  manner  on  all  the  pieces,  but  exhibits  several  varia- 
tions in  form.  The  legends  on  these  lulab  pieces  differ 


still  more.  One  kind  distinctly  bears  on  the  lulab  side 
the  words,  "First  Year  of  the  Deliverance  of  Israel" 
(b«-)ttP  nbtfnb  nn«  raitf),  and  on  the  portal  side,  on  both 
sides  of  the  columns  and  over  the  architrave,  the  word, 
"Jerusalem"  (Dba7YT»),  but  no  proper  name. 

Several  pieces,  on  the  contrary,  have  on  the  lulab  side 
the  legend,  "  The  second  year  of  the  freedom  of  Israel  " 
(bNiK^  "inb  2'  a?)  and  on  the  portal  side,  similarly  to  the 
last,  "  Jerusalem,"  also  without  any  proper  name.  Others, 
again,  have  more  or  less  distinctly  on  the  portal  side  the 
name  of  "Simon"  instead  of  Jerusalem.  Finally,  a 
third  or  fourth  kind  has  on  the  lulab  side  the  words,  "  On 
the  freedom  of  Jerusalem"  (own^  nnnb  in  full)  but 
not  the  year  of  striking,  and  on  the  portal  side  the  name 
"  Simon." 

"What  makes  the  exact  chronological  attribution  of  this 
class  of  coins  so  doubtful  is  the  circumstance  that  on  some 
specimens  traces  of  the  head  of  an  emperor,  or  Greek 
letters,  occur — in  one  case  the  termination  NOC,  and  one 
has  somewhat  distinctly,  in  Greek  lettering,  an  abbrevia- 
tion of  the  name  Titus  Flavius  Vespasianus.  These 
specimens  are,  therefore,  surfrappe  coins — that  is  to  say, 
that  over  Greek  imperial  coins  of  Vespasian,  Domitian 
or  Trajan,  the  impression  of  a  Jewish  coin  has  been 
struck,  as  is  the  case  with  other  coins,  which  clearly  show, 
under  the  Jewish  striking,  the  full  name  of  Trajan  with 
his  titles. 

Now  Vespasian  was  proclaimed  Emperor  in  July, 
A.D.  69,  during  the  Jewish  war.  He  only  arrived  at 
Rome  A.D.  70.  His  first  coin,  therefore,  could  only  at  the 
very  earliest  have  been  struck  in  this  year.  Is  it  to  be  said 
that  the  besieged  in  Jerusalem  had  already  become  pos- 
sessed of  coins  of  Vespasian  a  few  months  before  the 

ON   THE   JEWISH    "  LULAB  "   AND    "  PORTAL  "   COINS.     173 

destruction  of  the  city,  and  had  impressed  upon  them 
Jewish  devices  and  inscriptions  ?  This  is  scarcely 
credible.  But  assume  for  one  moment  that  these  were 
coins  of  Trajan.  It  would  be  more  readily  conceded  that 
this  surfrappage  had  taken  place  much  later,  during  the 
second  Revolt.  At  all  events,  therefore,  these  pieces  upon 
which  the  surfrappage  is  visible  would  belong  to  the 
period  of  Bar-Cochab.  As  then  the  similarity  of  the 
types  points  to  a  contemporaneous  date,  the  class  of 
lulab  coins  must  also,  one  and  all,  belong  to  the  same 
period.  De  Saulcy  arrives  at  this  conclusion,  though  not 
by  the  same  method  of  reasoning.  He  claims  that  this 
class,  as  also  many  others,  belong  to  the  second  Revolt, 
and  the  occurrence  on  some  of  the  pieces  of  this  class  of 
the  name  "  Simon "  appears  to  support  his  attribution. 
Other  numismatists,  particularly  Merzbacher  and  Madden, 
do  not  concur  in  this  result.  The  former  attributes  tho 
types  with  the  dates  "first  and  second  year"  (Figs.  1,  2,  3) l 
to  the  first,  and  those  without  date  (Figs.  4,  5,  6),  to  the 
second  Eevolt.  Madden  attributes  Type  I.  only  to  the 
first  Revolt.  Another  class  of  coins  gives  rise  to  similar 
differences  of  opinion  on  the  part  of  these  authorities. 
The  Eleazar  coins  belong  most  probably  to  the  first 
Revolt ;  and  these  also  have  the  date  "  First  year  of  the 
freedom  of  Israel,"  the  same  as  one  kind  of  the  lulab  coins. 
The  latter  kind,  at  all  events,  therefore  belong  also  to  the 
period  of  the  first  Revolt.  In  short,  the  most  eminent 
numismatists  move  in  a  circle  in  their  attempts  to  fix  the 
date  of  this  class  of  coins. 

To  find  a  way  out  of  the  difficulty  a  fresh  path  must  be 

1  Plate  VI.,  in  illustration  of  this  translation,  is  an  exact 
copy,  with  all  faults,  of  that  which  accompanied  Dr.  Graetz's 
original  paper,  but  the  module  of  the  coins  has,  in  the  process 
of  reproduction,  been  slightly  diminished. 

VOL.    VIII.    THIRD    SERIES.  A  A 


struck.  In  the  next  place,  the  exact  significance  of  the 
types  and  legends  must  be  ascertained.  For  the  lulab 
and  portal,  which  all  coins  of  that  class  have  in  common, 
are  striking  enough,  and  must  have  originated  from  ascer- 
tainable  sources.  The  most  obvious  meaning  of  the  lulab 
is  given  by  the  numismatic  writers  :  "  The  type  of  these 
shekels — the  ethrog  and  lulab — reminded  the  Jews  of  the 
Feast  of  Tabernacles."  (Madden.)  It  should  be  added 
that  they  are  represented  as  they  were  accustomed  to  be 
held  during  the  recital  of  the  psalms  contained  in  the 
prayer  of  the  Hallel  in  connection  with  which  they  were 
used,  the  lulab  to  the  right,  and  the  ethrog  to  the  left. 
The  numismatists  have,  however,  omitted  to  notice  a 
slight  detail  which  is  visible  in  connection  with  the  form 
of  the  lulab.  On  all  the  coins  the  latter,  with  the  small 
twigs  appertaining  to  it,  is  depicted  as  being  in  an  orna- 
mented receptacle.  This  has  the  appearance  of  a  chalice. 
It  is  clearly  an  embellishment.  What  then  is  the  meaning 
of  this  embellishment  or  receptacle  ?  The  Talmud  at  once 
clears  up  the  difficulty. 

Rabbi  Me'ir  states  quite  casually  that  the  men  of  posi- 
tion in  Jerusalem  carried  their  lulab  in  a  small  golden 
basket.  The  bundle  of  palm,  myrtle,  and  willow-branches, 
according  to  the  laws  of  the  ritual,  was  obliged  to  be 
bound  together  at  the  ends.  Now  Rabbi  Meir,  in  oppo- 
sition to  the  assertion  that  the  connecting  band  must  be 
in  the  nature  of  vegetable  fibre,  refers  to  the  fact  that  the 
leading  inhabitants  of  Jerusalem  did  not  observe  that  cus- 
tom, but  effected  the  binding  together  by  means  of  a 
small  golden  basket.  His  Halachic  adversary  concedes 
that  fact,  but  gives  it  as  his  opinion  that  the  bundle  was 
connected  together  by  bands  of  thread  inside  the  basket. 
It  may,  in  addition,  be  remarked  that  Rabbi  Me'ir,  as  a 
disciple,  of  Rabbi  Akiba,  may  have  received  from  him 

ON   THE   JEWISH    "  LULAB  "    AND  "  PORTAL  "    COINS.     175 

traditions  on  the  subject  of  the  customs  and  usages  in 
Jerusalem ;  for  the  latter  was  of  an  advanced  age  at  the 
time  of  the  destruction  of  Jerusalem. 

Let  us  now  consider  the  meaning  of  the  tradition  con- 
cerning this  gold  lulab  basket.  The  custom  was  not  in 
vogue  during  the  lifetime  of  Rabbi  Me'ir,  but  only  pre- 
viously thereto,  during  the  existence  of  Jerusalem.  This 
somewhat  unorthodox  custom,  also,  did  not  prevail  outside 
Jerusalem.  It  happened,  therefore,  that  it  was  in  Jeru- 
salem alone  that  a  display  was  made  with  the  lulab.  They 
not  only  made  use  of  it  in  the  Temple,  and  in  the  house  of 
prayer  when  the  Hallel  psalms  were  recited,  but  it  was 
seldom  out  of  their  hands  daring  the  day.  The  Talmud 
contains  a  tradition  which  has  a  bearing  upon  this  also. 
The  rich  and  those  who  were  of  note  in  Jerusalem,  to  make 
a  show  of  their  lulab,  adorned  it  with  a  gold  basket ;  they 
could  not  grudge  themselves  this  luxury. 

Regarding  now  the  receptacle  in  which  the  lulab  is 
placed  on  the  type  of  the  lulab  coins,  can  there  be  any 
doubt  but  that  it  represents  this  very  basket  ?  It  appears 
to  be  ribbed  and  twisted  like  a  basket ;  it  can  clearly  be 
called  a  basket.  It  has  a  foot  or  a  handle  by  which  it  can 
be  held,  and  two  or  three  openings.  The  lulab-bundle  on 
the  coins  is  depicted  in  the  same  manner  as  the  men  of 
rank  in  Jerusalem  used  to  hold  and  display  it.  It  requires 
no  further  argument  on  that  subject  to  make  it  clear  that 
these  coins  could  only  have  been  struck  during  the  exis- 
tence of  Jerusalem  ;  and  as  the  custom  of  depositing  the 
lulab  in  a  basket  did  not  prevail  subsequently,  the  later 
moneyers  would  not  have  taken  it  into  their  heads  to  de- 
pict bundles  in  that  shape.  That  shape  it  is  evident  could 
not  have  been  in  vogue  at  the  time  of  Bar  Cochab,  as  Rabbi 
Meir,  who  was  then  living,  refers  to  the  custom  as  having 
been  one  existing  in  earlier  times,  and  which,  therefore, 


was  not  practised  in  his  own  time.  It  can  also  scarcely  be 
argued  that  the  receptacle  in  which  the  lulab  is  depicted 
on  the  coin-types  is  only  an  embellishment,  and  this  is  all 
it  could  have  been  if  it  had  been  met  with  in  the  ordinary 
course  as  a  kind  of  ornamental  basket-work.  I  dwell 
somewhat  upon  this  circumstance  as  it  constitutes  the 
centre  of  gravity  for  the  chronological  attribution  of  the 
lulab  coins. 

Let  us  now  consider  the  reverses  of  these  pieces.  They 
clearly  bear  only  the  representation  of  a  portal,  always 
with  two  columns  on  each  side,  and  generally  with  an 

Numismatists  are  as  wanting  in  unanimity  on  the 
subject  of  this  type  as  they  are  unanimous  with  regard  to 
the  lulab  and  the  ethrog  at  its  left-hand.  Perez-Bayer 
maintains  that  the  portal  is  a  representation  of  the  Mau- 
soleum which  Simon  Maccabaeus  (or  rather  his  son)  caused 
to  be  erected  in  memory  of  the  Asmonaean  family  in  Mo- 
din.  This  explanation  has  been  rightly  rejected,  inas- 
much as  most  examples  of  this  class  bear  the  name  of 
Jerusalem.  It  was  also  interpreted  as  depicting  the  Ark 
of  the  Covenant,  which  is  somewhat  paradoxical,  as  in 
post-exile  times  the  ark  and  its  form  were  utterly  un- 
known. Other  numismatists  have  been  willing  to  see  in 
it  the  form  of  the  Temple,  or  of  the  entrance  to  the 
Temple.  (Cavedoni,  Levy,  Merzbacher.)  But  this  interpre- 
tation can  scarcely  be  correct,  as  the  Temple  of  the  time 
of  the  Herods  had  no  ornamentation  of  columns  at  the 
entrance  ;  and  it  can  still  less  be  regarded  as  a  gate,  inas- 
much as  the  opening  is  in  a  certain  measure  barricaded 
by  a  three-barred  decoration.  Merzbacher  for  that  reason 
denominates  the  emblem  as  a  closed  gate.  But  a  closed 
gate  affords  no  entrance,  and  therefore  it  cannot  symbolize 

ON  THE   JEWISH    "  LT7LAB  "   AND    "  PORTAL  "    COINS.     177 

the  gate  of  the  Temple.  What  then  is  the  meaning  of 
the  portal  side  of  these  lulab  coins  ? 

It  must  be  remembered  that  on  the  other  side  the 
lulab  is  represented  optimd  in  forma  to  the  right,  bound  up 
with  the  two  other  branches ;  on  the  left  the  ethrog  fruit, 
and  in  addition  an  embellishment  to  the  bundle,  as  must 
have  occurred  in  actual  use.  What  deeper  significance 
has  this  type  ? 

It  is  a  great  departure  from  the  emblems  which  occur 
on  most  of  the  Jewish  coins.  These  latter,  such  as  the 
palm-tree,  or  palm -leaf,  or  the  vine,  are  symbols  repre- 
senting the  Holy  Land  or  the  Jewish  people.  What 
meaning,  however,  was  there  in  the  striking  of  a  lulab  on 
coins  ?  It  was,  without  encumbering  the  argument  with 
subtleties,  simply  and  solely  intended  to  commemorate  the 
Festival  of  Succoth  (Tabernacles),  and  beyond  this  the 
period  of  this  festival,  which  was  celebrated  by  means  of 
two  several  ritual  symbols,  the  branches  of  four  kinds  of 
plants  (D^D  372"i«),  and  the  lightly  constructed  Festival 
Tabernacle  (n31D).  If  this  festival  is  to  be  typically 
depicted  it  should  be  represented  in  both  of  these  aspects, 
not  only  by  means  of  the  lulab,  but  also  by  means  of  the 
tabernacle.  The  portal,  therefore,  represents  the  facade 
of  the  Festival  Tabernacle,  not,  of  course,  that  of  the 
very  first  or  best  description,  but,  as  in  the  case  of  the 
lulab,  that  of  a  Jew  in  a  superior  position,  who  has  made 
a  parade  of  it  as  with  the  lulab.  It  must  have  been  a 
tabernacle  of  elegant  construction. 

As  a  matter  of  fact,  tabernacles  of  this  elegance  of  con- 
struction, with  columns,  did  actually  occur.  In  Tal- 
mudical  literature  mention  is  made  of  one  of  these  sur- 
rounded on  all  sides  by  columns,  and  that  these  columns 
were  regarded  as  being  in  accordance  with  the  ritual  as 


representing  walls,  and  the  whole  building  considered  to 
be  an  orthodox  form  of  the  Festival  Tabernacle.  The 
example  is  certainly  borrowed  from  actual  reality.  Many 
a  man  of  position  has  used  as  a  Sukka  (Festival  Tabernacle) 
the  TrepLGTvXov  in  the  court-yard  of  his  house,  furnished 
with  a  roof  consisting  of  a  light  covering  of  leaves.  It  is 
stated  of  the  proselyte  of  Adiabene,  Queen  Helena,  who  in 
48  A.D.  had  come  to  Jerusalem  with  her  grandchildren  in 
order  to  give  them  a  Jewish  education,  that  she  caused  to 
be  built  for  herself  a  very  noble  Festival  Tabernacle. 
It  is  difficult  to  imagine  that  its  walls  were  of  mas- 
sive construction,  as  this  could  scarcely  have  been 
tolerated,  having  regard  to  the  high  temperature  at  this 
festival  time.  The  tabernacle  would,  with  greater  proba- 
bility, have  been  built  so  as  to  secure  a  large  access  of 
fresh  air,  and  the  queen,  who  spoke  Greek,  no  doubt 
would  also  have  had  a  taste  for  the  light  airy  Greek 
style  of  building,  and  her  tabernacle  was  doubtless,  there- 
fore, ornamented  with  columns,  at  all  events  so  far  as  the 
fagade  was  concerned,  which,  according  to  the  ritual,  need 
not  be  a  wall.  A  Festival  Tabernacle  with  a  facade  of 
columns,  such  as  was  in  use  among  people  of  position  in 
Jerusalem,  certainly  served  as  a  model  for  the  type  of  this 
series  of  coins.  It  formed  the  complement  to  the  lulab, 
which,  as  we  have  proved,  was  used  for  show. 

Now,  regarding  the  portal  with  the  tetrastyle  as  the 
representation  of  a  decoratively  constructed  Festival 
Tabernacle,  we  shall  also  find  on  the  portal  on  these  coins 
a  trifling  detail,  little  regarded  heretofore  by  numismatists, 
but  which  has  its  signification.  Upon  most  specimens 
there  is  introduced  into  the  cavity  of  the  portal  a  semi- 
circle of  little  rings,  and  upon  this  semicircle  are  three 
lines,  upon  which  may  be  observed  little  globules,  those 

ON    THE    JEWISH    "  LULAB  "    AND    "  PORTAL  "    COINS.      179 

in  the  middle  smaller  than  those  above  or  below.  These 
beaded  lines  can  only  be  of  the  nature  of  an  ornamen- 
tation, and  this  again  can  be  explained  by  a  reference  to 
Talmudical  literature.  It  was  the  custom  to  decorate  the 
Festival  Tabernacles  with  strings  of  nuts  or  almonds, 
grapes,  or  wreaths  consisting  of  ears  of  corn.  This  deco- 
ration has  a  technical  term  applied  to  it,  rDIDn  ^la,  i.e.  the 
ornament  of  the  Tabernacle.  The  ritual  law  provided 
that  such  a  decoration  when  once  added  to  the  Tabernacle 
should  not  be  eaten  or  made  use  of  until  after  the  expira- 
tion of  the  festival. 

The  semicircles  and  the  lines  with  little  rings  or  glo- 
bules on  the  portals  represented  on  the  coins  are  only  to 
be  regarded  as  decorations  of  the  Festival  Tabernacle. 
The  portal  is,  therefore,  not  closed  at  the  bottom,  but  it 
exhibits  a  decoration  in  accordance  with  the  custom  in 
connection  with  Festival  Tabernacles  ;  and  it  is  therefore 
in  no  wise  to  be  considered  as  a  colonnade  of  a  temple, 
but  only  as  a  representation  of  the  Festival  Tabernacle 
of  a  man  of  rank  or  position  who  decorated  the  subject 
matter  of  his  ritual  duty,  in  the  same  manner  as  the  lulab 
is  provided  with  an  ornament.  Both  types  on  the  coins, 
the  lulab  on  the  one  side  and  the  decorative  fa9ade  of  the 
Festival  Tabernacle  on  the  other,  together  serve  to  repre- 
sent the  Festival  of  Tabernacles.  These  symbols  of  the 
festival  have  a  deeper  meaning  still,  and  one  which  the 
types  on  the  coins  were  intended  to  represent.  The  lulab 
reminds  us  of  rejoicings ;  as  we  read  in  the  Law,  "  You  shall 
take  of  the  fruit  of  the  tree  Hadar  and  palm-branches, 
&c.,  and  shall  rejoice  before  the  Lord." 

The  Second  Book  of  the  Maccabees,  in  fact,  relates  that 
at  the  consecration  of  the  Temple  by  the  Maccabees,  palm- 
branches,  and  especially  lulabs,  were,  as  a  sign  of  rejoicing, 


swung  to  the  tune  of  the  hymns.2  It  being  granted  that 
the  lulab  symbolises  a  joyful  mood,  it  may  likewise  be 
taken  that  the  Festival  Tabernacle  records  another  train 
of  thought,  namely,  God's  protection  of  his  people.  The 
Law  distinctly  lays  down,  in  its  prescription  for  the  abode 
in  tents  or  tabernacles  during  this  festival,  that  it  should 
be  remembered  at  this  period  how  the  Lord  protected  our 
forefathers  in  the  wilderness.  The  verse  Isaiah  vi.  17, 
nmDl,  &c.,  has  made  this  line  of  thought  plainer  still,  and 
in  later  times  it  was  so  extended  as  to  render  the  Festival 
Tabernacle  a  protection  against  all  ill-doers,  and  even 
against  evil  demons.3  There  was  a  reason,  therefore,  on 
the  part  of  the  engravers  of  this  series  of  coins  in  choos- 
ing the  emblems  discussed  by  us.  They  were  intended 
to  represent  the  rejoicings  over  their  acquisition,  and  at 
the  same  time  confidence  in  the  protection  of  His  people  by 
the  Lord.  The  types,  therefore,  indicate  the  frame  of  mind 
of  the  people,  and  the  legends  give  the  facts  and  the  dates 
which  brought  it  into  play.  "  The  first  year  of  the  free- 
dom of  Israel,"  "The  second  year  of  the  freedom  of  Israel," 
compress  into  a  very  small  compass  a  subject  rich  with 
historical  interest,  and  arising  at  a  time  when  Jerusalem 
was  still  independent.  Although  the  legend  Db^7'n>  on 
the  lulab  coins  sufficiently  points  to  this  conclusion,  it  is 
established  with  still  greater  force  by  the  decoration  on  the 
bundle  of  leaves,  the  basket -shaped  tress- work,  which  re- 
presents the  golden  basket  of  the  upper  classes  of  Jerusalem. 
Here,  however,  we  have  to  surmount  a  somewhat  serious 
difficulty.  Although  on  the  one  hand  it  is  certain  that  the 
basket  ornamentation  points  to  the  independence  of  Jeru- 
salem, and  that  therefore  the  lulab  coins  must  have  been 

2  2  Maccab.  x.,  6,  7. 

3  Pesikta,  K.  Kahana,  ed.  Buber,  p.  187,  &c. 

ON   THE   JEWISH    "  LULAB  "    AND    "  PORTAL "    COINS.     181 

struck  before  the  destruction,  it  is  equally  certain,  on  the 
other  hand,  that  they  must  be  attributed  to  some  period 
after  the  destruction,  if  regard  is  to  be  had  to  the  traces 
which  occur  on  some  of  these  coins  of  the  bust  of  a  Roman 
emperor,  and  to  the  name  in  distinct  characters  of  one  of 
those  emperors.  The  view  taken  by  Dr.  Merzbacher,  and 
partly  also  by  Madden,  that  some  examples  of  these  belong 
to  the  first  and  others  to  the  second  Revolt  is  altogether 
untenable.  It  were  better  to  fully  concur  in  the  decision 
of  Von  Sallet  which  he  expresses  concerning  the  Simon 
coins  as  a  whole  :  "  It  is  unexampled  and  impossible,  in 
connection  with  ancient  numismatics,  that  coins  which 
absolutely  resemble  each  other  in  style,  and  can  even  be 
readily  confused  the  one  with  the  other,  should  be  separated 
in  point  of  time  by  a  period  of  sixty  years."4  Therefore  all 
the  lulab  coins  must,  according  to  our  author,  belong  to 
the  time  of  Bar-Cochab.  This  theory,  however,  cannot 
be  right,  since  the  emblem  which  represents  the  custom 
of  the  nobility  in  Jerusalem  proves  them  to  be  of  a  time 
before  Bar-Cochab.  How  then  shall  we  escape  this  di- 
lemma ?  Only  by  dealing  with  the  matter  in  the  most 
critical  manner.  All  those  examples,  the  legends  upon 
which  indicate  an  epoch  after  the  destruction,  and  which 
are  in  addition  of  an  extremely  suspicious  nature,  must 
be  the  fabrications  of  a  forger.  But  an  imitation  pre- 
supposes an  original.  There  must,  therefore,  have  been 
genuine  lulab  coins  which  served  as  patterns  to  the  forger, 
and  these  genuine  pieces  were  certainly  of  the  time  before 
the  fall  of  Jerusalem.  I  always  return  to  that  point, 
because  it  was  only  during  the  independence  of  the  capital 
that  the  decoration  of  the  basket- shaped  tress-work  could 
have  been  designed. 

4  Zeitschr.fiir  Numism.  v.  113. 



Those  examples  only  are  genuine  which  give  a  date, 
"  first  and  second  year  of  the  deliverance,  or  of  the  freedom 
of  Israel,"  but  which  have  not  the  name  of  the  ruler  who 
struck  them.  Those  kinds,  also,  which  have  the  date  and 
the  name  of  Simon  may  also  be  genuine.  The  trace  of 
the  emperor's  bust  which  may  be  observed  upon  one 
example  need  not  discredit  its  authenticity,  it  may  be  the 
head  of  Nero ;  and  so  also  NO  in  large  letters  upon  one 
example  of  the  second  year  without  "Simon"  does  not  make 
it  a  suspected  piece,  as  it  is  possibly  part  of  the  termina- 
tion of  N  EPniMOC,  and  the  coin  may  be  struck  over  one  of 
Nero.  But  certainly  those  pieces  are  not  genuine  which 
have  the  absurd  legend  "  The  freedom  of  Jerusalem,"  and 
not  bhnttf'1  inb ;  and  also  the  piece  which,  instead  of 
nbltfYT  rmnb,  distinctly  has  nbtt7m,  PP  being  at  some 
distance  from  it,  and  the  Samaritan  n  being  clumsily 
formed  with  three  little  limbs  instead  of,  as  is  usual 
throughout,  with  two  (Fig.  VI.).  The  example,  which  is 
struck  over  a  coin  issued  after  Nero,  must  especially  be 
considered  to  be  false. 

Treating  the  lulab  coins  which  have  a  date  as  genuine, 
it  must  be  observed  that  their  legends  bear  upon  his- 
torical events,  upon  matters  of  fact  at  the  time  of  the 
Revolt  from  Rome  under  Nero,  in  the  same  way  as  their 
types,  the  lulab  and  facade  of  the  tabernacle,  represent 
the  sentiments  of  the  people  at  that  period.  The  differ- 
ence between  nb«ab  and  nnnb  is  particularly  note- 
worthy. The  former  signifies  "Deliverance,"  i.e.  the 
beginning  of  the  liberation  from  foreign  rule ;  rvnn1?,  on 
the  other  hand,  signifies  "  Freedom,"  i.e.  the  continuance 
of  the  liberation  achieved.  It  marks  a  further  stage  in 
the  desired  independence.  To  nbbtf?  belongs  nns  nattf, 
and  to  rmrfo  the  date  "3  roitf.  There  is,  therefore,  no 

ON   THE   JEWISH    "  LULAB  "   AND    "  PORTAL  "    COINS.     183 

coin  to  be  found  which  has  the  legend  nvinb   'N  n3U7  or 
nbsnb   '2  rottf .  A  published  piece  belonging  to  Reichardt, 
which   has  the  latter  legend,  was  rightly  condemned  as 
false  by  Levy,  De  Saulcy,  and  Madden  (Madden,  Numism. 
Orient.  II.  236,  No.  10).     The   example  of  a  lulab  coin 
which  bears  the  legend  bfcnap  nb«nb  nns  FS®  (Fig.  I), 
was  certainly  struck  during  the  first  period  of  the  Revolt 
from  Rome,  and  with  equal  certainty  at  the  time  of  the 
Feast  of  Tabernacles,  as  is  proved  by  the  types.    In  point 
of  chronology  this  thoroughly  agrees  with  the  historical 
events    in    the    beginning  of    the  Revolt   as   they    are 
narrated  by  Josephus.     On  the  day  of  the  Festival  of  the 
Boughs,    the  15th  day  of  the  month  Ab,5  the  Roman 
cohorts  stationed  in  the  citadel  (Acra)  under  the  Tribune 
Metilius,  and  Agrippa's  troop  under  the  leadership  of  the 
Babylonian  Philip,  were  so  hard  pressed  by  the  Zealots 
that  they  were  compelled  to  seek  refuge  and  entrench 
themselves  in  Herod's  Palace  on  the  Market  Place.     On 
the    6th    Gorpiaios,   i.e.    6th  Elul,   the   Zealots   allowed 
Agrippa's  host  to  withdraw  and   continued  the   conflict 
with  the  Roman  cohorts.    Then  these  capitulated  and  were 
cut  to  pieces,  with  the  exception  of  Metilius,  who  went 
over   to  Judaism.     From  that  time  the  people  of  Jeru- 
salem felt  themselves  free  from  the  foreign  yoke.     The 
day  and  month  of  this  victory  are,  it  is  true,  not  given  by 
Josephus,   but    the    commemorative   scroll   for   the   day 
in  question   (Megillath  Taanit)    briefly  declares  "on  the 
17th  Elul,  the  Romans  were  driven  out  of  Jerusalem  and 
Judah."     The  rejoicings  at  this  victory  were  so  great,* 

5  Josephus'  Declaration  (Jew.  Ckr.  II.  7,  7,  8)  that  the 
Festival  of  the  Boughs  was  observed  on  the  14th  Ab  rests  upon 
a  slip  of  memory.  The  Talmud  is  more  accurate,  and  so  often 
speaks  of  the  Festival  as  occurring  on  the  15th  Ab. 


that  the  whole  of  the  inhabitants  of  the  not  unimportant 
city  of  Lydda  repaired  to  Jerusalem  for  the  Tabernacle 

The  inhabitants  of  other  neighbouring  cities  probably 
betook  themselves  to  the  capital  at  the  same  time  in  order 
to  take  part  in  the  triumph   over   the   Romans.      The 
rejoicings  were  universal.     It  was  only  after  this  victory 
that  they  could  proceed  to  strike  their  own  coins.      This 
occurred  in  the  month  of  Tishri,  which,  according  to  the 
calendar  in   those   times,    commenced    the    year.       The 
legend  naturally  was,  "  In  the  first  year  of  the  liberation 
of  Israel,"  and  "  Jerusalem,"  which  was  the  essence  of  all 
sanctity,  and  the  object  of  all  reverence  on  the  part  of 
the  whole  nation.     But  what  types  were  to  be  selected 
for  the  new  coins?      As  the  striking  of  them   did   not 
commence  long  before  the  Feast  of  Tabernacles,  it  was 
natural  that  resort  should  be  had  to  the  symbols  of  this 
festival,  viz.,  the  lulab  and  the  tabernacle.     Both  were 
represented  with    their   most  beautiful    attributes,    the 
lulab  with  the  decorations  of  the  basket  tress-work  as  it 
used  to  be  borne  by  the  higher  ranks  in  Jerusalem,  and  the 
tabernacle    also   after  an  agreeable  pattern,  the   fagade 
being  depicted  with  columns  and  architrave  and  with  the 
ornamentation  of  the  lines  of  circles,  the  pictorial  repre- 
sentation of  strings  of  nuts,  almonds,  or  other  fruits.     It 
was  sought  to  represent  at  one  and  the  same  time  the 
rejoicings  over  the  victory  and  the  liberation  from  the 
Romans  by  means  of  the  lulab,  and  the  hope  for  God's 
further  protection  by  means  of  the  symbol  of  the  Sukka 
(tabernacle).      These  were  no  doubt  the  motives  which 

6  Josephus,  Jew.  Chr.  II.   29,  1,    Sta  yap  TVJV  rfjs  a-KyvoTryyias 
f.oprr]v  av<JLJ3f{3r]KCi  irav  TO  TrXfjOos  (rrjs  TroXews  AuSSa)  cts  'lepoao \vfJia. 


influenced  those  who  were  engaged  in  the  striking  of  the 
first  Liberation  Coins. 

Who  was  at  that  time  the  ruler  who  struck  these 
pieces  ?  The  fact  that  the  coins  of  the  first  year  bear  no 
name  is  full  of  significance,  for  this  omission  proves  that 
the  coins  were  struck  at  a  time  when  none  of  the  pro- 
minent individuals  who  had  contributed  to  the  Revolt 
from  Rome  had  as  yet  attained  any  position  of  authority. 
It  was  the  honeymoon  of  Freedom  in  its  youth.  The 
Sanhedrin,  with  Simon  Ben-Gamaliel  at  its  head,  had  no 
political  privileges,  only  rights  of  legislation  in  connection 
with  religious  matters,  "et  inter  arma  silent  leges." 
There  are  other  coins  with  the  legend,  "  First  year  of  the 
Liberation"  which  were  certainly  coined  in  the  same 
year,  particularly  the  Eleazar  coins  before  mentioned. 
These  must  have  been  struck  later  at  the  time  when  the 
bearer  of  this  name  was  at  the  head  of  affairs  in  Jeru- 
salem. They,  therefore,  also  bear  other  types  than  the 
lulab  coins  ;  they  have  no  connection  with  the  Festival  of 

Those  examples  of  the  lulab  coins  which  have  the 
legend  "  The  second  year  of  the  Freedom  of  Israel  "  (as 
Fig.  II.),  differ  though  but  little  from  the  type  of  the 
first  Year  in  the  ornamentations  on  the  lulab  basket, 
and  to  some  extent  also  in  the  beaded  lines  on  the 
portal.  They  must,  however,  have  been  struck  at  the 
time  of  the  first  Revolt,  and  in  fact  during  the  month  of 
the  Festival  of  Tabernacles  (about  October,  67  A.D.).  If 
also  there  be  any  example  of  this  type  which  bears  the 
Greek  NO,  that  circumstance  in  no  wise  proves  that 
they  are  struck  over  coins  of  Vespasian.  As  I  have 
already  stated,  this  can  be  amplified  to  [N6PH]NO[C] 
(in  the  genitive).  Large  coins  of  Nero  were  still  known  in 


Palestine  (nwa  2?bD).7  Much  more  surely  does  the 
presence  of  the  ornamental  basket  on  the  lulab  bundle 
point  to  the  time  before  the  destruction  of  Jerusalem. 
Madden  and  others,  therefore,  erroneously  attribute  the 
coins  with  the  legend  "  The  second  year  "  to  the  time  of 
the  second  Revolt. 

There  are,  however,  two  varieties  of  this  type,  one  with, 
and  the  other  without,  the  name  of  "  Simon."  According 
to  the  acceptation  of  many  numismatists,  this  name  of 
Simon  refers  to  the  President  of  the  Sanhedrin,  Simon 
Ben-Gamaliel,  whose  name  bsntZP  W»HW  JTODI&  more  or 
less  distinctly  occurs  upon  several  copper  coins.  There 
was  no  other  Simon  who  bore  the  title  "  Nasi  "  (Prince) 
in  existence  at  that  time.  As  one  of  these  varieties  has 
round  the  name  a  wreath,  the  upper  part  of  which  is 
fastened  with  some  gem,  and  on  the  other  side  within  the 
inscription  bsit»>  nbwnb  nn«  roa?  ;  another  also  being 
known  with  the  same  types  (only  with  some  letters 
effaced),  and  the  Berlin  Cabinet  possesses  a  coin  which 
has  the  same  types,  but  with  inb  n"ttf  bs'iltf'1  round 
the  Diota,  and  within  the  wreath  the  name  "p^attf  only 
(Merzbacher  in  Yon  Sallet  I.  232  et  seq.\  there  remains 
no  doubt  that  this  name  of  Simon  can  also  only  refer  to 
Simon  Ben-Gamaliel. 

Another  proof  that  'p^Ettf  can  plainly  be  considered 
to  be  identical  with  bhntt^  H^tCO  fTODtP  may  also  be 
gathered  from  the  so-called  Eleazar  coins,  for  there  are 
examples  of  these  which  distinctly  have  on  the  one  side 
7  man  -robs  or  the  letters  struck  from  right  to  left 
sb^n  ron?  (by  a  mistake  of  the  engraver),  and  on 
the  other  side  bfcnttP  ribwab  nriN  nattf.  No  numis- 

Kelim,  17,  12,  and  parallel  passages. 

ON    THE    JEWISH    "  LULAB  "    AND    "  PORTAL  "    COINS.      187 

matist  has  disputed  the  authenticity  of  these  coins. 
It  is  clear,  therefore,  that  a  priest  named  Eleazar  caused 
coins  to  be  struck  in  the  first  year  of  the  Liberation 
(i.e.  from  the  Romans). 

This  Eleazar  was  either  Eleazar,  the  son  of  Ananias, 
who  threw  considerable  energy  into  the  Revolution,  or 
more  probably  Eleazar,  the  son  of  Simon,  who  on  the 
flight  of  the  Romans  and  of  their  leader  Cestius  Gallus 
had  the  care  of  the  treasures  and  military  chest  which 
had  been  wrested  from  them,  and  who  especially  had  in 
his  hands  the  management  of  the  finances  of  the  State. 
Although  he  was  passed  over  at  the  commencement,  when 
the  election  of  rulers  of  the  different  districts  took  place, 
yet  by  degrees,  and  because  he  was  the  Controller  of  the 
Finances,  he  obtained  the  supremacy  in  Jerusalem.8 

No  other  Eleazar  is  known  who  attained  such  eminence 
as  to  entitle  him  to  strike  coins.  The  theory  advanced 
by  De  Saulcy  that  the  Eleazar  in  question  may  have 
been  the  Eleazar  of  Modin  (^YlEn  "TO^N  "~0  men- 
tioned in  Talmudic  literature,  and  of  whom  nothing 
further  is  known  than  that,  during  the  siege  of  Bethar,  he 
besought,  in  sackcloth  and  ashes,  the  aid  of  heaven,  and 
was  destroyed  by  Bar-Cochab  through  motives  of  jealousy, 
and  that  the  Eleazar  coins,  therefore,  belonged  to  the 
second  Revolt,  has  received  but  little  assent.  The  only 
author  who  agreed  with  it  was  Yon  Sallet,9  but  his  total 
ignorance  of  Talmudic  literature  scarcely  enabled  him  to 
judge  how  little  this  Eleazar  of  Modin  was  fitted  for  the 
rdle  of  a  ruler.  In  the  absence  of  any  coin  of  Eleazar 

8  Josephus'  account  of  this  Eleazar  is  important  in  connection 
with  the  rivalry  of  the  leaders  of  the  revolution,  Jew.  Chronicle  II. 

20,  3,  TOV  yap  TOI)   2,i[JUDvo<5   viov  'EAed^apov,  /ca/Trep,  &C. 
9  Zeitschrift  fur  Numismatik,  v.  113. 


bearing  evidence  of  being  struck  over  other  pieces,  either 
at  the  time  of  Yespasian  or  afterwards,  it  must  be  agreed 
that  these  coins  belong  to  the  first  Revolt.  Their  genuine- 
ness is  at  all  events  more  certain  than  that  of  the  bulk 
of  the  coins  bearing  the  name  of  Simon,  either  with 
or  without  traces  of  overstriking,  for  the  one  reason  only 
that  the  Judaeo-Samaritan  letter  T  occurs  on  no  other 
coins,  and  therefore  could  not  well  be  imitated. 

If  then  these  coins  of  Eleazar  are  genuine  and  were  struck 
before  the  time  of  Yespasian,  those  pieces  also  are  equally 
genuine  and  belong  to  the  same  time,  which  have  on  one 
side  the  word  Eleazar  round  a  vase,  and  on  the  other  side 
3?D  i.e.  "p^Eltf  within  a  wreath,  with  a  gem ;  the  exact 
type  of  the  example  which  distinctly  bears  the  legend 
bwitiP  fcW3  "p^Ett?.10  It  is,  therefore,  proved  by  this  that 
at  least  some  coins  which  have  the  name  "  Simon  "  with- 
out any  title,  are  likewise  attributable  to  Simon  Ben- 
Gamaliel.  This  is  at  all  events  true  of  the  series  which 
has  as  emblems  the  lulab  and  the  tabernacle  (Fig.  III.). 
The  more  incontrovertible  the  weight  of  suspicion  that 
the  numerous  coins  bearing  the  name  of  Simon  are 
forgeries,  the  more  we  are  convinced  that  there  must 
have  been  genuine  coins  with  this  superscription,  and 
which  served  as  patterns  to  the  forgers.  Notwith- 
standing the  occurrence  of  a  star  upon  the  example  in 
the  Paris  Cabinet  which  might  engender  some  suspicion, 
this  type  with  the  name  of  "  Simon  "  can  be  treated  as 

0  De  Vogue,  who  had  only  seen  a  cast  of  this  coin,  has 
doubted  its  genuineness,  but  Friedlander  and  Von  Sallet, 
directors  of  the  Berlin  Cabinet,  state  that  in  that  cabinet  is  a 
genuine  example,  and  the  one  from  which  the  cast  was  taken. 
The  occurrence  of  the  names  Eleazar  and  Simon  upon  one  and 
the  same  piece  is  attributed  by  numismatists  to  an  error  of 
the  engraver. 

ON    THE    JEWISH    u  LULAB  "    AND    "  PORTAL  "    COINS.     189 

genuine,  as  it  bears  more  resemblance  to  the  Types  I. 
and  II.  than  to  the  doubtful  examples  of  Type  IV. 
(Fig.  IV.-VL). 

The  result  of  the  inquiry  can  now  be  summed  up.  It 
is  ascertained  that  after  the  Maccabaean  series,  there  are 
some  coins  with  the  lulab  which  must  be  held  to  be 
genuine,  viz.,  those  with  the  type  of  the  festival  bunch 
and  the  fagade  of  a  tabernacle  accompanied  by  certain 
ornamentations.  For  what  coin-forger  of  the  time  when 
antiquities  and  old  coins  had  acquired  a  value  could  have 
conceived  the  idea  of  providing  a  basket-shaped  receptacle 
for  the  stems  of  the  lulab  ?  For  the  same  reason,  also, 
these  must  have  been  struck  before  the  destruction  of 
Jerusalem,  at  a  time  when  this  decoration  was  in  use 
among  the  higher  classes  in  Jerusalem,  and  could  then 
only  have  served  as  a  pattern  to  the  die  engraver.  I 
repeat  that  they  cannot  be  of  a  period  after  the  destruc- 
tion, because  such  an  ornamentation  was  then  no  longer 
in  practical  use  and  was  only  remembered  as  a  matter  of 

The  first  lulab  coins  with  the  portal  facade  which 
bear  the  legend,  "  First  year  of  the  Liberation  of  Israel/' 
were  struck  shortly  before  the  Feast  of  Tabernacles, 
A.D.  66,  after  the  victory  over  the  Roman  cohorts  in 
Jerusalem,  and  when  there  ceased  to  be  any  Romans  in 
the  country  except  those  at  the  Legionary  station  at 
Caesarea.  The  types  chosen  served  as  a  symbol,  both  of 
rejoicing  at  this  victory  and  of  God's  protection.  There 
was  at  that  time  no  individual  person  in  power  whose 
name  could  appear  upon  these  coins  as  authorising  their 
coinage.  It  was  a  period  of  transition. 

In  the  course  of  the  year  66,  Eleazar  Ben  Simon,  chief 
of  the  Zealots,  obtained  by  means  of  their  assistance  the 



possession  of  the  State  Treasury,  and  by  means  of  his 
popularity,  the  ruling  power  in  Jerusalem.  The  coins, 
therefore,  which  were  issued  at  that  time  were  struck  in 
his  name,  "  The  Priest  Eleazar,"  and  "  First  year  of  the 
Deliverance  of  Israel." 

But  the  Sanhedrin,  of  which  Simon  Ben- Gamaliel  was 
President,  also  exercised  authority  in  the  same  year. 
This  Simon  was,  according  to  Josephus,  his  opponent,  of 
a  noble  stock  (great-grandson  of  Hillel,  who  appears  to 
have  been  a  descendant  of  the  Royal  House  of  David),  and 
at  the  same  time  of  such  discernment  and  power  of  mind 
that  he  might  have  greatly  improved  the  position  of  the 
affairs  of  the  State  if  he  could  only  have  held  absolute 
power.11  As  he  also  belonged  to  the  party  of  Pharisees,  as 
Josephus  has  recorded,  or,  as  we  are  bound  to  say,  was 
their  chief,  he  must  have  had  a  considerable  following 
among  the  people,  the  greater  portion  of  whom  held  the 
doctrines  of  that  party,  a  fact  prominently  set  forth  by 
Josephus  in  many  passages  of  his  work.  It  naturally 
followed  that  this  Simon  was  regarded  as  the  head  and 
representative  of  the  Commonwealth,  and  equally  so  that 
his  name  should  appear  as  the  coining  authority  upon 
the  coins.  Eleazar  Ben  Simon  was  obliged  to  retire  to 
the  background.  We  have  no  means  of  ascertaining  the 
exact  events  which  led  up  to  this  change,  in  connection 
with  which  coins  were  struck  with  the  legend,  "First 
year  of  the  Liberation  of  Israel,"  and  with  the  name 
"  Simon,  the  Prince  of  Israel." 

The  high-sounding  title  of  Prince  of  Israel  appears, 
however,  to  have  been  distasteful  to  the  Zealots,  who  had 
included  in  their  programme  and  inscribed  on  their 

11  Josephus,  Vita,  38. 

ON    THE    JEWISH    "  LULAB  "    AND    "  PORTAL  "    COINS.     191 

standards,  the  democratic  principle  of  equality  and 
freedom  from  personal  rule.  For  this  Simon  was  after  all 
only  head  of  the  Sanhedrin  (rro  NVJW  b"nnn  "pi)  ;  to 
recognise  him  as  Prince  of  all  Israel  was  to  subject 
themselves  to  a  ruler. 

After  Josephus  had  suffered  the  loss  of  Galilee  owing 
to  his  want  of  judgment,  cowardice,  or  treachery,  and 
after  other  aristocratic  leaders  had  been  found  wanting, 
the  sensibilities  of  the  democratic  Zealots  caused  them  to 
be  especially  enraged  against  the  Jewish  aristocracy. 
This  opposition  to  any  sovereignty  over  Israel  appears  to 
have  brought  about  that  the  title  bbDttp  fcW3  was  no 
longer  allowed  to  be  struck  upon  coins,  and  it  gave 
way  to  the  simple  name  ]  1371212  (as  to  the  coin  which  has 
both  Simon  and  Eleazar,  see  Yon  Sallet,  167).  There  is 
no  other  Simon  in  question,  Simon  Bar-Gioras  being 
excluded  owing  to  his  only  having  been  called  in  during 
the  third  year  of  the  Revolt  in  Jerusalem. 

The  commencement  of  the  second  year  was  now  ap- 
proaching, i.e.  the  month  Tishri  and  the  Feast  of  Taber- 
nacles (October,  67).  Of  this  period  occur  only  those 
coins  which  have  the  legend,  "  The  Second  year  of  the 
Liberation  of  Israel"  (II.  III.).  The  types  of  both  are 
very  similar,  except  that  some  specimens  have  only  "Jeru- 
salem "as  a  legend,  and  others  the  name  of  "  Simon  " 
instead.  This  difference  is  of  course  remarkable ;  for  if 
at  that  time  Simon  Ben-Gamaliel  still  maintained  his 
position,  on  what  ground  was  his  name  passed  over  in 
another  series  ?  The  cause  may  perhaps  be  traced  to  the- 
party  conflicts  which  broke  out  about  this  time.  The 
Zealots  in  Jerusalem,  who  attributed  the  defeat  in  Galilee 
to  the  treachery  of  the  aristocrats,  removed  the  nobles  and 
priests  from  the  offices  in  the  city  and  in  the  temple  which 


they  had  hitherto  enjoyed,  and  appointed  in  their  stead 
persons  from  their  own  ranks.  They  even  divested  the 
high-priest  Matthias,  son  of  Theophilus,  of  his  dignity, 
and  installed  into  it  a  simple  priest,  Phineas,  son  of 
Samuel,  an  inhabitant  of  the  village  Aphta,  upon 
whom  the  choice  had  fallen  by  lot.12  This  produced  a 
tumult  among  the  aristocratic  party.  Anan,  the  son  of 
Anan,  who  had  formerly  been  called  in  for  the  protection 
of  the  city  and  had  been  high-priest,  thundered  against 
the  blasphemy  of  the  democratic  Zealots,  and  the  inso- 
lence of  their  pretensions.  Simon  Ben- Gamaliel  also  was 
irritated  at  the  subversion  of  the  previously  existing  order 
of  things.  He  called  upon  his  hearers  in  the  popular 
assemblies  to  oppose  the  "  Destroyers  of  Liberty  "  and  "  the 
Blasphemers  of  the  Holy  One."  13  This  naturally  arose 
from  a  breach  between  the  Zealots  and  their  chief  Eleazar 
Ben  Simon  on  the  one  hand,  and  Simon  Ben-Gamaliel 
on  the  other.  The  Zealots  initiated  a  reign  of  terror 
against  their  adversaries.  The  Sanhedrin  was  purged 
of  its  anti-Zealot  members,  and  seventy  fresh  members 
were  appointed  in  their  stead  from  the  general  mass.14 
Josephus  does  not,  it  is  true,  mention  the  month  in 
which  the  election  of  the  new  high-priest  took  place. 
The  election  was  probably  taken  in  hand  in  view  of 
the  necessary  functions  on  the  Day  of  Atonement  in 
the  second  year,  and  so  as  to  remove  a  high-priest  who 
had  been  appointed  by  the  detested  King  Agrippa,  and 
who  was  in  addition  suspected  to  have  Roman  tendencies 
— a  suspicion  well  founded,  as  was  proved  by  his  subse- 
quent conduct. 

12  Josephus,  iv.  3,  6—8. 

13  Josephus,  §  9. 

14  Josephus,  v.  3,  4. 

ON    THE    JEWISH    "  LULAB  "    AND    "  PORTAL  "    COINS.     193 

The  rupture  between  the  Zealots  and  Simon  Ben-Gama- 
liel may  possibly,  therefore,  have  taken  place  as  early  as 
in  the  month  of  Tishri,  in  which  the  Feast  of  Tabernacles 
was  celebrated,  and  the  former  being  indignant  at  Simon's 
partisan  agitation  against  them,  may  have  struck  coins 
with  the  same  types  and  emblems  as  those  which  bore 
his  name,  so  as  to  demonstrate  that  he  was  no  longer  at 
the  head  of  the  commonwealth.  In  the  course  of  events 
his  name  was,  in  fact,  no  longer  employed,  and  Josephus 
also  points  to  the  fact  that  this  Simon  was  deposed,  inas- 
much as  he  remarks,  "  He  had  been  in  a  position  to  im- 
prove the  wretched  position  of  affairs  (8uva/xei/o<r  re 
TT pay jLtar a  KCLKWS  KeljULeva.  .  .  .  SiopOwaaffOai)."  There 
are  also  no  further  coins  of  the  second  year  in  existence 
which  bear  the  name  of  this  Simon.  The  example  which 
has  on  one  side  fcW3  ]TOEtP,  and  upon  the  other  bsiti?*1  (in 
the  Wigan  Collection15),  in  addition  to  which  Merzbacher 
wished  to  read  "inb  S"itf,  offers  no  certainty  on  this  sub- 
ject, as  Madden  has  rightly  observed. 

It  may  especially  be  mentioned  further  that  no  genuine 
coins  are  known  which  bear  the  date  of  the  second  year 
or  even  of  the  fourth.  The  remarkable  pieces  which  read 
M"iN  roitf  are  subject  to  suspicion,  for  the  reason  that  they 
exhibit  either  two  lulab-like  types,  or  two  ethrogiin 
(citrons),  and  in  addition  the  legend  ]i>2  nbsnb.  Zicn 
was  in  later  times  only  used  poetically  and  metaphorically 
for  Jerusalem.  The  genuineness  of  this  class  §f  coins, 
which  have  always  been  attributed  to  Simon  Maccabaeus, 
has  yet  to  be  proved.  There  was  after  the  second  year  ne 
individual  who  can  be  said  to  have  represented  the  com- 
monwealth, or  who  could  have  had  the  necessary  autho- 

15  Now  presumably  in  the  Rev.  S.  S.  Lewis's  Cabinet. — H.  M. 


rity  to  strike  coins.  In  the  spring  of  the  year  67,  John  of 
Giskala,  who  had  a  considerable  following,  and  who  be- 
came a  rival  of  Eleazar  Ben  Simon,  arrived  in  Jerusalem. 
In  the  third  year  Simon  Bar-Gioras  also  came  thither, 
and  each  of  these  leaders  sought  to  assume  the  supremacy, 
and  would  scarcely  have  granted  to  the  other  the  right  of 
appearing  to  have  authority  to  strike  coins.  In  the  first 
year  only  were  there  two  men  who  had  such  an  authority, 
first,  Eleazar,  and  subsequently  Simon  Ben-Gamaliel.16 


So  far  as  is  known  there  are  four  types  of  the  series  of  lulab 

TYPE  I.  appears  to  be  unique  in  the  Paris  Cabinet,  and  is  in 
silver.  On  the  lulab  side,  beginning  from  beneath  the  holder  or 
little  basket  is  the  legend  bfc-ntE^  rrbsab  fins  ri3tt7  round  the 
coin.  The  ethrog,  somewhat  rudely  formed,  particularly  at  the  top, 
partly  projects  above  the  basket.  On  the  side  with  the  portal, 
on  the  column  to  the  right,  is  n\  above  the  architrave  the  let- 
ters itfl,  and  on  the  left  column  CD  =  DbtPYT ;  within  the 
opening  of  the  portal  a  semicircle  with  little  rings  or  pellets ; 
within  this  semicircle,  towards  the  upper  part  of  the  centre,  is  a 
short  line  of  four  little  rings,  further  beneath,  two  more,  and 
lower  again  four  more  ;  a  longer  line  above  the  architrave 
consisting  of  about  twenty  little  rings  (see  Fig.  I.). 

TYPE  II. — Of  this  type  six  or  seven  specimens  are  known. 

(1)  In  the  collection  of  the  Comte  de  Vogue  (Rev.  Num. 
1860,  2,  note),  imperfectly  engraved  by  De  Saulcy,  Tab.  XI.  3, 
cf.  Fig.  II. 

16  The  example  in  De  Saulcy,  Tab.  XIII.  6,  which  has  on  one 
side  bsi^^  rfftXfo  nn«  naitf,  and  on  the  other  five  letters, 
which  Levy  has  read  pan  p  ?ian,  and  wished  to  attribute  to 
the  high-priest  Anan,  is  thoroughly  untrustworthy,  as  has  been 
shown  by  Garrucci,  Merzbacher,  and  more  lately  also  by 
Madden.  Whether  we  can  read  instead  fron  "HY^bs  is  open  to 
question.  (Merzbacher  in  Von  Sallet  I.  230,  note  iv. ;  35  J  ,No.89.) 

ON    THE    JEWISH    "  LIJLAB  "    AND    "  PORTAL "    COINS.     195 

(2)  In  the  collection  of  Dr.  Eugen  Merzbacher  of  Munich  (to 
whose  courtesy  I  ani  indebted  for  an  impression). 

(3)  In  the  collection  of  Dr.  Babington  (Madden,  Num.  Orient. 
II.  244,  No.  37). 

(4)  In  the  collection  of  Dr.  Welcher  v.  Moltheim  (Madd.  id.). 

(5)  In  the  collection   of   Senor  Infante,  in   Spain  (deemed 
genuine  by  numismatists  according  to  the   statement    of   Dr. 
Merzbacher.     See  Von  Sallet,  Zeitsch.  fur  Numismatik,  I.,  224, 
No.  6;  IV.,  256,  No.  112). 

(6)  In  the  Hunter  collection  (communicated  by  Woide  in 
Bayer,  de  Numis,  p.  XII.  No.  2). 

(7)  In  the  possession  of  a  Mr.  Lurie  of  Mohilew  there  is  said 
to  be   a  similar  example   (Merzbacher).     On  the  lulab  side  is 
D^bttJVT'   "inb    D'lZ?  round  the  coin,  commencing  from  the  bot- 
tom.    The  upper  edge  of  the  lulab  holder  is  of  a  somewhat 
more    substantial  form  than   No.   1.       The    ethrog   in  No.  2 
projects  but  little  over  the  holder.     On  the  other  hand,  it  is  set 
down  lower  in  Nos.  1  and  3  ;  so  that  its  head  only  reaches  as 
far  as  the  centre  of  the  holder.     On  the  portal  side  is  the  word 
DbtPTT»,  half  on  the  right  and  half  on  left  side,   in   Nos.  1 
and  3 ;  but  on  No.  2  as  on  Type  No.  I.  Nos.  1 — 3  have  above 
the  portal  also  a  representation  of  a  small  cross  with  limbs  of 
equal  size.     These  two  also  have,  in  common  with  Type  I.,  the 
linear  ornamentation  (the  semicircle  and  the  line  in  the  middle) 
within  the  porch,  but  with  slight  differences  so  far  as  No.  3  is 
concerned.     In  Mr.  Babington's  example  the  line  also  occurs 
above  the  architrave.  I  do  not  know  how  the  ornamentations  of 
the  other  examples  are  arranged,  or  whether  they  have  the  small 
cross  before  mentioned,  as  I  have  not  seen  any  representations 
of  them,  and  numismatists  have  not  considered   these  points. 
Some  variations  in  this  type  indicate  that  more  than  one  die 
was  used.     According  to  the  statement  of  its  possessor,  Dr. 
Moltheim,  the  Greek  letters  NO  are  distinctly  visible  under  the 
porch  on  No.  4. 

TYPE  III. — Of  this  type  only  two  examples  are  known, 
(1)  In  the  Paris  collection  (De  Saulcy,  Tab.  XIV.  4).  (2)  In 
the  collection  of  Mr.  L.  Hamburger,  of  Frankfurt-am-Main, 
who  most  courteously  obliged  me  with  a  cast  of  it,  clearly 
taken  from  a  struck  example.  I  do  not  know  whether 
other  examples  exist.  On  the  lulab  side  is  D^bttfVT'  "inb  DtT, 
as  in  Type  II.  The  ethrog  is  towards  the  centre  of  the  lulab- 
holder.  On  the  portal  side  is  EtP  to  the  right  and  "p^  to  the  left 
(on  No.  2  the  former  is  effaced).  Above  are  what  appear  to  be 
two  architraves,  instead  of  the  linear  ornamentation,  and  above 
the  second  a  small  star  (effaced  on  No.  2).  The  decoration 


within  the  porch  is  different  from  Fig.  II.  The  arch  of  the 
semicircle  is  not  like  a  circle  of  dots,  and  the  little  lines  on 
No.  2  are  like  the  others,  but  on  No.  1  resemble  two  wands, 
one  beneath  the  other.  No.  2  shows  indistinct  traces  of  the 
head  of  an  emperor,  with  the  ends  of  a  diadem  (see  Fig.  III.). 

TYPE  IV. — Five  examples  are  known  :  (1)  In  the  Paris  Cabi- 
net (De  Saulcy,  Fig.  IV.  1).  (2)  In  the  Berlin  Cabinet  (of  which, 
the  director,  Von  Sallet,  has  kindly  sent  me  a  plaster  cast). 
It  bears  traces  of  an  emperor's  head,  with  the  diadem.  (3)  In 
the  collection  of  Rev.  S.  S.  Lewis  (see  Madden,  Joe.  cit.  p.  239, 
No.  19).  It  shows  traces  of  the  letters  T.  4>AAYI.  OY.  (Tiros 
3>A.ainos  Oveo-Trao-iavos).  (4)  In  Bayer,  de  Numis,  p.  141,  No.  2 
(see  Fig.  V.).  (5)  In  the  Museum  Kircherianum  (engraved  by 
Merzbacher,  in  Von  Sallet,  III.  214,  Tab.  V.  No.  114).  This 
example  has  somewhat  legibly  on  the  upper  portion  of  the 
lulab  side  the  letters  NOC,  and  on  the  right  hand  distinctly 
the  head  of  an  emperor ;  towards  the  right  are  the  outlines  of 
the  mouth,  nose,  brow,  eye,  and  the  leaves  of  the  laurel 
wreath  (see  Fig.  VI.).  All  these  examples  have,  in  common,  the 
inscription  DbttJY")^  /Tprib  on  the  lulab  side,  and  "p^tttP, 
more  or  less  distinctly,  on  the  portal  side.  But  some  differ  from 
others  in  points  of  detail.  Fig.  VI.  least  resembles  the  others. 
This  specimen  has  not  nbtPYT  m~inb  m  frdl»  but  at  the  foot 
of  the  lulab  holder  are  the  letters  nb  ;  then  there  is  a  wide 
interval,  which  is  occupied  by  the  emperor's  head  wreathed,  and 
then  still  further,  close  to  the  left  side,  is  the  word  dblpnv 
There  is  ample  space  to  have  admitted  the  striking  of  the  full 
inscription  nbttJT^  rmnb »  but  it  gives  one  the  impression 
that  it  was  desired  that  the  head  should  not  be  effaced  by  the 
striking  over  it.  Only  Nos.  1  and  2  are  alike.  In  these  the 
lulab-holder  is  divided  into  four  parts,  on  No.  4  into  five, 
and  on  No.  5  only  into  two  parts,  as  in  the  case  of  Types 
I.,  II.,  and  III.  Nos.  1,  2,  and  5  have  but  a  faint  trace  of  an 
architrave,  but  above  it  two  straight  lines.  No.  4,  on  the  other 
hand,  has  scarcely  any  trace  of  an  architrave  over  the  columns, 
but  only  the  decoration  of  a  straight  line,  and  above  it  a  wavy 
line.  All  the  examples  have  a  star  above  the  decoration  over 
the  columns  with  the  exception  of  No.  4,  which  has  none.  The 
numismatists  have  not  observed  this  peculiarity,  though  this 
is  just  what  excites  a  suspicion  that  it  is  not  a  genuine  piece. 
The  n  also  in  nb  on  No.  5,  has  by  no  means  the  appearance  of 
that  letter  on  other  coins  or  in  the  Samaritan  alphabet.  The 
letter  i  also,  in  the  word  nbttfm  is  peculiarly  formed. 

The  decoration  within  the  opening  of  the  portal  also  differs. 
If  we  take  into  consideration  that  the  legend 

ON  THE  JEWISH  "  LULAB  "  AND  "  PORTAL  "  COINS.  197 

by  itself  is  meaningless  in  the  absence  of  any  statement  as  to 
tbe  year  of  striking  (which  is  wanting  throughout  in  the  case 
of  these  pieces),  and  even  if  this  had  occurred,  that  refer- 
ence would  be  due  on  the  coins,  not  only  to  the  freedom  of  the 
capital,  but  to  that  of  the  people  and  of  the  land  in  general, 
and  if  we  further  take  into  consideration  that  some  of  the 
examples  of  these  coins  bear  signs  of  surfrappaye  of  a  time 
after  Vespasian,  when  Jerusalem  had  long  since  been  de- 
stroyed, and  if  we  finally  take  into  consideration  that  the  exam- 
ples cannot  be  of  one  and  the  same  make,  the  certainty  arises  that 
all  the  examples  of  this  type  are  equally  open  to  suspicion.  The 
star  upon  some  examples  of  this  Type  IV.  cannot  in  any 
degree  serve  as  representing  the  guiding  star  of  the  Pseudo- 
Messiah  Bar-Cochab.  Especially  may  it  be  urged  that  the 
genuineness  of  the  proportionately  large  number  of  examples  of 
this  type  with  obtPVV'  HVinb  and  "p^ftiz;,  with  or  without 
signs  of  surfrappage,  must  be  better  evidenced  than  has  at 
present  been  the  case.  It  is  probable  that  we  possess  no 
genuine  example  of  the  period  of  the  Bar-Cochab  revolt.  This 
suspicion  extends  also  to  those  examples  which  have  the  words 
burial  "inb  n"  W  by  the  side  of  •prttltf,  as  in  the  Berlin  Cabi- 
net there  is  one  example  with  the  palm-tree  and  vine,  and  with 
this  legend,  which  bears  traces  also  of  the  Latin  letters  NVS 
under  the  vine  (Von  Sallet,  V.  III.).  It  is  struck,  therefore,  either 
over  a  coin  of  Vespasian,  Domitian,  or  Trajan,  and  in  either 
case  after  the  destruction  of  Jerusalem.  This  city  was,  how- 
ever, not  rebuilt  during  the  second  Revolt,  and  did  not  fall 
into  the  possession  of  Bar-Cochab.  The  name  of  this  hero 
also  was  not  Simon.  Can  these  coins,  therefore,  have  been 
engraved  or  struck  over  other  coins  in  his  time  and  in  his 
name  ? 


The  Rev.  Dr.  Babington's  cabinet  contains  a  similar  silver  coin 
of  an  abnormal  type,  with  a  lyre  and  grapes  and  the  same  legends 
as  the  Reichardt  example,  but  the  legends  are  rendered  less  leg- 
ible owing  to  a  hole  towards  the  side.  On  one  side  is  bs"1^ 
"in  t&i  and  on  the  other  ^NHtt^  n  b  n  •  M,  which  means  bwiH?* 
nbfcdb  nnw  natP-  This  is  described  as  No.  2570  in  the 
Catalogue  of  the  Anglo-Jewish  Exhibition,  but  Madden  treats  it 

17  This  is  attached  in  manuscript  to  my  copy  of  the  original 
work,  and  is  in  Dr.  Graetz's  own  handwriting. — H.  M. 

VOL.    VIII.    THIRD    SERIES.  D  D 


as  false  (Num.  Orient.) :  "I  do  not  consider  this  piece  to  be  genu- 
ine." Mr.  H.  Montagu,  on  the  other  hand,  maintains  "  This  coin 
appears  to  be  perfectly  genuine,  but  the  use  of  two  reverse  dies 
with  different  dates  is  remarkable."  But  it  is  just  the  use  of 
these  different  words  nbw^b  nY"inb>  which  stamps  it  as  being 
a  false  coin.  Mr.  Montagu  was  kind  enough  to  lend  me  this 
coin,  and  its  appearance  has  convinced  me  more  effectually  of 
its  want  of  genuineness.  The  coin  is  not  struck  but  is  cast, 
and  every  cast  must  be  regarded  as  false  of  which  no  struck 
original  is  forthcoming  to  prove  the  contrary.18  This  example 
of  Dr.  Babington's  is  therefore  in  the  same  category  with 
the  Reichardt  example,  which  experienced  numismatists  have 
condemned.  Both  prove  that  forgers  have  existed  who  have 
driven  a  trade  by  striking  or  casting  scarce  pieces  in  feeble 
imitation  of  genuine  coins. 

18  I  have  again  examined  this  coin  by  the  kindness  of  its 
owner,  and  have  submitted  it  to  the  highest  authorities.  It  is 
clearly  struck  and  not  cast. — H.  M. 




ON  three  sides  India  is  protected  from  invasion  ;  by  the 
Himala  Mountains  on  the  north,  and  on  the  east  and 
west  by  the  sea.  But  on  the  north-west  side,  along  the 
line  of  the  Indus,  she  is  open  to  attack.  On  this  side 
she  was  successfully  invaded  in  ancient  times  by  the 
Persians,  the  Greeks,  and  the  Indo-Scythians.  On  this 
side  also,  in  modern  times,  she  was  successfully  assailed 
by  the  Turks  under  Mahmud  Ghaznavi  and  Muhammad 
Ghori,  and  by  the  Mongols  under  Baber. 

The  Persian  rule  in  IN".  "W.  India  lasted  for  about  two 
centuries,  from  B.C.  500  to  330,  from  the  time  of  Darius 
to  the  invasion  of  Alexander  the  Great.  The  Greek 
dominion  lasted  for  about  three  centuries,  from  B.C.  330 
to  26,  when  the  Kabul  valley  and  the  Panjab  were  con- 
quered by  Kujula,  king  of  the  Kushan  Scythians.  The 
nourishing  period  of  Indo- Scythian  rule  also  lasted  for 
about  three  centuries,  or  from  B.C.  26  down  to  the  end  of 
the  third  century  A.D./  when  it  came  into  contact  with  the 
rapidly  growing  power  of  the  Gupta  dynasty  of  N.  India. 

1  Pauthier,  Le  Thiun-tchu,  ou  VInde,  p.  9  note,  quoting 


The  rise  of  this  great  dynasty  deprived  the  Indo- 
Scythians  of  N.  W.  India  ;  but  they  still  retained  posses- 
sion of  the  Kabul  valley  and  the  Panjab  in  the  north 
and  of  Sindh  in  the  south.  In  the  latter  country  they 
remained  until  the  seventh  century,  when  they  were 
dispossessed  by  the  Brahman  Chach.  In  the  former  they 
remained  until  the  end  of  the  ninth  century,  when  they 
were  displaced  by  the  Brahman  Kalar. 

The  three  centuries  of  Indo-Scythian  rule  in  N.  India 
form  a  very  striking  period,  as  it  separates  Sanskrit  litera- 
ture into  two  broadly  marked  divisions,  named  by  Dr. 
Max  Mttller  the  ancient  and  the  modern,  the  former  com- 
prising the  Brahmanical  Yeda  and  the  Buddhist  Tripitaka, 
and  the  latter  all  other  works,2  including  even  the 
Eamayana  and  Mahabharata,  which  in  their  present 
form  are  probably  not  older  than  the  period  of  Gupta 

In  the  present  account  I  propose  to  treat  at  some  length 
of  the  three  centuries  of  the  more  flourishing  period  of 
Indo-Scythian  rule  previous  to  the  rise  of  the  Gupta 
empire.  For  this  period  we  possess  not  only  a  profusion  of 
coins  but  also  a  considerable  number  of  inscriptions. 
For  the  later  period  of  almost  four  centuries,  from  about 
A.D.  300  down  to  the  advent  of  the  Muhammadans,  the 
materials  are  comparatively  scanty.  The  coins  indeed  are 
numerous,  but  they  are  unfortunately  of  uncertain  dates, 
and  their  inscriptions,  even  when  expressed  in  Indian 
characters,  are  either  limited  to  single  letters  or  to 
general  titles  which  give  but  little  useful  information. 
The  long  legends  on  most  of  the  silver  coins  of  this  period 
are  at  present  quite  useless,  as  they  are  expressed  in  an 

2  India— What  can  it  teach  us  ?  p.  88. 


unknown  Scythian  character,  and  no  doubt  also  in  some 
Scythian  language.  According  to  the  Chinese  pilgrim, 
Hwen  Thsang,  the  characters  in  use  to  the  north  of  the 
Indian  Caucasus  in  A.D.  630  were  25  in  number,  and  were 
written  from  left  to  right.  Not  a  single  name  is  known, 
and  as  all  the  characters  on  the  coins  are  joined  together, 
it  is  difficult  to  find  out  where  any  particular  letter  begins 
or  ends.  I  think  that  I  have  discovered  the  combination 
that  corresponds  with  the  title  of  Shdhi,  and  as  this  was 
the  native  title  the  characters  should  correspond. 

In  the  following  account  I  have  aimed  at  giving  a 
description  of  all  the  known  coins  of  the  Indo-Scythians, 
together  with  such  historical  notices  as  I  have  been  able 
to  gather  from  various  sources.  I  have  divided  the  work 
into  three  parts,  as  follows  : — 

Part  I. — Historical  notices  of  the  Indo-Scythians. 
Part  II. — Notes  on  the  coins  of  the  Indo-Scythians. 
Part  III. — Descriptive  lists  of  the  coins. 

There  are  three  minor  subjects,  which,  as  they  are  brief, 
may  be  conveniently  discussed  at  once.  These  are— 

1. — The  Arian  legends  on  the  coins. 

2. — The  monograms  on  the  coins  of  the  Saka  kings. 

3. — The  monetary  systems. 


When  Wilson  published  his  Ariana  Antiqua  in  1840, 
no  progress  whatever  had  been  made  in  reading  the 
native  legends  beyond  the  point  where  James  Prinsep 
had  left  it.  The  native  forms  of  several  important  names 
still  remained  unread,  such  as  Gondophares  and  Abdagases, 
and  the  legend  on  the  reverse  of  Queen  Agathokleia's 


coin.  I  was  the  first  to  discover  the  true  form  of  the 
letter  G  on  the  coins  of  Gondophares  and  Abdagases  in 
1841,  which  I  followed  up  by  applying  it  to  the  word 
Strategasa,  ^rparrfjo^)  on  the  coins  of  Aspa  Varma,  the  son 
of  Indra  Yarma.  The  discovery  of  GH  followed  imme- 
diately afterwards,  as  this  letter  is  formed  by  the  simple 
addition  of  H  to  G.  At  the  same  time  I  discovered  the 
form  of  BH  in  bhrdta-putrasa,  or  "  brother's  son,"  as  the 
translation  of  AAEA0IAEQZ  on  the  coin  of  Abdagases, 
and  in  Ihrdtasa,  or  "brother,"  as  the  translation  of 
AAEA4>OY  on  the  coins  of  Vonones  and  Spalahores. 
This  was  followed  up  by  reading  the  name  of  Amogha- 
Ihuti  on  the  coins  of  the  King  of  the  Kunindas. 

The  compound  character  answering  to  STR  I  found 
on  the  coins  of  Hippostratus,  which  led  to  the  discovery 
that  the  native  legend  of  the  coins  of  Agathokleia  gave 
the  name  of  King  Straton. 

In  the  proceedings  of  the  Bengal  Asiatic ,  Society  for 
April  (just  received)  I  find  that  Dr.  Hoernle  objects  to  the 
readings  of  Stratasa  and  Hipastratasa,  on  the  ground  that 
the  st  of  Sanskrit  becomes  th  in  Pali.  This  is  true  for 
Eastern  India,  but  not  for  Western  India  and  the  Pan  jab 
and  Kabul,  where  we  know  that  the  people  preserved 
the  pronunciation  of  st  in  the  names  of  the  Princes 
Haustanes  and  Astes.  But  the  most  direct  and  satis- 
factory proof  is  afforded  by  the  different  versions  of 
Asoka's  inscription.  On  comparing  the  Girnar  version, 
which  is  recorded  in  Indian  Pali  characters,  I  find  ndsti 
in  Edicts  II.  and  VI.  as  in  the  Shahbazgarhi  text,  while  the 
Kalsi,  Dhauli,  and  Jaugada  versions  have  ndthi.  I  find  also 
asti  and  vista  in  Edict  XIV.  of  Girnar  and  Shahbazgarhi 
where  Kalsi  and  Dhauli  have  athi  and  vitha. 

For  Western  India  I  may  refer  to  the  inscription  of 

COINS    OF    THE    IN  DO- SCYTHIANS.  203 

Chashtan,  the  Tiastanes  of  Ptolemy,  as  the  most  convincing 
proof  that  the  compound  st  was  not  pronounced  as  th  in 
Ujain  and  Surashtra. 

In  India  also  we  know  that  aswa,  a  horse,  was  shortened 
to  assa  and  asa  in  Pali.  But  in  the  west  we  find  Tu&haspa, 
the  Yavana  satrap  of  Surashtra  under  Asoka ;  and  to 
the  west  of  the  Indus  we  have  Khoaspes.  It  will  be  suffi- 
cient, however,  to  note  that  the  Arian  compound  letter 
read  as  sp,  is  the  equivalent  of  the  Greek  ZF1  in  the 
names  of  Spalahora  and  Spalgadama. 

I  was  the  first  to  read  the  name  of  ITushdn  on  the  coin 
of  Kozoulo  Kadphises,  and  that  of  Khushdn  on  the  coins  of 
Kozola  Kadaphes,  and  to  identify  both  with  the  Greek 
KOPANO  and  XOPAN.  After  this  followed  the  name 
of  Kanishka  in  Court's  Manikyala  inscription  as  king  of 
the  Gush  am. 

Two  forms  of  PH  were  obtained  from  the  coins  of 
Telephus  and  Gondophares. 

CH  and  CHH  I  discovered  about  the  same  time,  by 
identifying  Chhatrapa  as  the  true  reading  of  Kshatrapa,  or 

SW  I  found  in  Mahiswara  and  Sarva-lokeswara  on  the 
coins  of  Hima  Kadphises. 

The  prefixed  R  was  another  valuable  discovery,  as  it 
led  to  the  correct  reading  of  RM  in  d/iarma,  as  well  as  in 
Aspa  Yarma  and  Indra  Varma.  Then  followed  Sarva 
and  acharya,  to  which  I  can  now  add  Gondopharna. 

But  my  chief  discovery  in  the  reading  of  names  in  the 
native  characters  was  the  decipherment  of  the  names  of 
the  Macedonian  months  Arthamisiyasa,  Panemasa,  and 
Apilaesa  in  three  different  inscriptions. 

In  the  Indian  Pali  alphabet  I  claim  the  discovery  of  the 
title  of  Rdjine  on  the  coins  of  Pantaleon  and  Agathokles, 


which  had  baffled  every  previous  writer.  Rajine  is  the 
Pali  form  of  the  Sanskrit  genitive  Rdjnya,  "  of  the  king." 
The  middle  letter  j  had  been  read  by  Lassen ;  but  the 
undulating  form  of  the  initial  r  had  puzzled  him. 

I  also  discovered  the  true  reading  of  the  title  of  ZAOOY, 
or  zavou,  which  had  always  been  read  previously  as 
ZA0OY,  or  zathou.  It  is  the  Greek  rendering  of  the 
native  title  which  the  Chinese  have  preserved  as  Ska-wu 

I  may  add  also  that  the  true  reading  of  the  name  of 
BAZO-AHO  or  Yasu  Deva,  was  due  to  me.  On  the 
small  copper  coins  the  name  is  shortened  to  BAZ-AHO, 
which  is  the  true  spoken  form  of  Bds-deo. 

It  is  perhaps  curious  to  note,  that  though  all  these 
readings  have  now  been  generally  adopted,  scarcely  one  of 
them  has  been  acknowledged  as  mine. 

The  accompanying  Plate  VII.  gives  the  native  names 
and  titles  of  all  the  Indo-Scythian  kings  in  the  Arian  Pali 
characters,  as  found  upon  their  coins.  The  transliterations 
of  all  the  legends  are  given  in  Plate  VIII. 


The  Greek  monograms  on  the  coins  of  the  Indo- 
Scythians  are  comparatively  few,  there  being  only  about 
fifty  on  the  coins  of  the  Saka  kings,  but  not  even  one  on 
those  of  the  Kushan  kings.  I  am  fully  aware  of  the 
difficulty  of  any  attempt  to  explain  these  monograms  ;  but 
as  they  occupy  a  very  prominent  place  on  the  faces  of  the 
coins,  I  do  not  think  it  right  to  leave  them  unnoticed. 
My  previous  attempt  to  explain  the  monograms  on  the 
coins  of  the  Greek  princes  of  Bactria  and  India  was  con- 

3  For  illustrations  of  monograms  see  Plate  IX. 


fessedly  tentative.  But  I  still  feel  that  I  was  right  in  my 
original  opinion,  that  the  occurrence  of  the  same  monograms 
on  the  coins  of  many  consecutive  princes  of  different  dates  is 
sufficient  evidence  to  show  that  they  cannot  be  the  names 
either  of  magistrates  or  of  mmtmasters,  and  must  therefore 
almost  certainly  be  the  names  of  cities  where  the  coins  were 

It  has  been  objected  by  M.  Chabouillet  that  my  early 
attempt  to  explain  these  monograms  does  not  give  the 
name  of  any  one  of  the  seventeen  towns  of  Bactria 
recorded  by  Ptolemy.  To  this  I  can  reply  that  only  six 
of  the  thirty  known  Greek  princes  of  the  East  were  kings 
of  Bactria,  and  that  the  number  of  monograms  on  their 
coins  can  be  counted  on  the  fingers.  As  all  the  other 
monograms  are  found  upon  coins  bearing  native  legends, 
they  must  certainly  be  referred  to  the  south  of  the 
Caucasus.  I  may  note,  however,  that  the  letter  N,  which 
is  found  singly  on  the  coins  of  Antiochus  I.,  Antiochus  II., 
Diodotus,  and  Antimachus  I.,  perhaps  denotes  Nautaka, 
where  Alexander  wintered,  as  I  find  a  monogram  forming 
NA  on  the  tetradrachm  of  Antimachus  with  the  head  of 
Diodotus  on  the  obverse. 

Mr.  Percy  Gardner  accepts  M.  Chabouillet's  opinion, 
and  adds  that  I  profess  to  have  found  in  the  monograms 
"  the  names  of  most  of  the  cities  of  Bactria  and  the 
Panjab."  Mr.  Gardner  has  evidently  overlooked  my 
actual  profession  on  this  point,  in  which  I  distinctly  state 
that  "  I  do  not  suppose  that  all,  or  even  one  half,  of  the 
names  that  occur  on  the  coins  of  the  Bactrian  and  Arian 
Greek,  are  the  names  of  mint  cities." 

Mr.  Gardner  then  proceeds  to  state  his  "  entire  agree- 
ment with  M.  Chabouillet,"  that  there  are  but  few  cities, 
such  as  "  Odessus,  Patrae,  and  Panormus,  which  are  known 

VOL.    VIII.    THIRD    SERIES.  E  E 


to  have  placed  on  their  coins  a  monogram  to  represent 
their  names." 

To  this  argument  I  reply  that  as  the  coins  of  cities 
usually  give  their  names  at  full  length,  their  repeti- 
tion in  the  form  of  monograms  was  quite  unnecessary. 
There  are,  however,  many  examples  of  the  names  of 
cities  expressed  by  monograms,  but  only  on  those  coins 
where  the  name  itself  is  not  given.  I  may  quote  the 
following : — 

1.  Monogram  forming  AK  on  coins  of  Akarnania.     (Head, 

Hist.  Num.,  p.  283.) 

2.  Monogram  forming  AN  A  on  coins  of  Anaktorium.     (Head, 

Hist.  Num.,  p.  279.) 

8.  Monogram  forming  APKAA  on  coins  of  Arkadia.     (Head, 
B.  M.  Guide,  pi.  23,  37.) 

4.  Monogram   forming   AEONTIN    on    coins    of    Leontini. 

(B.  M.  Cat.  Sicily,  p.  94.) 

5.  Monogram  forming  KPA  on  coins  of  Kranii.     (B.  M.  Cat. 

Pelop.,  p.  80.) 

6.  Monogram  forming  KOP  on  coins  of  Korkyra.    (B.  M.  Cat. 

Corcyra,  p.  128.) 

7.  Monogram  forming  EP  on  coins  of  Hermione.    (B.  M.  Cat. 

Pelop.,  p.  160.) 

8.  Monogram  forming  ZA  on  coins  of  Same.     (B.  M.  Cat. 

Pelop.,  p.  91.) 

9.  Monogram  forming  FA  on  coins  of  Gaza.     (Head,  Hist. 

Num.,  p.  680.) 

10.  Monogram  forming  FITO  on  coins  of  Ptolemais.     (B.  M, 

Cat.  Ptolemies,  p.  Ixxxvi.) 

11.  Monogram  forming  AX  A I  on  coins  of  Achaia.    (B.  M.  Cat. 

Pelop.,  p.  1.) 

12.  Monogram  forming  KAH  on  coins  of  Kleitor.     (B.  M.  Cat. 

Pelop.,  p.  180.) 

13.  Monogram  forming  MAT  on  coins  of  Mateolum.     (5,  M. 

Cat.  Italy,  p.  141.) 


Monograms  for  the  names  of  kings  are  not  unknown, 
as — 

AHMHTP  for  Demetrius  of  Macedon.     (Head,  Hist.  Num., 
p.  204.) 

NIK  for  Nikokreon  of  Cyprus.     (Head,  Hist.  Num.,  p.  626.) 
HYP  for  Pyrrhus.     (Head,  Hist.  Num.,  p.  203.) 
ANTI  for  Antigonus  of  Macedon.    (Head,  Hist.  Num.,  p.  204.) 
MOAr  for  Moagetes  of  Kibyra.     (Zeit.f.  Num.,  I.  p.  330.) 

Again  Mr.  Gardner  states  his  opinion  that  M.  Cha- 
bouillet  is  clearly  right  in  saying  that  these  mono- 
grams are  usually  merely  "  the  private  mark  of  a  magis- 
trate or  a  contractor."  That  this  may  have  been  the  case 
with  many  of  the  cities  of  the  West  I  freely  admit,  but  we 
are  now  dealing  with  the  kings  of  the  East,  and  not  with 
the  cities  of  the  East.  In  the  East,  the  right  of  coinage 
has  always  been  a  royal  prerogative,  which  from  the  time 
of  Darius  Hystaspes  has  been  jealously  guarded,  and  its 
infringement  severely  punished.  The  story  of  Aryandes 
as  told  by  Herodotus  is  familiar  to  every  one. 

But  both  M.  Chabouillet  and  Mr.  Gardner  have 
evidently  overlooked  the  case  of  the  well-known  coins, 
called  Cistophori,  on  several  of  which  the  names  of  the 
cities  where  the  coins  were  minted  are  certainly  given  in 
monogram,  while  the  names  of  the  magistrates  are  usually 
confined  to  the  two  initial  letters. 

1.  On  cistophori  of  Adramyteum,  monogram  forming  AAPA. 

(Head,  Hist.  Num.,  p.  446.) 

2.  On  cistophori  of  Parium  or  Apameia,  monogram  forming  fl  A. 

(Head,  Hist.  Num.,  p.  459.) 

8.  On  cistophori  of  Pergamus,  monogram  forming  F1EP.  (Head, 
Hist.  Num.,  p.  462.) 

Might   not  the  same  system  have  prevailed    in   other 


countries  besides  Asia  Minor  ?  For  instance,  on  a  large 
copper  coin  of  Alexander,  I  find  the  monogram  which  I 
have  read  as  Demetrias  coupled  with  another  forming  TH, 
and  on  another  copper  coin  the  same  Demetrias  monogram 
with  the  letter  A-  If  one  of  these  must  be  the  mintmaster's 
name  it  certainly  cannot  be  the  first,  as  that  monogram 
is  found  on  the  coins  of  no  less  than  twelve  different 
princes  from  the  time  of  Demetrius  down  to  Hermaeus,  or 
for  upwards  of  a  century  and  a  half.  Similarly  I  find  a 
common  monogram  of  the  coins  of  Hippostratus  repeated 
on  the  coins  of  Azas.  It  forms  the  syllable  APT,  which 
I  take  to  be  the  name  of  the  mint  city.  On  the  coins  of 
Hippostratus  it  stands  alone,  but  on  those  of  Azas  it  is 
variously  accompanied,  sometimes  by  A I  in  monogram, 
sometimes  by  M I P  in  monogram.  As  it  is  scarcely  pos- 
sible that  these  two  kings  could  have  had  the  same  mint- 
master,  I  incline  to  the  opinion  that  the  monogram  is 
more  likely  to  be  the  name  of  a  town  than  that  of  a  man. 

On  the  coins  of  the  neighbouring  kingdom  of  Parthia 
we  have  the  names  of  at  least  three  cities  given  at  full 
length :  Katastrateia,  Traxiane,  and  Margiane.  The  last 
Mr.  Gardner  takes  for  the  name  of  the  province  of 
Margiana ;  but  surely  it  must  be  intended  for  the  ancient 
city  of  Merv,  which  was  rebuilt  by  Antiochus  as  Antiocheia 
Margiane.  The  names  of  at  least  three  other  Parthian 
cities  are  given  in  an  abbreviated  form,  and  not  in  mono- 
gram. A  single  monogram  accompanied  by  the  word 
P1OAIZ  undoubtedly  refers  to  a  city;  and  this  example 
serves  to  strengthen  the  opinion  that  several  of  the  other 
monograms  found  on  Parthian  coins  may  be  the  names 
of  cities.  Some  of  these  monograms  form  combinations 
so  simple  as  scarcely  to  admit  of  any  other  readings. 
Amongst  these  I  find  PA  for  Ehagce,  APTA  for  Artamita, 


XAPA  for  Khar  ax,  APIA  for  Apamea,  ANT  for  Antiochia, 
HP  and  HPAK  for  Herakka,  <I>YA  for  Phulake,  TA  for 
Gaza,  and  AFIOAA  for  Apollonia. 

The  question  now  arises,  From  whence  did  the  Parthians 
derive  this  practice  of  putting  the  names  of  cities  on  their 
coins  ?  As  the  kings  of  Syria  did  not  as  a  rule  do  so,  the 
Parthians  themselves  must  either  have  originated  the 
practice  or  they  must  have  copied  it  from  the  Bactrian 
Greeks.  But  as  I  have  noticed  a  prevailing  desire  to 
trace  all  the  coin  types  of  the  Parthians  to  Syrian  or 
Bactrian  types,  I  presume  that  the  Parthian  origin  of  the 
custom  will  be  disputed.  In  any  case  the  custom  must 
have  been  familiar  to  the  Eastern  Greeks.  The  name  of 
one  city  I  have  found  beyond  all  doubt  on  some  coins  of 
Eukratides,  namely  Karisiye-nagara,  that  is  the  city 
(nagara)  of  Karisi.  This  city  I  take  to  be  the  same  as 
Kdlsi  or  Kdrisi  of  the  Buddhist  chronicles,  which  was  the 
birthplace  of  Menander. 

The  practice  of  the  Arsakidan  kings  was  followed  by 
the  Sassanians  ;  and  on  the  coins  of  Feroz  are  found  the 
names  of  no  less  than  twenty- six  different  mint  cities, 
accompanied  by  the  years  of  the  reign. 

So  also  did  the  Khalifs  of  Baghdad  give  the  names  of 
their  mint-cities  with  the  Hijra  dates  on  all  their  coins. 
Their  example  was  followed  by  the  Turki  Sultans  of 
Ghazni,  and  afterwards  by  the  Turk  and  Mughal  Em- 
perors of  India  down  to  our  own  times. 

To  prevent  misapprehension  I  may  here  state  my  views 
as  to  the  information  to  be  derived  from  the  monograms. 
Such  of  the  combinations  as  are  simple  and  easily  resolv- 
able into  well-known  names,  either  in  full  or  in  part, 
may  I  think  be  accepted  as  actual  names.  But  unless 
the  places  fulfil  the  condition  of  being  within  the  territory 


held  by  the  particular  prince  on  whose  coins  they  occur, 
they  cannot  be  accepted.  As  an  example  of  my  method 
I  will  take  the  monogram  forming  EY,  which  is  found  on 
the  coins  of  Euthydemus,  Eukratides,  Menander,  Straton, 
Zoilus,  Apollophanes,  and  Kajubul.  I  take  this  mono- 
gram to  stand  for  Euthydemia  or  Sangala,  a  well-known 
city  in  the  Pan  jab,  which  most  probably  received  its  name 
from  Demetrius,  the  son  of  Euthydemus,  during  his  Eastern 
campaigns.  That  the  place  was  certainly  in  the  Eastern 
Panjab  is  declared  by  its  occurrence  on  the  ruder  coins  of 
Straton,  Zoilus,  and  Apollophanes,  which  are  restricted  to 
that  district.  Lastly,  the  monogram,  is  common  on  the 
copper  coins  of  Menander,  who,  in  the  Pali  work  named 
the  "  Questions  of  Milindra  "  is  distinctly  said  to  be  the 
King  of  Sakala. 

As  another  example  I  will  take  the  common  monogram, 
No.  15,  of  the  coins  of  the  Yonones  family,  which  I  read 
as  KOTTOBAPA  in  full.  The  princes  of  this  family  held 
Arachosia,  of  which  the  capital  in  the  time  of  Isidorus 
was  Sigal.  As  the  letter  g  is  very  commonly  elided,  I 
think  that  Sigal  may  be  read  as  Sial  or  Shal,  a  large  town 
close  to  Quetta.  As  the  last  name  is  a  peculiarly  British 
rendering  of  Kotta,  or  "  the  forts/'  I  think  that  Ptolemy's 
Kottobara  must  be  simply  Kotta  or  Quetta,  with  the  town 
of  Shdl  close  by  to  represent  Sigal.  I  would  remark 
that  the  same  reasons  which  have  led  to  the  British  occu- 
pation of  this  position  must  have  had  equal  weight  with 
the  Saka  Indo-Scythians  when  they  made  it  their  capital. 

The  monogram  of  PAZAKA,  for  Ghazni,  No.  14,  also 
seems  unobjectionable. 

Another  example  which  I  consider  as  almost  certain 
is  No.  3  and  No.  37  monograms,  which  I  read  as 


KAZFlAriYPA  in  full.  This  was  the  ancient  well-known 
name  of  Multan,  and  it  was  from  Multan,  and  not  from 
Kashmir,  that  Skylax  must  have  started.  There  are  two 
objections  fatal  to  Kashmir :  1,  the  city  was  not  named 
Kasyapapur ;  and  2,  no  boat  could  descend  the  Jhelam  or 
Hydaspes  below  Barahmula. 

In  the  Plate  of  Monograms  (IX.)  I  have  included  all 
that  I  could  find  on  the  coins  of  Moas  and  of  the  Vonones 
family.  But  I  have  been  obliged  to  be  content  with  a 
selection  of  the  very  numerous  monograms  on  the  coins 
of  Azas  and  Azilises.  Some  day,  perhaps,  a  key  may  be 
found  to  unlock  the  mystery  which  lies  hidden  in  these 
little  knots  of  letters. 

When  I  made  an  attempt  nearly  twenty  years  ago 
to  unravel  some  of  the  monograms  on  the  Greek  coins 
of  Bactria  and  India,  I  stated  my  opinion  that  all  the  coin 
monograms  "  which  are  common  to  a  number  of  different 
princes  can  only  be  the  names  of  cities,  and  cannot  possibly 
be  the  names  either  of  magistrates  or  of  mint-masters,  or 
of  any  other  functionaries."  4  Some  of  the  numismatists 
of  Europe,  as  I  have  already  noted,  seem  to  think  that 
because  magistrates'  names  are  found  on  the  coins  of 
Greek  cities,  the  same  custom  must  have  prevailed  in  the 
East  with  the  coins  of  kings. 

One  example  of  the  name  of  a  city  I  can  now  offer 
which  I  think  is  not  open  to  objection.  I  allude  to  the 
name  of  Sangala,  the  Shakala  or  Sakala  of  the  Hindus. 
According  to  Ptolemy  this  place  was  also  called  Euthy- 
demia  (corrected  from  Euthy  media).  At  the  top  of  the 
Plate  I  have  given  several  different  monograms  of  this 

4  Num.  Chron.,  II.  Ser.,  viii.  p.  185. 


place,  which  seem  to  me  to  be  quite  satisfactory.  I  have 
marked  them  A,  B,  C,  D.  A  is  found  on  the  coins  of 
Euthydemus  and  Menander.  It  forms  EY,  which  I  refer 
to  Euthydemia,  as  we  might  naturally  expect  to  find  it  on 
the  coins  of  Euthydemus,  after  whom  Sangala  must  haye 
received  its  Greek  name  of  Euthydemia.  We  might  also 
expect  to  find  the  same  monogram  on  the  coins  of  Me- 
nander, as  in  the  Milinda  Prasna  Sagal  is  said  to  have 
heen  the  capital  of  Raja  Milindra.  Sangala  was  in  the 
Eastern  Pan  jab  ;  and  we  learn  from  Strabo  that  Menander 
had  actually  crossed  the  Hypanis  or  Bias  river. 

B  is  also  found  on  the  coins  of  Euthydemus.  It  forms 
simply  EY  for  Euthydemia. 

C  consists  of  two  monograms  which  are  found  together 
on  a  coin  of  Eukratides.  The  upper  one  reads  EY,  as 
before,  but  the  lower  one  gives  the  alternative  name  of 
ZAITAAA  in  full. 

D  is  found  on  the  coins  of  no  less  than  four  kings— 
Straton,  Zo'ilus,  Apollophanes,  and  Rajubul.  It  forms  EY. 
As  the  coins  of  all  the  four  princes  on  which  this  mono- 
gram occurs  are  of  coarser  and  ruder  work,  and  are  found 
only  in  the  Eastern  Panjab,  I  think  we  may  admit  that 
they  were  most  probably  struck  at  Euthydemia  or  San- 
gala, which  was  certainly  the  capital  of  that  part  of  the 

Of  the  monograms  given  in  the  Plate,  Nos.  1  to  11  are 
found  on  the  coins  of  Moa  or  Mauas;  Nos.  12  to  19  are 
found  on  the  coins  of  the  Yonones  dynasty ;  Nos.  21  to 
49  on  the  coins  of  Azas  and  Azilises ;  and  Nos.  50  to  52 
on  the  coins  of  the  Gondophares  dynasty.  No.  55  occurs 
on  the  base  silver  coins  of  Rajubul. 


Monograms  of  Moas  or  Mauas. 

The  coins  of  Moas  are  found  chiefly  in  the  Northern 
Panjab  and  as  far  south  as  Multan ;  but  so  far  as  I  am 
aware  none  have  yet  been  found  either  in  Sindh  or  in  the 
Kabul  valley  to  the  west  of  Peshawur.  If  any  of  these 
monograms  represent  the  names  of  mint  cities,  I  would 
suggest  that  No.  2,  which  forms  NIK,  may  be  Nikaiay 
the  city  which  was  built  by  Alexander  on  the  site  of  his 
battle  with  Porus.  In  my  "Ancient  Geography  of  India" 
I  have  shown  some  good  reasons  for  fixing  the  site  of 
Nikaia  at  Mong,  which  is  said  to  have  derived  its  name 
from  Ruja  Moga. 

No.  3  I  would  read  as  KAZriAflYPA,  which  was  the 
old  name  of  Multan,  and  which  I  would  therefore  identify 
with  the  city  of  Kaspapuros,  recorded  by  Hekatseus  and 
Herodotus.  If  the  monogram  is  intended  for  the  name 
of  a  city,  I  think  that  my  reading  has  a  fair  claim  to  be 
accepted.  I  am  aware  that  the  closet  geographers  of 
Europe  have  generally  taken  Kaspapuros  for  Kashmir. 
But  I  have  marched  along  the  bank  of  the  Hydaspes 
after  it  leaves  the  valley  as  far  as  Muzafarabad,  and  I  can 
safely  assert  that  no  boat  could  stem  the  rapids  below 

The  remaining  monograms  of  Moas  I  must  leave  unat- 
tempted.  I  confess,  however,  to  a  feeling  of  disappoint- 
ment at  not  finding  any  knot  of  letters  that  might  be 
united  to  form  the  name  of  Taxila. 

Monograms  of  the  Vonones  Dynasty. 

The  coins  of  this  family  were  found  in  Kandahar  by 
Stacy  and  Hutton  in  1840-41,  and  by  Ventura  and  my- 
self in  the  Western  Panjab.  As  only  five  specimens 

VOL.    VIII.    THIRD    SERIES.  F  F 


were  got  by  Masson  at  Begram  in  a  three  years'  collec- 
tion, I  conclude  that  these  princes  must  have  ruled  over 
Arakhosia  from  Kandahar  to  the  Indus.  The  metropolis 
of  this  tract  of  country  according  to  Isidorus  was  Sigal, 
which  by  elision  of  the  letter  g  I  would  identify  with 
Shdl,  a  large  town  close  to  Quetta.  The  proper  name  of 
Quetta  is  Kotta,  which  may  be  identified  with  Ptolemy's 
Kottolara.  If  any  of  the  monograms  on  the  coins  of  the 
Vonones  family  represent  the  names  of  cities,  I  should 
expect  to  find  both  Sigal  and  Kottobara  tied  up  in  some 
of  these  letter-knots.  Nos.  12  to  19  are  Vonones  mono- 

No.  16  forms  Z1PAA  in  full,  but  as  it  may  be  read  in 
other  ways  I  only  propose  Sigal  on  account  of  the  pro- 
bability of  its  being  represented  on  the  coins. 

No.  15  I  read  as  KOTTOBAPA  in  full,  and  as  this 
monogram  cannot  well  be  read  in  any  other  way,  I  think 
that  there  is  a  strong  presumption  in  favour  of  its  accuracy. 
I  do  not  deny  the  possibility  that  Kottobaros  might  have 
been  the  name  of  some  subordinate  officer  of  the  Yonones 
dynasty,  and  that  his  son  might  have  borne  the  same 
name  and  have  held  the  same  office  under  successive 
rulers.  But  all  these  possibilities  scarcely  amount  to  a 
probability,  and  I  must  confess  that  I  prefer  the  city 

No.  17  offers  simply  KOTTO,  which  I  take  for  Kotta  or 
Quetta,  without  any  addition. 

No.  14  I  read  as  TAZAKA,  or  Ghazni,  with  some  con- 
fidence, as  I  do  not  see  that  it  can  be  read  in  any  other 

No.  13  may  be  read  as  HAPAABA0PA,  a  city  placed 
by  Ptolemy  on  the  western  bank  of  the  Indus.  I  presume 
that  this  must  be  the  same  place  as  the  Barda  of  Isidorus ; 


but  I  am  unable  to  identify  it.     Perhaps  No.  12,  which 
seems  to  be  simply  B,  may  be  intended  for  Barda. 

Another  town  mentioned  by  Isidorus  is  Min,  which  has 
been  identified  with  Ptolemy's  Binagara  on  the  Indus. 

Monograms  of  the  Azas  Dynasty. 

The  monograms  of  Azas  and  his  successor  Azilises  are 
very  numerous ;  and  in  the  present  Plate  I  have  given  a 
selection  of  those  which  are  found  on  the  principal  coins, 
ranging  from  No.  21  to  No.  49.  As  the  successors  of 
Moas  they  must  have  ruled  over  the  Northern  Panjab, 
from  Taxila  to  Multan. 

No.  25  monogram  may  be  read  as  ZAPPA  A  A,  a  place 
which  was  certainly  within  the  dominions  of  Azas. 

No.  37  is  similar  to  No.  3  of  Moas,  which  I  have 
already  explained  as  making  KAZPIAPIYPA  in  full,  for 
the  ancient  city  of  Multan. 

No.  40  may  be  read  as  nANTAPPAMMA,  a  town 
placed  by  Ptolemy  on  the  Indus.  It  has  been  identified 
by  Mr.  McCrindle  in  his  Indian  Geography  of  Ptolemy, 
with  Panjpur,  near  Embolima,  because,  as  he  says,  it 
"  agrees  closely,  both  in  its  position  and  the  signification 
of  its  name,  with  the  Pentagramma  of  Ptolemy."  But 
the  true  name  of  the  place  here  referred  to  is  Panj-pir,  or 
the  "  Five  Saints  "  of  the  Muhammadans ;  whereas  the 
Hindus  call  it  Panch-Mr,  or  the  "  Five  Heroes,"  and  refer 
the  name  to  the  five  Pandu  brothers.  This  monogram 
might  form  BAT  ANAPA  PA,  a  name  preserved  by 
Ptolemy  in  the  Eastern  Panjab.  I  would  identify  it  with 
Pathdniya,  or  Pathdnkot,  one  of  the  oldest  places  in  the 
country.  Its  original  name  was  Pratisthdna,  which  was 
shortened  to  Paithana,  or  Paithdn.  It  was  the  capital  of 


the  Odumbaris,  of  whom  I  possess  coins  as  old  as  the  time 
of  Apollodotus. 

No.  41  forms  BAPAA,  which  I  suppose  to  be  the  same 
place  as  Ptolemy's  Pardabathra  on  the  Indus.  As  Azas 
seems  to  have  outlived  the  last  of  the  Vonones  dynasty, 
he  may  have  succeeded  to  some  of  the  eastern  portions  of 
their  dominions ;  or  he  may  have  held  Bar  da  during  the 
lifetime  of  his  contemporary  Spalirises,  as  their  names 
appear  together  on  several  of  the  coins. 

Monograms  of  the  Gondophares  Dynasty. 

The  principal  monogram  of  this  family  is  No.  51,  which 
forms  the  name  of  TONACWAPA  in  full.  I  have  no 
reason  for  supposing  that  he  actually  founded  any  city,  but 
I  note  the  fact  of  this  possible  reading  as  being  curious, 
if  not  important. 

Monogram  of  Hajubul. 

No.  55  monogram  is  found  on  the  base  silver  coins  of 
Rajubul,  which  have  been  found  in  the  Eastern  Pan  jab 
as  well  as  at  Mathura.  His  copper  coins,  with  Arian 
legends,  are  found  only  in  the  Eastern  Panjab.  I  have 
therefore  no  hesitation  in  placing  him  at  Sangala,  as  the 
monogram  EY  almost  certainly  refers  to  the  city  of 
Euthydemia,  which  was  the  Greek  name  of  Sangala. 


Two  very  marked  and  sudden  changes  took  place  in 
the  weights  of  the  gold  and  silver  coins  of  N.  W.  India 
during  the  rule  of  the  Greeks  and  Indo-Scythians.  The 


first  change  took  place  in  the  weights  of  the  Greek  silver 
coins  after  the  time  of  Eukratides.  From  the  existing 
gold  and  silver  coins  of  Diodotus  and  Euthydemus,  we  see 
that  the  Attic  standard  of  weight  had  been  preserved 
with  a  rate  of  10  silver  to  1  gold.  The  gold  stater  at  its 
full  weight  was  134*4  grains,  which  at  10  rates  gave  the 
equivalent  silver  value  at  1,344  grains.  This  divided  by 
20  gave  the  weight  of  the  silver  drachma  as  67*2,  that 
of  the  didrachma  134*4,  and  that  of  the  hemidrachma  as 
33' 6  grains.  Suddenly  we  find  that  the  silver  coins  of 
the  sixteen  kings  who  followed  Eukratides  have  become 
heavier,  the  average  weight  of  16  didrachmas  having  be- 
come 146*3  grains,  while  that  of  82  hemidrachmas  had 
risen  to  36*48  grains.  As  many  of  the  latter  are  over 
37  grains,  I  take  this  to  be  the  full  weight  of  the  hemi- 
drachma, while  that  of  the  didrachma  must  have  been  up 
to  148  grains.  Now  this  change  must  represent  either 
a  rise  in  the  value  of  gold  or  a  fall  in  that  of  silver,  by 
which  the  relative  values  of  the  two  metals  had  become 
11  S.  =  1  G.,  that  is,  one-tenth  had  been  added  to  the 
weight  of  the  silver  coins.  Thus  : — 

Grains.  Grains. 

134-4  didrachmas  33*2  hemidrachmas 

Add  TV  =  13*44 +  TV  =    3-32 

147*84  36*52 

or  148      new  didrachmas,  or  37      new  hemidrachmas 

This  rate  appears  to  have  been  maintained  down  to  the 
time  of  the  Indo-Scythian  Kushans,  when  the  great  issue 
of  new  gold  coins  took  place  and  the  coinage  of  silver 
ceased.  Up  to  this  time  the  gold  money  in  circulation 
must  have  consisted  of  the  staters  of  Alexander,  Seleu- 
kus,  Antiochus,  Diodotus,  and  Euthydemus.  The  Saka 


Scythians  coined  no  gold,  but  they  issued  a  very  large 
amount  of  silver  didrachmas  and  hemidrachmas  of  the 
same  weights  as  those  of  the  Greek  successors  of 

We  now  come  to  the  second  sudden  change  in  the 
weight  of  the  new  gold  staters  of  the  Kushans,  which  was 
reduced  from  the  full  Attic  standard  of  1344  grains 
down  to  something  over  122  grains. 

I  have  taken  the  weights  of  more  than  a  hundred  gold 
coins  of  the  four  Kushan  kings,  Wema  Kadphises,  Ka- 
nerki,  Hoverki,  and  Yasu  Deva,  which  give  an  average  of 
122-50  grains.  But  rejecting  all  the  specimens  under 
123  grains,  I  find — 

2  of  Wema  Kadphises  average  1231  grs.  out  of  10  specimens 
llofKanerki     .         .       „         1231     „        „       31 
25  of  Hoverki     .         .       ,,         123'4    „       ,,    125 
21ofVasuDeva  123'3    „       „      21 

492-9  187 

59  coins  of  four  kings        „         123*2    ,, 

The  fourth  part  of  this  stater  would  be  30;8  grains,  which 
agrees  with  the  existing  coins,  as  I  find  that  16  quarter 
staters  of  the  same  four  kings  give  an  average  of  30*63 
grains  for  the  quarter  stater. 

The  actual  name  of  these  gold  coins  has  not  been  dis- 
covered ;  but  as  the  gold  money  of  the  Gupta  kings  is 
called  Dinar  in  several  inscriptions,  I  have  no  doubt  that 
the  same  name  was  applied  to  the  Kushan  gold  coins, 
as  they  preserve  the  weight  of  the  early  imperial  denarii 
aurei  of  Rome. 

I  would  explain  this  change  in  the  same  manner  as  the 
other,  that  is,  either  by  a  rise  in  the  value  of  gold  or  by 
a  fall  in  the  value  of  silver.  As  the  Kushans  struck  no 


silver  money,  the  old  silver  coins  of  the  Greeks  and  the 
Saka  Scythians  must  have  continued  current ;  and  as  less 
gold  was  now  given  for  the  same  quantity  of  silver, 
I  conclude  that  the  silver  had  fallen  to  12  rates  for  1  of 
gold.  Adopting  this  rate  for  calculation,  we  get  from  the 
didrachma  of  148  grains  of  silver  a  value  of  1,480  grains 
of  silver  for  the  stater,  which  divided  by  12  gives  123'33 
as  the  weight  of  the  gold  stater,  equivalent  to  10  silver 
didrachmas  of  148  grains. 

The  paucity  of  gold  coins  amongst  the  Indian  Greeks 
may  be  explained  by  supposing  that  the  old  Persian 
darics  had  remained  current  down  to  the  beginning  of 
the  Christian  era,  about  which  time  the  commercial  inter- 
course between  Europe  and  India  had  fallen  into  the 
hands  of  the  Romans.  The  Roman  empire  had  then 
advanced  to  the  banks  of  the  Euphrates,  and  as  early  as 
the  reign  of  Claudius  the  Roman  merchants  had  already 
taken  advantage  of  the  trade  winds  to  make  direct  voyages 
to  India  from  the  Arabian  Gulf.  The  trade  rapidly 
increased  in  value  until  before  the  death  of  Pliny,  A.D.  70, 
Rome  annually  sent  to  India  no  less  a  sum  than  fifty 
thousand  sestertia,  or  about  £400,000.5  This  import  of 
specie  still  continued  when  the  author  of  the  Periplm 
visited  India  in  A.D.  80 — 89,  as  he  notes  that  Ayvapiov 
-%pv<rov  KOL  apyvpovv,  or  both  gold  and  silver  denarii,  were 
exchanged  at  Barygaza  (or  Baroch)  at  a  profit  for  native 
money.  At  the  same  time  he  notes  that  old  drachmas 

5  Hist.  Nat.,  XII.  41  (18).  Minimaque  computatione 
millies  centena  millia  sestertium  annis  omnibus  India  et  Seres, 
peninsulaque  (Arabia)  imperio  nostro  adimunt."  The  sum  is 
about  £800,000,  of  which  in  another  place  Pliny  gives  half, 
or  quingenties  HS  to  India.  Gibbon,  c.  2,  values  the  amount 
at  £400,000. 


bearing  the  Greek  inscriptions  of  Apollodotus  and  Menan- 
der  were  still  current  in  Barygaza.6  At  other  places  in 
Southern  India  the  principal  import  was  great  quantities 
of  specie,  ^p^/jLara  TrXeiara. 

These  statements  are  specially  valuable  for  the  light 
which  they  throw  upon  the  question  of  the  coinage  of  the 
Kushan  Indo-Scythians.  Both  writers  were  contemporary 
with  the  two  great  Kushan  princes — Wema  Kadphises 
and  Kanishka ;  and  there  can  be  little  doubt  that  a  large 
portion  of  the  Roman  gold  denarii  imported  at  Barygaza 
must  have  been  carried  to  the  Panjab,  where  they  were 
recoined  as  dinars  by  the  Kushan  princes.  That  the 
Roman  gold  did  find  its  way  to  the  north  is  certain,  as 
many  specimens  have  been  extracted  from  Stupas  in  the 
Kabul  valley  and  Panjab.  But  so  far  as  I  am  aware  very 
few  specimens  have  been  found  elsewhere.  In  Southern 
India  the  Roman  gold  was  not  recoined,  but  remained 
current  in  company  with  the  punch-marked  silver  coins. 
In  the  north  the  Kushans  struck  no  silver,  and  this  fact 
is  explained  by  the  statement  of  the  Periplus  that  the 
silver  coins  of  Apollodotus  and  Menander  were  still 
current  in  his  time.  Along  with  them  the  tetradrachmas 
of  Euthydemus  and  Eukratides  must  have  been  in  com- 
mon circulation,  as  well  as  the  numerous  hemidrachmas  of 
the  Greek  princes  Menander,  Apollodotus,  Antimachus  II., 
and  Hermaeus,  and  the  great  mass  of  the  native  punch- 
marked  silver  coins. 

To  this  influx  of  Roman  gold  I  attribute  the  adoption  of 
the  Roman  standard  of  123  grains,  with  the  name  of 
dinar,  both  of  which  continued  in  use  for  many  centuries 
in  Northern  India. 

6  McCrindle's  translation  of  Periplus,  pp.  121-123. 


Herr  Yon  Sallet  calls  the  silver  coins  with  native  legends 
a  "  reduced  standard,"  by  which  I  suppose  him  to  mean 
that  the  37  and  148  grain  coins  are  reduced  drachmas  and 
tetradrachmas.  Mr.  Gardner,  however,  seems  rather  to 
look  upon  them  as  belonging  to  some  Persian  standard, 
with  hemidrachmas  of  40  grains  and  didrachmas  of  160 
grains.  But  I  am  not  aware  of  any  Persian  standard 
comprising  coins  of  these  weights.  The  Persian  siglos 
weighed  upwards  of  86  grains,  and  its  double  172  grains. 
There  are  also  many  large  silver  pieces  of  5  sigli,  or 
quarter  darics,  which  range  up  to  438*5  grains.  My  own 
heaviest  piece  weighed  433'5  grains,  which  would  give  a 
siglos  of  86 '6  grains.  But  surely  the  Indian  Greeks  and 
Indo-Scythians  might  be  allowed  the  faculty  of  adjusting 
the  weights  of  their  coins  to  suit  their  own  wants.  My 
own  opinion  is  that  the  change  in  the  weights  first  of  the 
silver  coins  and  afterwards  of  the  gold  coins  was  made 
simply  to  adjust  the  pieces  to  the  rate  of  the  day. 




The  name  of  Indo-Scythia  is  first  found  in  Ptolemy's 
Geography,  where  it  is  confined  to  the  provinces  on 
both  banks  of  the  Indus,  from  the  junction  of  the  Kabul 
river  down  to  the  sea.  Dionysius  Periegetes  uses  the 
term  "Southern  Scythians,"  NOTIOC  Siruflcu,  for  the  people 
of  the  provinces,7  for  which  his  commentator  Eustathius 
substitutes  the  now  well-known  name  of  "Indo-Scythians." 
At  the  present  day  the  name  is  made  to  include  all  the 
races  of  Scythian  origin  who  held  the  countries  lying  be- 
tween Persia  and  India  for  nearly  nine  centuries,  from 
the  occupation  of  Bactriana  by  the  Sakas  and  Kushans 
down  to  the  conquest  of  Sindh  and  Kabul  by  the  Arabs 
in  the  beginning  of  the  eighth  century  A.D. 

The  countries  thus  occupied  by  the  Indo-Scythians 
were — 

I. — Bactriana,  or  the  provinces  lying  between  the  river 
Jaxartes  and  the  Indian  Caucasus,  comprising  Sogdiana, 
Bactria,  and  Margiana. 

II. — Ariana,  or  the  provinces  to  the  south  of  the  In- 
dian Caucasus,  from  Herat  on  the  west  to  the  Indus  on 
the  east,  comprising  Aria  and  Drangiana,  Arakhosia  and 
Gedrosia,  with  the  Paropamisade  of  the  Kabul  valley. 

III. — The  Parydb,  or  upper  provinces  of  the  Indus  and 
its  tributaries,  from  Taxila  to  the  junction  of  the  Five 

IV. — Sindh,  or  the  lower  provinces  of  the  Indus  valley, 
which,  according  to  Ptolemy,  included  both  Patalene  and 

7  V.  1088,  IvSov  Trap  2,Kv6ai  ewcuowiv. 


The  Scythians  who  opposed  Cyrus  and  Alexander  on 
the  Jaxartes  are  described  by  the  Greeks  as  Massagetae, 
while  their  Persian  neighbours  knew  them  only  as  Sakas, 
or  Sacae.8  Pliny  says  that  the  more  ancient  writers 
called  them  Aramii,  and  adds  that  both  in  their  life  and 
habits  they  resembled  the  Parthians.  This  is  confirmed 
by  Justin,  who  declares  the  Parthians  to  be  only  a  sepa- 
rate branch  of  the  Scythian  family. 

The  country  which  the  Scythians  occupied  between  the 
Jaxartes  and  Oxus  was  known  to  the  ancient  Persians  by  the 
general  name  of  Turan,  and  the  name  of  Turanian  is  now 
applied  to  designate  the  Scythic  version  of  the  cuneiform 
inscriptions  of  Darius.  All  the  provinces  to  the  south  of 
the  Jaxartes  belonged  to  the  Aehaemenian  kings  of  Persia, 
and  the  Scythic  version  of  the  inscriptions  must  have  been 
published  for  the  information  of  the  Turanian  subjects  of 
Darius.  There  can  be  no  doubt  therefore  that  the  great 
bulk  of  the  people  on  both  banks  of  the  Oxus  were  of 
Scythian  origin.  Thus,  according  to  both  Herodotus  and 
Ktesias,  the  Parthians,  Hyrkanians,  and  Derbikkae,  who 
were  all  of  Scythian  descent,  were  located  to  the  south  of 
the  Oxus  as  early  as  the  time  of  Darius.  In  the  cuneiform 
inscriptions  the  Umu-icarka,  or  Amurgii  Scythians,  are 
described  as  forming  an  integral  part  of  the  Persian  em- 
pire ;  and  in  the  time  of  Xerxes  they  furnished  a  contin- 
gent for  the  invasion  of  Greece.  During  the  long  Persian 
rule  it  is  probable  that  the  people  of  the  fertile  provinces 
of  the  Oxus  had  become  more  civilised  than  those  to  the 
north  of  the  Jaxartes,  by  continued  intercourse  and 

8  Plinii,  Xat.  Hist.,  vi.  p.  19.  In  the  Babylonian  version  of 
the  inscriptions  of  Darius,  Xamiri  is  substituted  for  Saka. 
Perhaps  Aramii  should  be  Amarii. 


frequent  intermarriage  with  their  Aryan  rulers.  In  fact, 
Strabo  describes  the  manners  of  the  Bactrians  and  Sogdi- 
ans  as  more  civilised,  although  their  mode  of  life  was  still 

The  language  spoken  by  these  Turanian  subjects  of 
Persia  must  therefore  have  been  closely  connected  with 
that  used  in  the  cuneiform  inscriptions  of  Darius.  The 
names  of  people  and  of  things  which  have  come  down  to 
us  show  no  traces  of  Semitic  origin,  but  have  many  strong 
affinities  with  the  Aryan  language  of  India  and  Persia. 
Thus  saprakim,  "  battle,"  must  be  connected  with  the  San- 
skrit samara,  which  is  found  in  the  name  of  Samarkand, 
while  tipi,  a  "  tablet/'  is  the  same  as  the  Pali  lipi.  But 
the  bulk  of  the  language  would  appear  to  be  different, 
and  to  have  more  affinity  with  some  of  the  dialects 
of  Northern  India.  Justin  calls  the  language  mixed 
Scythian  and  Median.10  The  following  examples  may 
be  given  in  illustration  of  this  opinion. 

Amongst  the  Dards  of  the  Indus  the  king's  title  is 
Tham,  which  is  perhaps  only  a  dialectic  variety  of  the  old 
Hiong-nu  Yarn,  and  is  probably  connected  with  the  San- 
skrit dam,  the  Greek  Sa/xa£w,  the  Latin  dominus,  and  the 
English  tame.  This  title,  I  think,  corresponds  exactly 
with  Justin's  Tanaus,  King  of  the  Scythians.  Herodotus 
mentions  Tomyris  as  Queen  of  the  Getse,  and  Pliny 
explains  Temerinda  as  "  mother  of  the  sea."  By  adding 
the  feminine  suffix  ere  to  tham,  we  get  both  Tomyris  and 
Temeri,  and  by  adding  da  =  "  water,"  we  get  Temerinda, 
as  "  Queen  of  Waters."  The  common  terms  for  water 
amongst  the  aborigines  of  N.  India  are  da,  de,  di,  or  td,  te, 

9  Geography,  xi.,  11,  3. 

10  Justin,  xli.  p.  2. 


ti.  The  longer  name  of  Thamimasada,  which  Herodotus 
gives  for  the  "King  of  the  Sea,"  may  perhaps  be  explained 
by  the  interposition  of  massa= great,  thus  making  Thami- 
masa-dd,  or  "  king  of  the  great  water,"  or  "  lord  of  the 

That  this  word  for  water  once  prevailed  over  Northern 
India  may  be  seen  in  the  names  of  Pad-da,  or  Ganges, 
Bahu-dd,  or  Brahmaputra,  Narma-dd,  or  Narbada,  Mana- 
dd,  or  Mahanadi,  Vara-dd,  or  Warda  River,  alias  "  Ban- 
yan-tree River."  Other  names  are  Kalin-di,  or  Jumna, 
Betwan-ti,  or  Betwa,  and  Kiydn-ti,  or  Ken.  I  think  it  pro- 
bable also  that  such  names  as  Charmanvati,  Airdvati,  and 
others  may  have  been  Sanskritized  from  older  forms  in  ti. 
We  have  an  example  in  the  Pdra-ti,  a  principal  branch  of 
the  Satlej,  which  has  no  connection  whatever  with  Pdrvati. 

The  different  races  of  Scythians  which  have  successively 
appeared  as  conquerors  in  the  border  provinces  of  Persia 
and  India  are  the  following,  in  the  order  of  their  arrival : — 

B.C.    ?      Sakas  or  Sacce,  the  Su  or  Sai  of  the  Chinese. 

B.C.  163.  KushdnSj  or  Tochari,  the  Great  Yue-chi   of  the 

A.D.  440.  Kidarita,  or  later  Kushans,  the  Little  Yue-chi  of 
the  Chinese. 

A.D.  470.  Ephthalites,  or  white  Huns,  the  Ye-tha-i-li-to  of 
the  Chinese. 

The  most  detailed  accounts  of  these  different  races  we 
owe  to  the  Chinese ;  but  the  short  notices  of  classical 
authors,  both  Greek  and  Roman,  are  often  of  great  value, 
either  in  confirming  the  Chinese  accounts  or  in  fixing 
the  dates  of  important  events.  Generally  they  serve  to 
corroborate  each  other,  but  there  is  a  lamentable  paucity 
of  intelligible  names  in  the  Chinese  records,  owing  chiefly 
to  the  incapacity  of  the  Chinese  syllables  to  express 


foreign  names,  and  partly  also  to  an  absurd  practice  of 
the  Chinese  people  in  altering  some  of  the  names  so  as  to 
obtain  an  opprobrious  or  derogatory  meaning  in  Chinese. 
Thus  the  Ta-yue-chi  meant  only  the  "Great  Lunar  Race," 
who  were  not  recognised  by  the  later  Chinese  writers 
under  the  name  of  Tu-ho-lo,  or  Tochari,  as  described  by 
Hwen  Thsang.  Similarly  the  ancient  name  of  Kipin  (or 
Kophene)  was  concealed  under  the  later  appellation  of 
Tsau-ku-ta,  and  was  absolutely  lost  under  that  of  Siei-iu, 
which  was  imposed  by  the  Empress  Wu-hen,  shortly  after 
A.D.  684.  Similarly  also  the  Ye-tha-i-li-to,  by  having 
their  name  curtailed  to  Ye-tha,  were  not  recognised  as  the 
Ephthalites,  or  White  Huns,  although  they  were  both 
recorded  to  have  been  dominant  in  the  same  country  at 
the  same  time.  On  the  other  hand  the  ancient  name  of 
Hien-yun  was  changed  to  Hiong-nu,  or  "  unhappy  slaves," 
which  effectually  disposes  of  their  supposed  connection 
with  the  Huns.  With  these  preliminary  remarks  I  will 
now  try  to  put  together  the  scattered  links  of  Indo- 
Scythian  history  as  derived  from  all  sources. 

During  the  sway  of  the  Achgemenian  kings  the  inroads 
of  the  Scythians  of  the  Jaxartes  were  kept  in  check  by 
the  frontier  satraps.  After  the  death  of  Alexander  the 
same  check  was  maintained  under  the  vigorous  rule  of 
Antiochus,  the  Governor  of  the  Eastern  Provinces,  who 
resided  at  Margiane,  or  Merv.  But  about  eighty  years 
later  they  had  already  begun  to  give  trouble  to  the  Bac- 
trian  Greeks,  and  Euthydemus  was  allowed  by  Antiochus 
the  Great  to  retain  his  kingdom,  on  the  plea  that,  if  he 
was  weakened,  he  would  not  be  able  to  withstand  the 
Scythians.  Early  in  the  second  century  B.C.,  as  related 
by  the  Chinese,  the  horde  of  the  great  Yue-chi,  or  Tochari, 
was  driven  across  the  Jaxartes  by  the  Hiong-nu,  and,  after 


the  loss  of  their  king  in  battle,  settled  in  Sogdiana  in 
B.C.  163.  The  Sus  or  Sais,  or  the  Massagetae  or  Sakas  of 
the  Greeks  and  Persians,  retired  before  them,  and  after  a 
time  the  Yue-chi  continued  their  advance  into  Bactria,  to 
the  south  of  the  Oxus,  of  which  they  took  possession 
about  130  B.C.  The  Ta-hia,  or  Dahse,  then  retired  to  the 
west  towards  Margiana,  while  the  Su  or  Sakas  retreated 
to  the  south  towards  Drangiana.11 

Mithridates  I.  of  Parthia,  who  died  in  B.C.  135,  took 
advantage  of  this  period  of  confusion  to  wrest  the  two 
satrapies  of  Aspiones  and  Turiva  from  Eukratides,  at  the 
same  time  that  he  checked  the  Scythians.  The  position  of 
these  satrapies  is  unknown,  but  I  conclude  that  they  must 
have  been  on  the  west  and  south-west  frontiers  of  the  Bac- 
trian  kingdom,  i.e.  in  Margiana  and  Aria,  along  the  rivers 
Margus  and  Arius.  The  annexation  of  these  provinces 
would  have  been  easy,  and  would  have  brought  the  Par- 
thians  face  to  face  with  the  retiring  Saka  Scythians.  The 
victories  of  Mithridates  would  have  stopped  the  further 
progress  of  the  DahaB,  while  the  Sakas  managed  to  make 
good  their  retreat  into  Arachosia  and  Drangiana.  That 
they  reached  the  latter  province  we  know  from  the  fact 
that  after  their  occupation  it  received  the  name  of  Sakas- 
tene  [Sa/raoT^i/t;  ^CLKWV  ^/Kv6wv'])  a  name  which  was 
altered  to  Sejistan  by  the  mediaeval  writers,  and  is  now 
preserved  in  the  modern  Sistan. 

The  Chinese  fix  the  date  of  the  occupation  of  Bactria 
by  the  Great  Yue-chi  or  Tochari  about  B.C.  130,  which 
agrees  with  the  period  of  the  defeat  of  Phraates  II.  of 
Parthia,  who  fell  in  battle  with  the  Saka  Scythians  in 
B.C.  127  or  126.  These  Scythians  had  been  engaged  to 

11  Remusat,  Nouveaux  Melanges  Asiatiques,  i.  p.  205. 


join  him  in  his  war  against  Antiochus,  but  as  they  arrived 
too  late  he  refused  to  pay  them,  on  which  they  invaded 
his  territory. 

His  successor,  Artabanus  II. ,  was  killed  three  years 
later,  B.C.  124-123,  in  battle  with  the  Tochari.  The 
notice  of  these  Yue-chi  is  derived  from  the  Chinese 
General  Chang-Kian,  who  in  B.C.  126  was  sent  by  the 
Chinese  Emperor  Wuti  to  obtain  their  aid  against  the 
Hiong-nu.  He  was  captured  by  them,  but  after  ten  years 
managed  to  escape,  and  returned  to  China  in  B.C.  116, 
having  failed  to  induce  the  Yue-chi  to  join  in  a  campaign 
against  the  Hiong-nu.  He  reported  that  he  had  found 
the  Yue-chi  in  full  possession  of  Bactriana.  From  an- 
other notice  we  learn  that  about  100  years  later,  or  say 
about  B.C.  16,  the  chief  of  the  Kushans  conquered  the 
other  four  tribes  of  the  Yue-chi,  and  assumed  the  title  of 
"  King  of  the  Kushans."  This  chief,  who  was  named 
JDiieu-tseu-kio,  has  been  identified  with  Kujula  Kadphises 
of  the  coins.  He  crossed  the  Indian  Caucasus  and  overran 
Pota  and  Kipin,  and  took  possession  of  the  Kabul  valley. 
Pota  has  been  identified  by  Viv.  de  St.  Martin  with  Pa- 
thdnka  or  Pukhtdnka,  the  country  of  the  Pathans,  while 
Kipin  is  generally  admitted  to  be  Arakhosia,  which  was 
anciently  known  as  Kophene. 

Later  notices  of  the  progress  of  the  Sakas  and  Kushans 
will  be  best  kept  separate.  There  can  be  no  doubt  that 
they  came  into  conflict  at  an  early  date  in  the  Pan  jab,  as 
that  province  was  annexed  by  the  Kushan  King  Yun-kao- 
ching,  the  son  of  Kujula,  in  the  first  century  A.D.,  while 
we  know  from  the  evidence  of  the  coins  that  the  great 
Saka  kings,  Moas,  Azas,  and  Azilises  must  have  had  a 
firm  hold  of  it  during  the  first  century  B.C. 

The  origin  of  the  name  of  Sakd  is  still  uncertain.    The 


general  opinion  is  in  favour  of  the  Persian  Sag,  a  "dog," 
which  is  still  used  as  a  derogatory  term  by  the  Persians 
for  their  enemies.  I  have  seen  a  short  history  of  Baha- 
walpur,  in  which  the  Eaja  of  Bikaner  was  throughout 
designated  as  the  Sag.  But  there  still  exists  a  tribe  to 
the  north-east  of  Ladak  who  bear  the  name  Sok-po,  or 
simply  Sok  as  po  is  the  masculine  suffix  in  Tibetan, 
Sok-po  meaning  a  Sok-man,  and  Sok-mo  a  Sok  woman. 
Pliny's  statements  that  they  were  anciently  called  Aramii 
is  perhaps  supported  by  the  Babylonian  version  of  the 
inscriptions  of  Darius,  in  which  Namiri,  or  the  "  hunting 
leopards,"  is  substituted  for  Saka.  By  a  slight  transposi- 
tion the  Aramii  would  become  Amarii  or  Namiri. 


According  to  the  Chinese  accounts  the  Su  or  Sai,  or  Sakas, 
on  being  driven  out  of  the  countries  on  the  Oxus  by  the 
Yue-chi,  or  Tochari,  retired  to  the  south  and  occupied 
Kipin,  or  Kophene,  comprising  Arakhosia  and  Drangiana. 
The  tribes  of  the  Sai  then  spread  over  the  country  and 
formed  different  kingdoms,  and  it  is  specially  stated  that 
all  the  dependencies  of  Hiau-siun  and  Siun-tu  (Sindh) 
were  inhabited  by  ancient  tribes  of  the  Sai.12  The  country 
which  they  occupied  was  then  called  Sakastene  after 
them.13  It  is  the  Sejistan  of  the  early  Muhammadans, 
and  the  Sistan  of  the  present  day.  Isidorus  of  Kharax 

12  Remusat,  Nouv.  Melanges  Asiatiques,  i.  p.  205.     Pauthier, 
Chine,  i.  p.  242.     A  third  tribe  of  the  Sai  was  named  Kuen-to. 
It  numbered  300  families. 

13  Avienus,  v.  p.  1297,  uses  the  form  of  Sagam  infidum ;  and 
Orosius  also  uses  Sagam  as  the  name  of  the  country  to  which 
St.  Thomas  was  sent. 



calls  it  SaKaaTrjVYj  ^cucwv  *2icv6a)V,  and  gives  the  follow- 
ing names  of  its  towns  :  1.  Barda  ;  2.  Min  ;  3.  Palakenti; 
4.  Sigal ;  5.  Alexandria  ;  6.  Alexandropolis.  The  fourth 
town  Sigal,  which  is  designated  as  Regia  Sacarum,  or  the 
"  capital  of  the  Sakas,"  I  would  identify  with  SMI,  by 
the  simple  elision  of  the  letter  g.  Shal  or  Kotta  ("  the 
forts,"  vulgo  Quetta)  has  always  been  a  place  of  conse- 
quence. Its  commanding  position,  on  the  high  road  from 
Kandahar  to  the  Lower  Indus,  must  have  insured  its  occu- 
pation at  a  very  early  date.  For  the  same  reason  it  is 
now  occupied  by  a  British  garrison.  It  is  most  probably 
the  Kottobara  of  Ptolemy. 

According  to  Stephanus  of  Byzantium  the  two  cities 
named  Arakhosia  and  Arakhoti,  were  near  the  country  of 
the  Massagetae,  or  in  other  words  near  Sakastene,  the 
country  of  the  Sakas,  who  were  of  the  same  race  as  the 

I  will  now  give  a  few  notices  of  each  of  the  three 
different  provinces  which  the  Sakas  occupied :  1.  Sakas- 
tene or  Sejistan ;  2.  Sindh  ;  3.  The  Panjab. 


Closely  connected  with  the  Su  or  Sakas  were  the  Ta- 
hia,  or  Dahce,  who  were  driven  out  of  their  country  by 
the  Tochari  or  Kushans  at  the  same  time.  These  Dahce 
are  said  to  have  retired  to  the  west.  Now  Dahae  was  not 
a  true  national  name,  but  only  a  term  of  reproach  or  abuse 
given  to  the  nomads  by  their  Persian  and  Indian  neigh- 
bours. The  original  word  in  the  Sanskrit,  dasyu,  "an 
enemy  or  robber/'  which  in  Persian  became  dahyu,  from 
which  the  Greeks  formed  Dahce,  Aacu,  and  also  Aaaai.  The 
spoken  form  in  India  is  Ddku,  which  is  found  in  the  Latin 


Dacia.  A  similar  term  is  still  applied  to  the  people  on 
the  east  of  the  Caspian,  whose  country  is  now  called 
Ldghistan  or  Dahistan,  or  "  Rebel-land." 

Strabo  couples  the  Dahae  with  the  Sacse  and  Massagetse, 
and  adds  that  they  were  divided  into  three  tribes — 1. 
Parni  or  Aparni  ;  2.  Xanthii  or  Xandii ;  and  3.  Parii  or 
Pissuri.  As  Justin H  calls  the  first  tribe  Spartani,  I 
conclude  that  Strabo's  name  must  have  been  Saparni,  and 
that  these  people,  the  worshippers  of  Sapal  or  Herakles, 
must  have  given  their  name  to  Zdlmlistan,  or  Arakhosia 
and  Drangiana,  which  is  only  another  name  for  Sakas- 

The  Xanthii  are  very  probably  the  Zaths  of  the  early 
Arab  writers.  As  the  Zaths  were  in  Sindh  to  the  west  of 
the  Indus,  this  location  agrees  very  well  with  what  we 
know  of  the  settlement  of  the  Sakas  on  the  Indian  fron- 
tier. In  fact  the  Chinese  expressly  say  that  all  the 
dependencies  of  Hien-siun  and  Siun-tu  (Sindh)  were  occu- 
pied by  ancient  tribes  of  Sai,  or  Sakas.15 

According  to  the  Chinese  these  Saka  tribes  afterwards 
separated,  and  formed  several  distinct  states  under  sepa- 
rate rulers.  This  statement  seems  to  be  borne  out  by  the 
three  distinct  dynasties  of  kings,  whose  names  have  been 
preserved  to  us  on  the  coins ;  the  one  proceeding  from 
Yonones  in  Arakhosia,  a  second  from  Moas  and  Azas  in 
the  Panjab,  and  a  third  from  the  Kshaharata  tribe  in 
Sindh,  to  which  the  great  Satrap  Nahapana  belonged. 

The  Kshaharatas  would  appear  to  have  extended  their 
territories  beyond  the  limits  of  Sindh  into  Kachh  (the 
Odombeores  or  Audumbara)  and  Gujarat  (Surashtra),  and 

14  Justin,  xli.  p.  1. 

15  Remusat,  Xouc.  Melanges  Asiatiques,  i.  p.  206. 


perhaps  even  to  Malwa.  One  inscription  of  the  Satrap 
ISfahapana  is  dated  in  the  year  42,  but  unfortunately  no 
era  is  mentioned.  If  referred  to  the  Seleukidan  century 
beginning  in  12  B.C.,  the  date  would  be  42  —  12  =  30 
A.D.,  or  just  forty-eight  years  before  the  establishment  of 
the  Saka  era,  and  the  probable  date  of  Chashtana  of 
Ujain  (Tiastanes  of  Ozene). 

I  think  it  probable  that  some  reference  to  this  southern 
invasion  of  the  Sakas  may  be  preserved  in  the  short 
Sanskrit  work  named  Kalakacharya  Kathd,  describing  the 
"Inroads  of  the  Indo-Scythians  into  India.'*  This  short 
treatise  was  brought  to  notice  by  Dr.  Bhau  Daji,  in  the 
Journal  of  the  Bombay  Asiatic  Society.16  The  account  is 
as  follows  : — "  Shortly  before  the  Christian  era  the  Sakas 
held  possession  of  the  country  on  the  western  bank  of  the 
Indus  under  petty  chiefs  called  Sdki,  who  were  subject  to 
one  paramount  ruler  named  Sdhina-sahi.  The  Sakas 
crossed  the  Indus  into  Surashtra,  and  advanced  to  Avanti- 
desa  (Malwa),  where  they  defeated  Raja  Gardabhilla,  and 
took  possession  of  Ujain.  Here  they  remained  for  four 
years  until  they  were  driven  out  by  Vikramaditya,  son  of 
Gardabhilla,  in  B.C.  57." 

As  the  dynasty  of  the  Kshahardtas  was  succeeded  by 
the  new  dynasty  of  Chashtana  (or  Tiastanes),  I  think  it 
most  probable  that  the  notice  by  the  author  of  the 
Periplus  of  Parthian  rivals  driving  out  one  another  must 
refer  to  these  two  dynasties  of  Scythian  princes.  The 
names  of  Nahapana  and  Chashtan,  which  are  certainly  not 
Indian,  seem  to  have  some  connection  with  the  similar 
forms  of  Artapanus  and  Haustanes,  both  Parthian  or 
Partho-Scythian  names. 

16  Journal,  ix.  p.  139. 


How  firmly  settled  were  these  Sakas  of  Western  India 
is  most  decidedly  shown  by  some  of  their  inscriptions 
which  still  exist  in  the  Nasik  caves.  Thus  I  find  that 
the  son-in-law  of  the  Kshaharata  King  Nahapana  calls 
himself  a  Saka.  In  one  inscription  he  is  designated  as 
the  Saka  Ushavaddta,  the  son  of  Dinika,  and  the  husband 
of  Dakshamitra,  the  daughter  of  Nahapana.  None  of  these 
names  are  Indian,  except  perhaps  that  of  Dakshamitra. 
Another  inscription  is  dated  in  the  year  42,  on  the  loth 
of  the  bright  half  of  Chaitra.  As  it  must  precede  the 
establishment  of  Chashtana  in  A.D.  78,  I  am  inclined  to 
refer  the  year  to  the  Seleukidan  century  which  began  in 
12  B.C.,  which  would  fix  the  date  to  B.C.  12  —  42  =  A.D. 

Two  other  short  inscriptions  record  the  gifts  of  another 
Saka  chief  named  Ddma-cheka.1* 

The  Sakas  of  Sejistan  are  repeatedly  mentioned  in  the 
history  of  the  Arsakian  and  Sassanian  kings. 

In  B.C.  77  or  76,  Sanatroikes  obtained  the  throne  by  the 
aid  of  the  Sakarauli  Scythians,  amongst  whom  he  had 
previously  sought  refuge.19 

In  B.C.  33  Phraates  IV.  fled  to  the  Scythians,  who 
replaced  him  on  the  throne. 

In  A.D.  16  Artabanus  III.,  with  the  assistance  of  the 
Dahse  and  Sakse,  obtained  the  throne.  He  had  previously 
lived  amongst  the  Dahse.20 

In  A.D.  40  Goterzes  was  similarly  assisted  by  the  Dahae. 

17  See  Bombay  Journal,  vii.,  West's  Inscriptions  from  Nasik, 
No.  14. 

18  Ibid.,  Inscriptions  Nos.  1  and  2". 

19  Phlegon  apud  Photium,  quoted  by  Mr.  Percy  Gardner,  and 
Lucian,  Macrob.  15. 

20  Josephus,  Ant.  Jud. ;  Tacitus,  Ann.  ii.  3. 


A.D.  230  Artaxerxes,  the  founder  of  the  Sassanian 
monarchy,  was  unable  to  reduce  the  Sejistanis.  Accord- 
ing to  Agathias  (ii.  164),  quoted  by  Gibbon,  "  the  princes 
of  Sejistan  defended  their  independence  during  many 
years,"  and  were  not  finally  conquered  until  the  reign  of 
Varaban  II.,  A.D.  275 — 292.  Gibbon  calls  the  Sejistanis 
"  one  of  the  most  warlike  nations  of  Upper  Asia." 

From  this  time  the  province  of  Sejistan,  or  Sakastene, 
formed  one  of  the  tributary  provinces  of  the  Sassanian 
empire.  Accordingly  in  A.D.  350  —  357  the  Sejistanis 
furnished  a  contingent  to  Sapor  II.  for  the  siege  of  Amida. 
They  were  reckoned  the  bravest  of  his  troops,  and  they 
brought  into  the  field  a  large  body  of  elephants.21 

In  A.D.  650  Yezdegird,  the  last  Sassanian  king,  fled 
from  Istakhar  through  Kerman  and  Sejistan  to  Khorasan, 
and  in  the  following  year  a  Muhammadaii  army  occupied 
Zarang,  the  capital  of  Sejistan.22 


An  early  notice  of  the  Saka  Scythians  on  the  Indus  is 
given  by  the  author  of  the  Periplus,  who  says  that 
"  Minnagar,  the  metropolis  of  Scythia,  was  in  his  time 
governed  by  Parthian  princes,  who  were  perpetually  at 
strife  among  themselves,  expelling  each  the  other."23  The 
date  of  the  Periplus  is  not  accurately  known.  But  the 
mention  of  Zoskales  (Za  Hakale),  King  of  Abyssinia,  who 
reigned  from  77  to  89  A.D.,  and  of  a  King  of  the  Naba- 
thaians,  whose  kingdom  was  absorbed  by  Trajan  in  A.D. 
105,  serve  to  fix  his  date  between  80  and  100  A.D.  As  we 

21  Ammian,  Marcell.,  xix.  pp.  2,  3. 

22  H.  M.  Elliot,  Muhammadan  Hist,  of  India,  by  Dowson, 
ii.  p.  218. 

23  Translation  by  McCrindle,  p.  108. 


know  that  the  Kings  of  Parthia  proper  at  this  time  did  not 
possess  any  territory  even  near  the  Indus,  the  so-called 
Parthian  rulers  must  refer  to  the  Indo-Scythian  Sakas, 
who  were  of  the  same  race  as  the  Parthians. 

The  position  of  Minnagar  has  not  been  identified,  but  I 
feel  nearly  certain  that  it  must  have  been  at  Brah- 
man abad,  which  is  one  of  the  oldest  sites  in  Sindh.  It 
was  the  "  city  of  Brahmans  "  of  Alexander's  historians. 
Its  Hindu  name  was  Brahmanawasi,  which  was  changed 
to  Brahmanabad  by  the  Muhammadans,  who  afterwards 
built  Mansura  close  to  it. 

As  Pliny  lived  within  a  very  short  time  of  the 
author  of  Periplus,  it  is  quite  possible  that  the  dynasty  of 
Parthian  kings  then  ruling  on  the  lower  Indus  might  be 
mentioned  by  him.  I  find  the  Odombeores  or  Audumbaras, 
the  people  of  Kachh,  duly  recorded,  and  immediately 
preceding  them  are  the  Varetatce  or  Suarataratce?*  As 
the  name  has  evidently  been  corrupted,  I  think  it  not 
impossible  that  the  true  reading  may  have  been  Suaratce, 
and  that  they  may  be  identified  with  the  Kahahardtas  of 
the  western  cave  inscriptions,  of  one  of  whose  rulers, 
named  Nahapana,  we  possess  coins  as  well  as  inscriptions. 
As  the  Kshaharatas  were  certainly  succeeded  by  another 
Scythian  race  under  Chashtan  (Tiastanes  of  Ptolemy),  the 
description  of  Parthians  expelling  each  other  would  seem 
to  be  well  illustrated  by  the  proposed  identification. 

There  is  now  a  gap  of  several  centuries  in  the  history 
of  Sindh  which  is  not  likely  ever  to  be  filled  up,  as  all 
the  histories  of  Sindh  begin  with  the  Sahasi  dynasty 
which  ruled  for  one  hundred  and  thirty-seven  years  pre- 
ceding the  accession  of  the  Brahman  Chach,  that  is  from 

24  Plinii,  Nat.  Hist,  vi.  p.  23. 


A.D.  505  to  642.  The  names  given  in  the  Chachnama  are 
corrupt,  but  they  are  quite  sufficient  to  prove  that  the 
kings  were  Scythians.  All  of  them  are  named  Sdhi,  or 
Sdhasi,  which  is  the  well-known  Scythian  title.  Five 
kings  are  mentioned,  of  whom  the  only  thing  related  is 
that  the  fourth  king  was  attacked  and  killed  by  Nimroz 
(Parvez,  King  of  Persia)  in  A.D.  627.  But  on  the  autho- 
rity of  Kosmas  the  new  dynasty  must  have  been  White 
Huns  or  Ephthalites.  They  would  therefore  have  had 
no  connection  with  the  first  Saka  conquerors.  Unfortu- 
nately no  names  are  recorded  in  the  histories  of  Sindh, 
but  each  is  called  simply  Rai  Sdhi  or  Sdhasi.  As  this 
seems  to  be  only  the  common  Scythian  title  of  Shdki,  we 
have  no  means  of  discriminating  one  prince  from  another. 
I  believe,  however,  that  I  have  found  the  name  of  the 
leader  in  Jibaivin,  who  formed  the  great  reservoir  of  Suraj 
Kund  at  Multan.  His  name  is  also  variously  written  as 
Jaswin,  Jasur,  and  Jalbur,  but  as  I  possess  coins  bearing 
the  names  of  Jabubal  and  Jabukha,  I  incline  to  adopt 
Jabuwan  as  the  correct  form. 

The  testimony  of  Kosmas,  who  actually  visited  the 
country  to  the  west  of  the  Indus  about  A.D.  530,  is  per- 
haps sufficient  to  show  that  the  Scythian  dynasty  which 
ruled  over  Sindh  from  A.D.  507  to  642  must  have  been 
White  Huns.  As  the  inscription  of  Yasodharma,  King  of 
Malwa,  A.D.  532,  mentions  that  he  ruled  over  countries 
which  neither  the  Guptas  nor  the  Hunas  had  possessed, 
there  is  some  difficulty  as  to  what  countries  are  intended. 
The  Panjab  is  most  probably  alluded  to,  as  no  trace  of 
Gupta  rule  has  yet  been  found  there.  Perhaps  Sindh  is 
also  referred  to,  in  which  case  the  rule  of  the  Hunas  in 
the  time  of  Kosmas  must  have  been  confined  to  the 
western  bank  of  the  middle  Indus.  The  histories  of 


Sindh  are  unanimous  in  claiming  Mekran  as  one  of  the 
provinces  of  the  kingdom  during  the  rule  of  the  Sahasi 
kings.  I  infer  therefore  that  Yasodharma's  conquests 
did  not  extend  to  Sindh,  but  may  probably  have  included 
Northern  Rajputana.  The  mention  of  the  overthrow  of 
Sakas  in  JRuma  (in  the  Salt  country)  by  Vikramaditya 
about  A.D.  530  must  refer  either  to  the  Sdmbhar  lake  dis- 
trict near  Ajmer,  or  to  the  Salt  Mines  in  the  Panjab,  and 
at  Kalabagh  to  the  west  of  the  Indus.  The  latter 
seems  the  more  probable,  as  the  city  of  Rhon,  fPo>i/, 
is  described  as  belonging  to  the  Scythian  Gandarike,  just 
as  Hekataeus  describes  Kaspapuros. 

I  annex  a  list  of  these  Scythian  kings  of  Sindh  as  pre- 
served in  the  native  histories.  If  their  title  was  Shahi, 
they  would  have  some  claim  to  be  taken  as  Sakas,  as  the 
White  Huns  had  adopted  the  title  of  Khakan. 

A.D.  Kings  of  Sindh. 

505.  Diwaij,  ?  Jibawin. 

533.  Siharas,  Sahiras,  ?  Gollas  of  Kosmas  Indicopleustes. 

566.  Diwaij,  or  Rai  Sahasi,  or  Shahi-shahi.25 

600.  Siharas,  Sahiras  invaded  by  Persians  in  A.D.  627,  killed. 

627.  Sahasi,  Rai  Shahi. 

642.  Chach  Brahman  conquers  Sindh. 

The  territory  held  by  these  princes  extended  from  the 
frontier  of  Kashmir  to  the  mouths  of  the  Indus,  and  from 
Mekran  to  the  frontier  of  Kanauj.  In  A.D.  641,  Hwen 
Thsang  says  that  the  reigning  king  was  a  Siu-to-loy  that  is 
a  Sudra.  The  names  seem  so  much  alike,  Sahasi,  Sahiras, 
and  Rai  Shahi,  that  I  cannot  help  suspecting  they  may 
be  only  a  title  repeated  with  slight  changes  as  Rai-Shahi 
or  Shahi-Rai.  Now  Shahi  is  a  well-known  Scythian 

25  H.  M.  Elliot,  MuU.  Hist.,  i.  p.  405,  gives  five  names  from 
the  Tuhfat  ul  Kiram. 



title  which  is  found  on  most  of  the  Indo-Scythian  coins 
of  the  Sassanian  period.  This  is  the  more  probable  as  I 
find  mention  of  an  ancient  King  of  Multan  named  Jibawtn, 
who  excavated  the  Suraj  Kund  and  built  a  great  temple 
containing  a  golden  image.  He  may  perhaps  be  the 
founder  of  the  dynasty  Diwdij.  A  more  probable  identi- 
fication is  that  of  Diwdij  with  the  prince  named  Devajari, 
two  of  whose  silver  coins  were  found  in  the  great 
Manikyala  Stupa  by  General  Ventura.26  The  Indian 
legend  on  these  coins  I  read  as  follows . — 

Sri  Hitivi-cha  Airdn  cha  parameswara. 

Sri  Shdhi-tigin  Devajari. 

The  fortunate  lord  of  India  and  Persia. 

The  fortunate  valiant  prince  (Shahi)  Devajari. 

It  will  be  observed  that  all  the  leading  consonants 
d,  v,  j,  occur  in  both  names  joined  with  a  long  d. 

All  the  other  recorded  names  appear  to  be  only  corrup- 
tions of  the  title  of  Shahin  Shahi. 

I  am  disappointed  at  not  finding  any  trace  of  the  name 
of  Gollas  in  these  lists  of  the  native  historians  of  Sindh. 
I  am  even  more  disappointed  at  the  omission  of  all  men- 
tion of  Yasu  Deva,  King  of  Multan,  Uch,  and  Bahmana, 
as  declared  on  his  coins.  He  was  almost  certainly  one  of 
the  rulers  of  Sindh  of  this  very  dynasty,  as  the  style  of 
bis  coins  shows  that  he  belonged  to  the  later  Sassanian 

Both  of  the  coins  just  noticed  might  perhaps  be  said  to 
belong  properly  to  Multan.  But  there  is  a  large  number 
of  coins  in  all  three  metals,  which  bear  only  the  title  of 
Sri- Shahi,  or  in  some  cases  only  Shahi,  which  might 

26  See  my  Archaeological  Report,  v.  p.  121,  and  PL  XXXVII. 
*  Ibid. 


belong  to  the  kings  of  Sindh,  whose  names  have  not  been 
handed  down.  But  as  most  of  these  anonymous  coins,  and 
as  I  believe  that  all  of  the  gold  ones,  have  been  found  in 
the  Northern  Panjab  or  Lower  Kabul  valley,  I  am  inclined 
rather  to  assign  them  to  the  Rajas  of  Sakala  and  Gandhara. 
It  is  unfortunate  that  very  few  of  the  names  have  been 
preserved,  and  these  mostly  disguised  in  the  strange  forms 
of  Chinese  monosyllables. 

Masudi  records  that  a  prince  named  Ranbal,  who 
reigned  in  the  valley  of  the  Indus,  after  subjugating 
Eastern  Persia,  had  "  advanced  to  the  banks  of  the  Tigris 
and  Euphrates."  28  This  conqueror  may,  I  think,  be  iden- 
tified with  the  king  who  on  his  coins  claims  to  be  lord 
"both  of  India  and  of  Persia"  (Sri  Hitim-cha  Airdn-cha 
parameswara).  Such  an  inroad  might  perhaps  have  been 
successful  after  the  murder  of  Khusru  II.  in  628  A.D. 
This  is  the  more  probable  as  the  ruler  of  Sindh  had  to 
revenge  the  invasion  of  his  own  country  and  the  death  of 
his  predecessor.  As  Parvez  had  invaded  Sindh  by  T£irman 
and  Mekran,  the  Sindhian  king  would  no  doubt  have 
followed  the  same  route.  I  see  nothing  improbable  in 
this  raid,  as  the  Persian  empire  never  recovered  its 
strength  after  the  death  of  Parvez. 

Kaikdn  or  Kikdn,  an  outlying  district  of  Sindh  on  the 
west  towards  Mekran,  suffered  from  several  early  in- 
vasions of  the  Muhammadans,  who  were  intent  upon 
seizing  horses  of  a  fine  large  breed  for  which  the  country 
was  famous.  It  is  the  Ki-kiamg-nu  of  Hwen  Thsang,  who 
also  mentions  its  good  horses.  Biladuri  calls  the  people 
Turks,  by  which  term  he  probably  meant  Indo-Scythians, 
The  province  seems  to  be  identical  with  the  northern  and 

28  Elliot's  Muham.  Hist,  of  India,  ii.  p.  418. 


hilly  half  of  Biluchistan,  comprising  Kilat  and  the 
country  of  the  Brahui's.  In  the  Chachnama  mention  is 
made  of  a  high  mountain  called  Kaikavan.  I  suspect  that 
this  name  may  be  identified  with  the  fort  of  Kapishkanish, 
in  Arakhosia,  which  was  seized  by  a  rebel  against  Darius 
Hystaspes.  We  know  that  the  name  of  the  town  of 
Kaithal  is  a  simple  contraction  of  Kapisthala  (the  Kam- 
bistholi  of  Arrian).  In  the  same  way  I  think  that  Kapish- 
kanish  might  be  contracted  to  Kaikan.  Sir  Henry  Raw- 
linson  thinks  that  the  place  must  be  looked  for  in  the 
direction  of  Sistan,  as  the  satrap  of  Arakhosia  would  pro- 
bably have  met  the  force  advancing  from  Persia  on  the 
frontier  of  his  province, 


There  is  no  direct  historical  evidence  that  the  Sakas 
ever  occupied  the  Panjab,  but  the  three  great  kings,  Moas, 
Azas,  and  Azilises,  whose  coins  are  found  chiefly  in  the 
Panjab,  and  very  rarely  to  the  west  of  the  Indus,  are 
universally  accepted  as  Saka  Scythians.  They  certainly 
preceded  the  Kushan  Prince  Kujula  Kadphises  and  his 
successors,  with  whom  they  seem  to  have  nothing  in 
common,  whereas  their  connection  with  the  Saka  dynasty 
of  Vonones  and  his  successors  is  undoubted,  as  the  name 
of  Azas  is  found  joined  with  those  of  Yonones  and  Spali- 
rises.  They  agree  also  in  having  an  extensive  silver 
coinage  of  the  same  types,  without  a  single  specimen  of 
gold,29  while  the  Kushans  have  an  abundant  gold  coinage 
and  no  silver  money,  excepting  only  a  solitary  piece  of 
Wema  Kadphises. 

29  I  may  note  here  that  my  friend  Pandit  Bhagwan  Lai  had 
a  gold  coin  of  Spalahores,  but  it  was  a  forgery. 


There  is,  however,  a  decided  testimony  of  Saka  occupa- 
tion of  some  portion  of  Western  India  as  late  as  the  latter 
half  of  the  fourth  century  in  the  mention  by  Samudra 
Gupta  of  the  presents  received  from  the  Kushans,  Sakas, 
and  Murundas :  "  Daiuaputra  Shdhi-Shahanu  Shahi,  Saka, 

Sakas  are  also  mentioned  in  the  beginning  of  the  fifth 
century  as  opponents  of  a  Vikramaditya  of  Malwa,  and  to 
them  I  would  attribute  the  rude  Indo-Sassanian  coins 
which  are  now  so  abundant  in  Rajputana.  According  to 
the  Hindu  accounts  this  prince  conquered  the  Sakas  in 
Ruma.m  He  is  perhaps  the  same  prince  as  Yasodharma, 
of  Mr.  Fleet's  Mandisur  inscription,  who  possessed 
countries  which  neither  "the  Gupta  kings  nor  the  Hunas 
couJd  subdue."  31  The  same  prince  also  boasts  of  having 
subdued  King  Mihirakula.  As  Yasodharma's  inscription 
is  dated  in  A.D.  532,  it  seems  very  probable  that  he  must 
be  the  Vikramaditya  of  the  native  legend,  the  contem- 
porary of  Kalidas  and  Varahamihira.  But  the  Mihirkul 
whom  he  subdued  must  have  been  the  Mihirkul,  son  of 
Toramana  of  Malwa,  and  not  the  great  Mihirkul,  Raja  of 

It  is  worthy  of  remark  also  that  these  Saka  princes, 
Azas  and  his  successors,  must  have  employed  Indian 
servants,  such  as  the  General  Aspa  Yarma,  son  of  Indra 
Yarma,  as  well  as  a  son  of  Yijayamitra,  whose  name  is 
lost  on  my  coins.  Others  were  no  doubt  only  Scythian 
adventurers,  like  Jihonia  and  Rajubul,  whose  coins  belong 
to  the  same  period.  They  must  have  been  in  the  service 
of  some  of  the  later  Greek  princes,  and  who,  as  their 

30  Bhau  Daji  in  Journal  of  Bombay  Asiatic  Society,  vi.  p.  26 

31  Indian  Antiq.,  xv.  p.  255,  Mr.  Fleet's  inscription. 


masters'  power  became  weaker,  had  gradually  acquired 
strength,  until  some  of  them  became  independent.  Moas, 
for  instance,  may  have  been  a  successful  general  under 
Menander  and  Apollodotus,  and  after  their  death  a  suc- 
cessful rebel,  who  wrested  the  Panjab  from  Hermseus. 
The  coins  of  Moas  are  found  chiefly  about  Taxila  (Shah- 
dheri  and  Mansera)  and  in  the  country  between  the  Indus 
and  Chenab  rivers. 

Some  of  the  later  Greek  princes  would  seem  to  have 
been  driven  towards  the  East — Artemidorus  perhaps  to 
Kashmir,  and  Dionysius,  Zoilus,  and  Straton  II.  to 

The  coins  of  Azas  are  also  found  chiefly  in  the  "Western 
Panjab  ;  only  a  few  specimens  are  found  in  the  lower 
Kabul  valley.  I  obtained  a  small  find  from  Bajawar,  but 
I  saw  twelve  large  pieces  dug  up  from  the  inside  of  a 
temple  at  Shahdheri  or  Taxila.  Not  even  one  was  found 
by  Masson  at  Begram,  and  I  may  say  the  same  for  Mat- 
hura,  which  has  yielded  a  considerable  number  of  the  coins 
of  Menander  and  Apollodotus,  Antiochus  II.  and  Straton, 
with  a  single  type  of  the  nameless  king. 

The  find-spots  of  the  coins  of  Azilises  are  the  same  as 
those  of  Azas.  One  large  find  of  silver  coins  was  made  on 
the  bank  of  the  Jhelam  river,  in  the  hills  between  Barah- 
mula  and  Jhelam. 

The  rule  of  Moas  and  his  two  successors  may  have 
lasted  from  about  100  B.C.  down  to  the  beginning  of  the 
Christian  era,  when  the  country  fell  into  the  hands  of  the 

I  can  perhaps  best  illustrate  my  idea  of  what  may  have 
taken  place  in  the  Panjab  on  the  break  up  of  the  Greek 
power  by  referring  to  what  actually  took  place  in  the 
same  country  after  the  break  up  of  the  Muhammadan 


empire  of  Delhi.  All  over  the  country  the  petty  chiefs 
made  themselves  independent,  or  nearly  so.  Musalman 
chiefs  in  Multan  and  Mamdot,  Sikh  chiefs  in  Gujranwala, 
Kapurthala,  Patiala,  Nabha,  and  Kaithal,  and  an  English- 
man, George  Thomas,  in  Hansi.  After  a  time  Ranjit 
Singh  of  Gujranwala  gradually  managed  to  overcome 
most  of  his  rivals,  just  as  I  suppose  Moas  to  have  done  in 
ancient  times. 

There  would  appear  to  have  been  several  other  adven- 
turers in  early  days  in  the  Panjab,  who  are  known  to  us 
chiefly  from  coins.  Such  are  the  satrap  Jikonia,  son  of 
the  satrap  Manigul,  who  perhaps  gave  his  name  to  Ma- 
nikyala,  and  the  satrap  Rajubul,  who  almost  certainly 
held  Sangala,  as  his  coins  are  found  in  the  Eastern  Panjab, 
and  bear  the  Greek  monogram  EY  for  Euthydemia  or 

There  are  coins  also  of  rajas  of  the  same  period,  who 
must  have  been  more  or  less  dependent  on  the  greater 
chiefs.  One  of  these  was  Dhdra  Ghosha,  Raja  of  Odum- 
bara,  that  is  of  the  country  of  Dameri  or  Niirpur.  Other 
chiefs  are  the  Kuninda  Raja  Amoghabhuti,  and  two  others 
named  Mahadeva  and  Rudra  Yarma.  All  of  these,  by 
their  names,  must  have  been  native  Hindus. 

Apparently  the  Sakas  never  held  any  possessions  in  the 
Kabul  valley,  but  they  probably  held  Ghazni,  which 
would  account  for  some  of  their  coins  being  found  about 
Kabul.  Whatever  hold  they  may  have  had  on  the  Pan- 
jab must  have  been  soon  lost  on  the  conquest  of  the 
country  by  the  Kushans  under  Yun-kao-ching,  in  the 
first  century  A.D. 

There  is  a  curious  passage  in  the  Mojmal  ut  Tawarikh, 
which  certainly  refers  to  these  countries  on  the  Indus, 
and  though  the  period  mentioned  is  said  to  be  that  of 


Alexander  the  Great,  it  is  probable  that  it  may  preserve 
some  distorted  account  of  the  history  of  the  early  Saka 
kings  of  Sindh,  as  it  cannot  possibly  refer  to  the  time  of 
Alexander.  The  following  is  a  brief  summary  of  the 

In  Sindh  there  were  three  kings  until  the  time  of 
Kafand,  J^-5,  who  conquered  them  all.  Kafand  was 
not  a  Hindu.  In  the  Chachnama  he  is  called  Kaid  the 
Hindu.  Kafand  sent  his  brother  Samid  to  Mansura  to 
expel  Mahra,  s^*,  the  Persian.  Samid  sought  the 
assistance  of  Hal,  King  of  India,  and  Mahra  fled.  When 
Kafand  died  his  son  Ayand,  J^J,  succeeded  him,  and 
divided  his  territories  into  four  principalities. 

1.  Askalandusa,  or  Askalandra. 

2.  Zor  (Alor)  with  Anj  (?  Uch). 

3.  Samid's  territory  (?  Saminagar,  or  Thatha). 

4.  Hindustan,  Nadama,  and  Lohana. 

Ayand's  son  Kasal,  JJ^,  succeeded  him,  but  after  a 
time  he  was  expelled  by  a  rebel.  Rasal  left  two  sons, 
Rowal  J^,  and  Barkamaris,  ^J^^.  The  latter  killed 
his  brother,  and  became  so  powerful  that  all  India  sub- 
mitted to  him. 

Hal  is  the  well-known  name  of  Salivahan,  the  founder 
of  the  Saka  era  in  A.D.  78. 

A  similar  division  of  the  kingdom  of  Sindh  into  four 
principalities  is  given  in  the  Chachnama,  as  follows  : — 33 

1.  Askalandra,  with  Pabiya. 

2.  Alor  (with  Sewistan). 

3.  Brahmanabad. 

4.  Multan  and  Sikka. 

32  Elliot's  Muham.  Hist.,  i.  p.  108. 
53  Ibid.,  i.  p.  138. 


These  divisions  seem  to  be  intended  for  the  same  as  those 
of  the  Hojmal  ut  Tawarikh.  They  were  in  existence  during 
the  rule  of  the  Sahi  kings  (A.D.  505 — 642),  and  were  up- 
held by  Chach,  their  immediate  successor.  Pabiya  is  said 
to  have  been  to  the  south  of  the  Bias  River.  It  was  there- 
fore in  the  Panjab,  and  consequently  must  have  been  to 
the  north-east  of  Multan.  I  would  identify  it  with  De- 
palpur,  and  then  the  strong  fort  of  Askalandra  would 
correspond  with  Shcrkot,  or  Alexandreia  Soriane. 

The  dominions  of  the  Saka  kings  of  Sindh  are  said  to 
have  included  Mekran  up  to  the  frontiers  of  Kirman  and 
Kaikan  or  Kikan  up  to  the  frontiers  of  Khorasan.  Before 
this  time  Sakastene  or  Sistan  had  become  tributary  to  the 
Sassanian  kings  of  Persia,  while  Arakhosia  or  Kandahar, 
the  Kipin  of  the  Chinese,  would  appear  to  have  formed  an 
independent  kingdom. 

About  A.D.  530  Kosmas  Indicoplanates  travelled  over 
the  country  to  the  west  of  the  Indus,  which  was  then 
under  the  rule  of  a  king  named  Oollas.  He  calls  the 
country  OiW*a,  Unnia.  Apparently  at  that  time  the  name 
of  the  White  Huns  of  Sogdiana,  the  opponents  of  the  Sas- 
sanian kings,  had  become  so  well  known  that  all  peoples 
between  India  and  Persia  were  supposed  to  be  of  the  same 
race.  At  this  very  time  also,  or  A.D.  550,  Varaha  Mihira 
places  a  tribe  called  Hara-Hauras  in  the  north-western 

The  coins  afford  but  little  or  no  assistance.  According 
to  the  Chinese  the  people  of  Kipin  had  coins  both  of  gold 
and  silver,  with  the  head  of  a  man  on  one  side  and  a 
horseman  on  the  other  side.34  This  description  agrees  only 

34  Remusat,  Nouv.  Melanges  Asiat.,  i.  p.  206. 



with  the  coin  types  of  Miaiis  and  the  nameless  king.  But 
there  are  no  gold  coins  of  either  of  these  kings,  and  only 
copper  coins  of  the  latter.  In  fact  there  are  no  known 
gold  coins  of  any  of  the  Saka  kings. 

I  see  that  Wilson  describes  the  coins  of  the  Sakas  as 
having  a  horseman  on  one  side  and  a  portrait  or  figure  of 
a  man  on  the  other.35  If  this  description  be  correct  it 
would  include  all  the  coins  of  the  known  Saka  kings  of 
Kipin,  Yonones,  Spalahora,  Spalgadama,  and  Spalirisha, 
as  well  as  the  Pan  jab  kings  Moas,  Azas,  and  Azilises. 

In  the  Chinese  notices  of  Kipin  it  is  said  that  a  king 
named  -U-to-lao  was  a  contemporary  of  the  Emperor  Wuti 
(d.  87  B.C.),  and  that  his  son  was  driven  from  the  throne 
by  a  rebel.  This  looks  like  a  repetition  of  the  story  of 
Ay  and  and  his  son  Rasal.  But  these  names  seem  to  offer 
no  resemblance  to  any  of  the  coin  names  of  Yonones, 
Spalahora,  Spalgadama,  or  Spalirisha.  I  suspect,  however, 
that  the  rebel  chief  may  be  the  king  named  In-mo-fu, 
who,  according  to  the  Chinese,  drove  U-to-lao's  son  from 
the  throne  and  made  himself  King  of  Kipin  in  B.C.  49. 
This  date  is  ascertained  by  the  accession  of  the  Emperor 
Hiao-yuan-to  in  B.C.  48,  who  broke  off  all  relations  with 
foreign  countries,  and  would  not  receive  In-mo-fu's 

To  this  king  I  would  ascribe  the  large  silver  coins 
(tetradrachms)  v/ith  the  title  of  Turannountosand  the  name 
of  Herdus  or  Midus.  In  1861  I  read  the  names  as  Heraus, 
but  some  years  later,  when  I  obtained  some  oboli  of  the 
same  king,  I  adopted  the  reading  of  Miaiis  or  Miaius.  Mr. 
Gardner  prefers  Heraus,  and  attributes  the  coins  to  a  king 

35  Ariana  Antiqua,  p.  311. 


of  the  Sakas,  by  reading  the  continuation  of  the  legend  as 
ZAKA  KOIPANOY.  But  to  this  reading  I  strongly 
demur.  I  possess  half-a-dozen  tetradrachms  and  thirteen 
oboli,  and  on  none  do  I  find  the  letter  K  of  ZAKA,  while 
on  every  "specimen  I  find  the  addition  of  the  letter  B  to 
th;s  word.  On  one  of  my  coins  the  word  is  distinctly 
ZANAB  ;  on  another  specimen  I  find  ZANAOB.  I  also 
find  KO?CANOY  instead  of  KOIPANOY,  and  as  this  is 
the  early  rendering  of  the  tribal  name  of  the  Kushans  on 
the  coins  of  Kujula  Kadphises  I  feel  inclined  to  adopt  it,  and 
to  read  the  difficult  word  Sanaob  as  a  Greek  rendering  of 
the  native  title  of  Tsanyu  or  Chanyu,  "  Son  of  Heaven,"  or 
king.  The  whole  legend  would  then  be  of  the  paramount 
ruler  ;  Miaiis  (or  Her  aus)  would  therefore  be  a  Kushan 
king.36  On  one  of  my  coins  I  find  HNYANOY  instead 

In  the  passage  which  I  have  quoted  from  iheMojmal  ut 
Tawankh  the  names  of  four  kings  are  given  as  the  suc- 
cessive rulers  of  Sindh.  As  they  are  specially  said  to  be 
not  of  Indian  origin  there  is  a  strong  presumption  that 
they  must  have  been  the  Scythians  who  conquered  Sindh. 
Their  names,  as  already  quoted,  are :  1,  Kafand  or  Kid ;  2, 
Ay  and ;  3,  Rdml ;  and  4,  the  two  sons  of  the  last-named, 
Rowal  and  Barkamdris.  It  is  curious  that  we  possess  the 
coins  of  just  four  princes  who  might  possibly  be  identified 
with  them  were  it  not  for  the  difference  in  the  names. 
But  it  seems  probable  that  Vonones  and  his  relatives  of 
the  coins  must  have  belonged  to  Kipin  or  Arachosia,  while 
Ay  and  and  his  posterity  belonged  to  Sindh  and  the 

56  Remusat,  Nouv.  Melanges  Atiat,,  i.  p.  207. 


It  is  possible,  however,  that  they  may  be  represented 
by  Azas  and  his  successors,  thus  : — 

Ayand  may  be  Aya  or  Azas. 

Rasal  may  be  Ayilisha  or  Azilises. 

The  rebel  might  be  Jihonia  or  Zeionises. 

Rowal  might  be  Sapaleizes. 

Barkamaris  might  be  The  Nameless  King. 

Should  Barkamaris  turn  out  to  be  a  corrupt  rendering 
of  Bikramadit  this  last  identification  might  not  be  impro- 
bable, as  several  of  the  different  types  of  the  Nameless 
King  have  the  single  Arian  letter  Vi  in  the  field.  The 
founder  of  the  dynasty,  named  Kafand,  would  then  be 
identified  with  Moga  or  Moas. 




(Continued  from  page  94.) 

LORD  BROUGHAM,  1778 — 1868. 

3.   Obv. — Head  of  Brougham  to  right,  bare  :  on  neck,  MILLS  F. 

Jfet;.— Within  oak-wreath,  TO  THE  PATRIOTIC  IN- 

1-4.     MB.  ^E.     PL  XL  1. 

This  medal  was  struck  to  commemorate  Brougham's 
candidature  for  the  county  of  Westmoreland,  at  the 
general  election  in  1818.  At  the  end  of  the  contest 
Brougham  was  at  the  bottom  of  the  poll,  his  opponents 
being  Lord  Lowther  and  Col.  Lowther,  whose  success 
was  in  a  great  measure  due  to  the  support  they  received 
from  the  magistrates  and  clergy  of  the  neighbourhood. 
In  thanking  those  who  had  voted  for  him,  Brougham  said 
he  had  now  to  congratulate  the  people  of  Westmoreland, 
for  in  spite  of  the  acts,  the  urgent  endeavours,  and  the 
bribery  of  the  agents  of  his  opponents  he  had  polled 
"  900  votes,  free,  independent  and  unbought  votes." 



4,  QiVf — Head  of  Brougham  to  left,  bare  ;  on  neck,  STOT- 
HABD P.     1831. 

No  reverse. 
2-75.     MB.  ST. 

No  reverse  appears  to  have  been  executed  for  this 
medal.  It  is  one  of  a  large  series  made  by  Stothard  of 
illustrious  men  of  his  time. 

For  other  medals  of  Lord  Brougham,  see  Grey,  Earl  of. 

THOMAS  BROWN,  1778—1869. 

Obv. — Head  of  Brown  to  left,  bare ;  below,  T.  s.  &  A.  B. 
WYON  so.  Leg.  THOMAS  BROWN  BORN  1778 
—DIED  1869. 

ReV. — Within  ornamented  trefoil,  shields  of  the  Stationers' 
Company,  the  Brown  family,  and  the  City  of 
London  ;  quatrefoil  ornaments  and  oak-leaves  in 
angles  of  trefoil.  Leg.  v  THE  STATIONERS' 

2.     MB.  M.     PL  XL  2. 

Thomas  Brown,  born  in  1778,  was  for  many  years  a 
member  of  the  well-known  firm  of  Messrs.  Longmans 
&  Co.,  Publishers  in  Paternoster  Row.  He  died  in  1869, 
having  bequeathed  £5,000  to  the  Stationers'  Company, 
and  a  like  sum  to  the  School  of  that  Company.  The 
above  prize-medal  was  founded  in  1871,  and  is  annually 
given  in  bronze  with  a  purse  of  £5  every  midsummer, 
to  the  pupil  who  has  done  best  in  the  yearly  examination. 

ENGLISH    PERSONAL    MEDALS    FROM    1760.  251 

SIR  WILLIAM  BROWNE,  Physician,  1692—1774. 

Obv. — Bust  of  Browne  to  left,  wearing  wig  and  robes. 
Leg.  Below,  D.  GYLIELMVS  BROWNE, 
EQUES  .  NAT  .  Ill  .  NON  .  IAN  .  A  .  I  . 

Rev. — Apollo  seated  to  left  on  raised  platform,  resting  his 
left  hand  on  his  lyre,  and  with  right  placing 
laurel  wreath  on  the  head  of  kneeling  figure, 
wearing  academical  robes  and  holding  scroll  and 
In  the  exergue,  ELECTUS  COLL  .  MED  . 

1-4.     MB.  N.  JE.     PL  XI.  3. 

Sir  William  Browne,  Physician,  a  native  of  the  county 
of  Durham,  and  the  son  of  a  physician,  was  educated  at 
Cambridge  and  practised  medicine  at  Lynn,  Norfolk, 
where  he  lived  for  over  thirty  years,  but  in  1749  he  came 
to  live  in  London.  Browne  was  a  Fellow  of  the  College 
of  Physicians  and  of  the  Koyal  Society,  and  in  1748  he 
was  knighted  through  the  interest  of  the  Duke  of 
Montagu.  In  1765 — 1766,  he  was  President  of  the 
College  of  Physicians,  and  only  held  that  office  for  one 
year  on  account  of  the  want  of  respect  shown  to  him  on 
the  part  of  some  of  the  licentiates  of  the  college.  He 
died  10th  March,  1774,  and  by  his  will  founded  a  scholar- 
ship of  twenty  guineas  a  year,  the  holder  of  which  was  to 
remove  to  Peterhouse,  Cambridge,  and  also  three  gold 
medals  worth  five  guineas  each,  of  which  the  above  is  an 
example,  to  be  given  to  undergraduates  at  Cambridge  for 
Greek  and  Latin  odes  and  epigrams. 


SIR  MARC  ISAMBARD  BRUNEL,  1769 — 1849. 

1.  Obv. — Head  of  Brunei  to  left,  bare;  below,  DAVIS  BIRM. 

pkev. — View  of  the  interior  of  the  Thames  Tunnel  with 
horseman  and  foot  passengers.  Below,  THAMES 
1824.  COMPLETED  1842.  L.  180,000  SUB- 
SCRTBD  BY  PROPRIETORS  1828.  L.  270,000 
I.  M.  BRUNEL  .  ENGINEER.  Above,  Jos. 


2-5.     MB.  M. 

Sir  Marc  Isambard  Brunei  was  born  at  Hacqueville,  near 
Gisors,  in  Normandy,  25th  April,  1769  ;  at  an  early  age 
he  entered  the  navy,  but  quitting  his  country  on  account 
of  the  revolution  he  went  to  New  York,  in  1793,  and 
adopted  the  profession  of  civil  engineer  and  architect. 
Having  been  successful  in  several  competitions,  including 
the  designs  for  the  New  House  of  Assembly,  at  Washing- 
ton, and  the  Bowery  Theatre,  New  York,  he  was  appointed 
Chief  Engineer  of  New  York,  which  office  he  held  till 
1799,  when  he  came  to  England.  For  the  next  twenty-five 
years,  Brunei  was  actively  engaged  in  bringing  out  new- 
machines  of  various  kinds,  for  writing  and  drawing,  for 
winding  cotton  thread,  for  knitting,  for  stereotyping 
plates  for  printing,  &c.,  also  in  the  construction  of  the 
"  block  machinery  "  for  the  Admiralty,  in  erecting  saw- 
mills for  the  Government  and  other  useful  works,  by 
which  an  immense  saving  of  labour  was  made.  In  1812, 
Brunei  made  his  first  experiments  in  steam  navigation  on 
the  Thames,  but  his  proposals  for  the  construction  of 

ENGLISH    PERSONAL    MEDALS    FROM    1760.  253 

steam  vessels  were  not  favourably  received  by  tlie  govern- 
ment of  the  day,  as  being  "  too  chimerical  to  be  seriously 
entertained."  In  1824,  he  brought  before  the  public  his 
proposals  for  the  construction  of  the  Thames  Tunnel,  and 
under  the  auspices  of  the  Duke  of  Wellington,  a  company 
was  formed  to  carry  out  the  scheme.  After  a  long  series 
of  mishaps  and  delays  the  tunnel  was  completed,  and 
opened  in  March,  1843.  Brunei  died  from  the  effects  of 
paralysis  on  the  12th  December,  1849.  He  was  a  fellow 
of  the  Royal  Society,  being  elected  in  March,  1814,  of 
which  body  he  was  a  Yice- President  in  1832,  a  member 
of  the  French  Institute  and  of  various  other  scientific 
societies  at  home  and  abroad. 

There  is  a  variety  of  this  medal.  It  has  below  the 
head  on  the  obverse  the  artist's  name,  j.  TAYLOR 
MEDALLIST  BIRMM.,  and  on  the  reverse  below  the 
tunnel,  the  inscription,  THAMES  TUNNEL  1200  FT. 
COMPLETED  1842.  (1-9.  MB.  ST.) 


2.  Obv. — Head  of  Brunei  to  left,   &c.,  similar  to  the  pre- 
ceding.   Below,  W.  J.  TAYLOR  F.  WASHINGTON  .  D. 

Rev. — View  of  the  interior  of  the  Thames  Tunnel ;  below, 
THAMES  TUNNEL  1842  ;  above,  river  with 
steamboat  and  sailing-boats.  In  the  field,  w.  j. 


1-65.    MB.  JE.    PL  XL  4. 

This  medal  refers  also  to  Brunei's  experiments  in  steam 
navigation  on  the  Thames,  and  to  the  establishment 
through  his  endeavours  of  a  line  of  steamers  to  ply 
between  London  and  Margate. 



3.   Obv. — Head  of  Brunei   to  left,   &c.,   similar  to   No.    1 ; 

below,  J.    TAYLOR    MEDALLIST    BIRM^ 

Eev. — Longitudinal  view  of  the  Thames  Tunnel ;  above, 
ships.  Leg.  Above,  LONGITUDINAL  SEC- 
Below,  COMMENCED  1824  BROKE  IN 
MAY  1827  &  JAN  1828  SUSPENDED  TILL 

2-45.     MB.  ST. 

In  consequence  of  a  serious  irruption  of  the  river  into 
the  tunnel,  in  1828,  the  works  were  stopped  and  the 
tunnel  was  bricked  up  for  seven  years. 


4.  Obv. — Head  of  Brunei  to  left,  &c.,  same  as  No.  2. 

Eev.— Outer  Leg.  THAMES  TUNNEL  .  FROM  RO- 
Inner  Leg.  COMMENCED  JANT  1826  PRO- 
GRESSED  600  FEET  JANT  1828.  £180,000 
GRANT  £270,000  AND  COMPLETED  1842. 

1-65.     MB.  M. 

SIR  FRANCIS  BURDETT,  1770—1844. 


1.  Obv. — Bust  of  convict  to  left  in  prison  dress.   Leg.  BURDET 

Rev. — Man  flogging  convict,  naked  and  tied  to  post. 
1-6.     MB.  Lead. 


Sir  Francis  Burdett,  third  son  of  Sir  Robert  Burdett, 
born  25th  January,  1770,  was  educated  at  Westminster 
and  Oxford,  and  entered  Parliament  in  1796  as  member 
for  Boroughbridge.  He  was  an  ardent  liberal  and  rose 
quickly  in  public  favour  by  his  repeated  attacks  on  the 
government  in  his  efforts  to  expose  the  genuine  grievances 
of  the  day.  His  popularity  was  further  increased  by  the 
inquiries  which  he  caused  to  be  made  into  the  mis- 
management of  the  Coldbath  Fields  Prison,  where 
suspected  persons  were  usually  detained  under  the  Habeas 
Corpus  Suspension  Acts,  and  no  distinction  made  in  the 
treatment  of  these  persons  and  convicted  felons.  This 
subject  is  referred  to  by  the  above  medal.  At  the  general 
election  in  J802,  Burdett  was  returned  for  the  county  of 
Middlesex,  but  being  unseated  he  was  returned  in  1807 
by  the  electors  of  Westminster,  for  which  borough  he 
sat  for  thirty  years.  In  1808  and  1809,  several  abortive 
attempts  were  made  to  raise  the  question  of  reform,  all  of 
which  were  supported  by  Burdett;  and  in  1810,  having 
published  a  speech  which  he  made  in  the  House  of 
Commons,  advocating  the  release  of  John  Gale  Jones,  a 
well-known  radical  orator,  who  had  been  imprisoned  by 
the  House  for  breach  of  privilege,  he  was  judged  guilty 
by  the  House  of  the  same  offence  and  confined  to  the 
Tower,  where  he  remained  for  several  weeks.  In  1828, 
he  carried  a  resolution  affirming  the  expediency  of  con- 
sidering the  state  of  the  laws  affecting  the  Roman 
Catholics,  and  when  the  Reform  Bill  came  before  the 
House,  Burdett  supported  it  with  his  utmost  strength. 
When  the  Conservative  reaction  took  place  in  1835, 
Burdett  was  inclined  to  support  it,  and  in  consequence 
came  into  conflict  with  a  large  section  of  his  constituency 
and  resigning  his  seat,_was,  however,  soon  re-elected.  At 


the  general  election  which  followed  the  accession  of  the 
Queen,  Burdett  joined  the  Conservatives  and  was  returned 
for  North  Wiltshire,  which  county  he  represented  till  his 
death,  23rd  January,  1844. 


2.  Obv. — Bust  of  Burdett  to  right,  wearing  frock-coat,  &c. 

Rev.— Within  radiated  circle,  THE  INTREPID  CHAM- 

1-9.     MB.  M.  ST. 

This  and  the  next  medal  refer  generally  to  the  many 
acts  of  Burdett  in  defence  of  the  public  liberties  ;  but  the 
immediate  cause  of  their  issue  was  no  doubt  his  defence  of 
John  Gale  Jones,  who  was  imprisoned  for  raising  a  dis- 
cussion upon  the  practice  of  the  House  as  to  the  exclusion 
of  strangers. 


8.  Obv. — Bust  of  Burdett  to  left,  similar  to  the  preceding. 

Rev.— Within  palm-wreath,  ELECTED  M.P.  MDCCXCVI. 
Below.  MDCCCX. 

1-65.     MB.  M.    PI.  XI.  5. 

This  medal  also  commemorates  Burdett's  first  election  in 
1796,  when  he  was  returned  for  Boroughbridge  in  the 
Newcastle  interest. 

ENGLISH    PERSONAL     MEDALS    FROM    1760.  257 


4.  Obv. — Bust  of  Burdett  to  right,  wearing  frock-coat,  &c. ; 

around  his  shoulders,  cloak.  Leg.  THE  DE- 

Rev.— Inscription,  S?  FRANCIS  BURDETT  BART  M  P 

1-6.     MB.  JR. 

When  the  Speaker  issued  a  warrant  for  his  arrest, 
Burdett  refused  to  surrender  except  to  superior  force. 
His  house  was  surrounded  by  the  soldiery  and  much  fear 
was  entertained  lest  a  serious  riot  would  occur.  On 
the  fourth  day  of  the  warrant  a  forcible  entry  was  made 
into  Burdett' s  house  and  he  was  conveyed  to  the  Tower, 
the  whole  city  being  guarded  by  many  thousands  of 


5.  Obv. — Bust  of  Burdett  to  left,  &c.,  same  as  No.  8. 

Eev. — Within  laurel -wreath,  THE  ZEALOUS  ADVO- 

8  1828. 

1-7.     MB.  ^E. 

The  cause  of  Catholic  Emancipation  had,  for  many  years 
previous  to  1824,  been  advocated  both  by  Mr.  Canning 
and  Lord  Castlereagh.  In  that  year  the  question  was 
strongly  supported  by  the  press,  and  in  March,  1825,  its 


importance  was  so  deeply  felt  by  Sir  Francis  Burdett,  that 
he  ventured  to  introduce  a  Belief  Bill,  which  passed 
the  Commons  by  a  majority  of  268  to  240,  but  was 
rejected  by  the  Lords.  A  slight  reaction  now  took  place, 
and  when  a  New  Relief  Bill  was  introduced  in  1827,  it 
was  lost  in  the  Commons  by  a  majority  of  4,  though 
supported  by  the  last  effort  of  Canning's  eloquence  ;  but 
the  very  same  measure  was,  however,  carried  on  the 
8th  May,  1828,  by  a  majority  of  6.  The  King's  speech 
of  the  following  year  (February,  1829),  contained  a  recom- 
mendation to  Parliament  to  consider  the  advisability  of 
removing  the  civil  disabilities  of  the  Catholics,  and  in 
consequence,  Mr.  Peel,  on  the  5th  March,  brought  for- 
ward the  necessary  Bill,  which  after  passing  through 
Committee  was  carried  by  a  majority  of  178  in  the  House 
of  Commons,  and  in  the  House  of  Lords  by  a  majority 
of  106;  and  it  became  a  law  of  the  land  on  the  13th 
April,  1829. 

GEORGE  GORDON,  LORD  BYRON,  1788 — 1824. 

MEMOKIAL,  1824. 

1.  Obi\—  Bust  of  Byron  to  left,  wearing  cloak  and  shirt  with 
deep  collar  ;  below,  WILLIAM  .  B  .  F  .  (William 
Binfield).  Leg.  LORD  BYRON. 

^.—Inscription,    NATUS   MDCCLXXXVIII   .    OBIIT 

1-6.     MB.  M.     PI.  XI.  6. 

George  Gordon,  Lord  Byron,  the  famous  poet,  was  born 
in  Holies  Street,  London,  22nd  January,  1788,  and  died 
at  Missolonghi,  a  town  of  2Etolia,  Greece,  on  the  19th 
April,  1824.  We  do  not  give  any  particulars  of  Byrjn's 

ENGLISH    PERSONAL    MEDALS    FROM    1760.  259 

life,  as  the  chief  events  of  his  remarkable  career  are  so 
well  known,  and  this  and  the  following  medals  are  simply 
commemorative  and  refer  generally  to  his  fame  as  a  poet. 

MEMORIAL,  1824. 

2.  Obv. — Head  of  Byron  to  left,  bare ;  below,  w.  BINFIELD  F. 


Rev. — Harp  on  clouds  within  floral  wreath.  Leg.  NATUS 

2.     MB.  M. 

Byron's  native  place  was  London  and  not  Aberdeen, 
as  stated  on  this  medal. 

MEMORIAL,  1824. 

3.  Obv. — Bust  of  Byron  three-quarters  to  left,  wearing  cloak 

and  shirt  with  deep  collar.  Leg.  GEORGE 

Rev. — Byron  as  Apollo  standing  facing,  holding  lyre, 
which  he  rests  on  rock ;  in  the  background 
mountains,  clouds,  and  lightning ;  in  the  exergue, 
BORN  JAN  .  22  .  1788.  In  the  field,  MUDIE  D. 


2.     MB.  m. 

This  medal  was  struck  after  Byron's  death,  though  it 
mentions  only  the  date  of  his  birth. 

MEMORIAL,  1824. 

4.  Obv. — Bust  of  Byron  three-quarters  to  left,  wearing  coat 
and  shirt  with  deep  collar  ;  on  truncation, 


ReVm — Soldier  in  mournful  attitude,  resting  his  elbow  on 
tomb,  the  base  of  which  is  inscribed  BYRON 
NAT  .  JAN  .  22  1788  MORT  .  APR .  19  1824. 
At  side  of  monument  a  burning  torch  reversed. 
MEMOR.  In  the  exergue,  MISSOLONGHI. 

1-5.     MB.  M. 

MEMORIAL,  1824. 

5.  Obv. — Head   of  Byron   to   left,   in   high   relief;  behind, 

Rev. — Bay -tree  uninjured  by  lightning.     Leg.  A4>0ITON 
AIEI.     (Always  imperishable.) 

Edge    inscribed,    F  .  HIKEPINP  .  KAI  .  F  .  FOP 

eirsirmisiToz .  KAGIEPJIZIZ  .A.I, 

ZTO0APA .  EH  ,  acoXS  (Dedication  of  F.  Pick- 
ering and  F.  Forthington,  made  by  A.  J.  Stot- 
hard,  1824). 

2-5.    MB.  JE. 

This  medal  likens  the  fame  of  Byron  to  the  bay-tree, 
which  was  deemed  imperishable  and  incapable  of  injury 
by  lightning. 

MEMORIAL,  1824. 

6.  Obv. — Head  of  Byron  to  left,  bare  ;  below,  L  .  M  .     (Luigi 

Rev. — Funeral  urn,  ornamented  with  laurel  -  wreath 
and  inscribed  BYPHIM.  Leg.  MNHMA 
PIOOOY.  (A  memorial  of  affection.) 

•6.     MB.  JR.  M. 

This  and  the  following  pieces  are  small  memorials,  and 
form  part  of  a  series  executed  by  the  artist  Manfredini,  a 
native  of  Milan,  in  Italy. 

ENGLISH    PERSONAL    MEDALS    FROM    1760.  261 

MEMORIAL,  1824. 

7.  Obv. — Head  of  Byron  to  left,  &c.,  as  the  preceding. 

Eev. — Prometheus  naked,  seated  on  rock  and  holding 
rock ;  above,  hand  with  torch.  Leg.  EFE- 
NE0HTO  <J>nZ.  (Let  there  be  light.) 

•6.     MB.  M. 

MEMORIAL,  1824. 

8.  Ofry.— Head  of  Byron  to  left,  &c.,  as  No.  6. 

Eev. — Female  figure,  turreted,  seated  to  left  on  globe 
and  holding  scroll  and  cornucopias.  Leg.  DIS 
ALITER  VISVM.  Below,  Ifi. 

•6.     MB. 

MEMORIAL,  1824. 

9.  Obv. — Bust  of  Byron  to  left,  wearing  coat  and  shirt  with 
deep  collar.  Leg.  LORD  NOEL  BYRON. 
FECI  .  L.  M.  (Luigi  Manfredini.) 

Rev. — Inscription  across  and  around  field,  BYRON  THE 

•45.     MB.  ^R. 

This  piece  consists  of  a  medalet  in  silver  surrounded  by 
a  steel  border  with  loop  for  suspension. 

MEMORIAL,  1832. 

Obv. — Bust  of  Calvert  to  left,   wearing  frock-coat.     On 
truncation,  w .  WYON  A  .  R  .  A  .  MINT. 



Ret-.— Inscription,  A  TRIBUTE  FROM  THE  ELEC- 
ELECTED  1812  DIED  SEPT?  1832. 

1-7.     MB.  M. 

Charles  Calvert,  who  sat  during  six  parliaments  for  the 
borough  of  Southwark,  first  appeared  as  a  candidate  for 
that  place  in  the  general  election  of  1807,  was  first  re- 
turned in  1812,  and  subsequently  in  1818, 1820,  and  1826. 
He  was  defeated  at  the  general  election  in  1830,  but  his 
opponent  dying  before  the  meeting  of  parliament,  Calvert 
was  restored  to  his  seat  and  again  re-chosen  in  1831.  He 
died  Sept.  8th,  1832. 

DUKE  OF  CAMBRIDGE,  1774 — 1850. 

Obv. — Bust  of  the  Duke  of  Cambridge,  three-quarters  to 
left,  in  military  dress,  Star  of  the  Garter  on  his 
breast ;  on  truncation,  WEBB  .  F.  Leg.  H  .  R .  H. 

Rev. — Female  figure  seated  to  right  with  lion  at  her  feet 
and  feeding  two  horses  with  corn.  Leg.  THE 
exergue,  M.DCCCXIV.  MUDIE  D.  BARRE  F. 

1-55.     MB.  ST.     Mudie's  Medals,  No.  xxxi. 

This  is  one  of  Mudie's  series  of  national  medals.  Adol- 
phus  Frederick,  Duke  of  Cambridge,  son  of  George  III. 
and  Queen  Charlotte,  born  24  Feb.,  1774,  was  in  1793 
appointed  colonel  in  the  Hanoverian  army.  He  served  in 
the  campaign  of  1794 — 5,  and  in  1803  was  appointed 

ENGLISH    PERSONAL    MEDALS    FROM    1760.  263 

Colonel-in- Chief  of  the  King's  German  legions,  a  force  in 
British  pay,  and  destined  to  relieve  Hanover  then  menaced 
by  the  French  armies.  The  Duke  of  Cambridge,  how- 
ever, soon  transferred  his  command  to  Count  Walmoden, 
and  coming  to  England  was  charged  with  the  superintend- 
ence of  a  home  district.  In  1814,  when  the  French  were 
expelled  from  Hanover,  the  Duke  again  took  command 
of  the  electorate,  which  under  the  Treaty  of  Vienna  was 
elevated  to  the  rank  of  a  kingdom,  the  Duke  being 
appointed  Governor -General  in  1816.  He  continued  to 
discharge  these  important  duties  till  the  year  1837  when 
the  death  of  William  IV.  placed  Hanover  under  the  rule 
of  the  next  male  heir,  the  Duke  of  Cumberland.  The 
Duke  afterwards  took  up  his  residence  at  Cambridge 
House,  Piccadilly,  where  he  died  8  July,  1850.  He  was 
very  popular  in  this  country,  and  for  many  years  was 
regarded  as  emphatically  the  connecting  link  between  the 
throne  and  the  people. 

EARL  OF  CAMDEN,  1714—1794. 

1.  Obv. — Bust  of  Camden  to  right  in  Chancellor's  robes. 

jfcy. — Liberty  and  Justice  standing  facing  and  holding 
their  emblems.  Leg.  LIBERTY  EQUITY.  In 
the  exergue,  MDCCLXVI. 

1-55.     MB.  &.  M.     PI.  XI.  7. 

Charles  Pratt,  First  Earl  of  Camden,  son  of  Sir  John 
Pratt,  Chief  Justice  of  the  King's  Bench,  was  born  in 
1714.  Educated  at  Eton  and  Cambridge  he  studied  for 


the  bar,  and  was  called  in  1738.  In  1757  he  was 
appointed  Attorney- General,  and  four  years  afterwards 
accepted  a  seat  on  the  Bench  in  the  Court  of  Common 
Pleas.  His  popularity  was  very  great  at  the  time  of  the 
trial  of  Wilkes,  as  he  declared  that  general  warrants  were 
altogether  illegal.  In  1765  he  was  created  Baron  Camden 
of  Camden  Place,  Kent,  and  in  the  following  year  was 
made  Lord  Chancellor,  which  office  he  resigned  after  a 
period  of  four  years,  being  opposed  to  the  principles  of 
the  government  relating  to  their  American  policy.  His 
judicial  career  ended  with  his  resignation  of  the  Chancellor- 
ship, but  for  more  than  twenty  years  he  took  an  active 
part  in  politics,  strenuously  combating  the  ill-advised 
American  policy  of  Lord  North.  He  filled  the  office  of 
President  of  the  Council  during  the  Rockingham 
administration  in  1782,  and  also  from  the  following  year 
until  his  death  under  Pitt.  He  died  on  the  13th  of  April, 
1794.  This  and  the  following  two  medals  refer  to  Cam- 
den's  great  reputation  for  uprightness  and  impartiality  as 
a  judge. 


2.  Obv. — Bust  of  Camden  to  right,  in  Chancellor's  robes. 

Leg.  C.  PRATT  LORD  CAMDEN.    i .  KIRK  .  F  . 

Eev. — Justice  seated  to  left  on  pile  of  books,  one  inscribed 
MAGNA  CHARTA,  head  facing,  holding  scales  and 
staff  surmounted  by  Cap  of  Liberty.  Leg.  TRUE 
TO  HIS  TRUST,  i .  KIRK  .  F  .  In  the  exergue, 

1-35.     MB.  M. 


3.  Obv. — Bust  of  Camden  to  left,  in  close-fitting  coat  with 

straps  ;     hair    long.       Leg.    CAMDEN      THE 


Jte».— Inscription,  LONG  LIVE  LORD  CAMDEN 

•95.     MB.  m. 

MEMORIAL,  1773. 

4.  Obv. — Bust  of  Camden  to  right,  in  Chancellor's  robes  :  on 

either  side,  KIRK  FEC. 

Rev.—  Inscription,  LORD  CAMDEN  1773. 

This  small  medal  is  one  of  a  series  of  thirteen,  which 
were  given  away  with  as  many  numbers  of  a  magazine 
called  The  Sentimental  published  in  the  years  1773 — 
1775.  Some  were  struck  in  silver  and  given  as  prizes. 

MEMORIAL,  1794. 

5.  Obv. — Bust  of  Camden  to  right,  mantle   over  shoulders, 

head  bare. 

Rev. — Plain. 
1-8.     MB.  Lead. 

This  is  an  impression  from  an  unfinished  die.  It  is 
unsigned,  but  it  may  be  a  work  of  the  elder  Mossop. 

MARQUIS  OF  CAMDEN,  1759 — 1840. 

Obv. — Bust  of  Camden  to  left,  wearing  robes,  collar,  and 
star  of  the  Garter.  Leg.  JOAN  :  JEFFREYS 
CANTAB  :  CANCELL  :  1835. 

jRet?. — View  of  the  interior  of  the  Senate  House  at  Cam- 
bridge ;  above,  angel  with  wreath  ;  below, 

1-7.     MB.  M. 


John  Jeffreys,  First  Marquis  of  Camden,  the  eldest  son 
of  Charles,  First  Earl  of  Camden  (see  preceding  medal], 
born  llth  February,  1 759,  was  educated  at  Cambridge,  and 
on  his  coming  of  age  was  returned  to  Parliament  as  one 
of  the  members  for  Bath.  This  was  the  beginning  of  a 
long  and  successful  political  career  in  the  course  of  which 
he  filled  various  high  offices — a  Lord  Commissioner  of  the 
Admiralty  in  1783,  one  of  the  Lords  of  the  Treasury  in 
1789,  Lord  Lieutenant  of  Ireland,  1795 — 1798,  Secretary 
for  the  Colonies  in  1804,  President  of  the  Council  1806— 
1812,  and  a  Teller  of  the  Exchequer  for  over  sixty  years. 
He  succeeded  his  father  in  the  peerage  in  April,  1794, 
and  in  September,  1812,  he  was  created  Marquis  of  Cam- 
den. On  the  14th  August,  1799,  he  was  elected  a  Knight 
of  the  Garter,  and  Chancellor  for  the  University  of  Cam- 
bridge in  1884,  and  in  the  following  year  the  new  Senate 
House  was  opened,  an  event  which  occasioned  the  striking 
of  the  above  medal.  He  died  on  the  8th  October,  1840. 

GEORGE  CANNING,  1770—1827. 

1.   Olv.—  Inscription,   THE    RIGHT    HON.    GEOE    CAN- 
NING.  Above  and  below,  rose  and  oak  branches. 

Rev.— Inscription,  A  FREE  TRADE  TO  INDIA  THE 
NOPOLY. Above  and  below,  oak  and  laurel 

1-8.     MB.  ST. 

George  Canning,  the  distinguished  statesman  and  orator, 
born  in  London  llth  April,  1770,  was  educated  at  Eton  and 
Oxford,  and  was  entered  at  Lincoln's  Inn.  At  Burke' s 
suggestion  Canning  relinquished  the  bar,  and  devoting 


himself  to  politics,  was  returned  as  member  for  Newport, 
in  the  Isle  of  Wight,  in  1793,  under  the  banner  of  Pitt. 
In  1796,  he  was  appointed  an  Under-Secretary  of  State, 
and  was  returned  for  the  Treasury  borough  of  Wendover. 
It  was,  however,  not  before  1798  that  he  came  promi- 
nently into  public  notice  as  an  orator  and  statesman, 
giving  valuable  assistance  to  the  ministry  in  the  debates 
on  the  abolition  of  Slave  Trade,  the  Habeas  Corpus  Sus- 
pension Act,  the  Union  with  Ireland,  and  other  important 
questions.  In  1801,  when  Pitt  resigned  office,  Canning 
joined  the  Opposition,  and  upon  Pitt  again  becoming 
premier  in  1804,  he  was  rewarded  with  the  office  of 
Treasurer  ship  of  the  Navy.  In  1807  he  was  appointed 
Minister  for  Foreign  Affairs,  under  the  Portland  Ministry, 
and  in  1812  he  strongly  supported  Catholic  Emancipa- 
tion. In  the  same  year  he  was  elected  member  for  Liver- 
pool, for  which  place  he  was  returned  three  successive 
times,  and  it  was  at  this  period  that  he  advocated  free 
trade  with  India  as  commemorated  by  the  above  medal. 
He  went  to  Lisbon  as  Ambassador  in  1814,  and  returning 
in  1816,  he  was  made  President  of  the  Board  of  Control, 
and  supported  the  Liverpool  Ministry  in  all  their  repressive 
measures  known  as  the  Six  Acts,  which  were  considered 
by  some  as  unnecessarily  severe.  Nominated  Governor- 
General  of  India  in  1822,  he  was  on  the  eve  of  departure 
from  England  when  the  suicide  of  the  Marquis  of  London- 
derry put  him  at  the  head  of  Foreign  Affairs,  and  during 
his  term  of  office  he  rendered  great  and  valuable  service  to 
the  country  by  the  remarkable  tact  and  diplomacy  dis- 
played in  his  foreign  policy.  In  February,  1827,  an 
attack  of  paralysis  having  compelled  the  Earl  of  Liverpool 
to  resign,  Canning  was  called  upon  to  form  a  new  admin- 
istration. His  health,  however,  gave  way  under  the  cares 


of  office,  and  he  died  on  the  8th  August  of  the  same  year. 
The  above  and  the  following  medal  refer  to  the  attempt 
made  in  1812  to  prevent  the  renewal  of  the  Charter  of  the 
East  India  Company,  which  expired  on  the  24th  May  of 
that  year,  on  the  ground  that  the  exclusive  privileges 
granted  to  that  Company  were  detrimental  to  the  com- 
mercial welfare  and  general  interests  of  the  country  at 
large.  In  spite  of  Canning's  opposition  the  Charter  of  the 
Company  was  renewed. 


2.  Ok'.— Within  laurel-wreath,  CANNING  FOR  EVER. 

Eev.— Inscription  in  field,  FREE  TRADE  TO  INDIA. 

1-6.     MB.  ST. 


3.  Obi-. — Head  of  Canning  to  left ;  on  neck,  BAIN.  F. 

Eev.— Inscription,  INDI.E  IMPERIO  DESTINATUM, 

1-95.     MB.  M.  Lead  (obv.  proof).     PL  XL  8. 

In  1822,  Canning  accepted  the  Governor- Generalship 
of  India,  but  just  before  his  departure  Lord  Castlereagh, 
then  Marquis  of  Londonderry,  committed  suicide,  and  both 
Lord  Liverpool  and  the  Duke  of  Wellington  urged  upon 
George  IV.  the  necessity  of  giving  the  post  of  Minister  of 
Foreign  Affairs  to  Canning.  In  1820  Canning  having 
declined  to  take  any  part  in  the  proceedings  against 

ENGLISH    PERSONAL    MEDALS    FROM    1760.  269 

Queen  Caroline,  had  resigned  the  Presidency  of  the  Board 
of  Control,  and  the  King  on  that  account  refused  to  receive 
him  in  1821,  when  Lord  Liverpool  wished  to  bring  him 
back  into  office.  The  King  gave  way  on  the  present  occa- 
sion and  Canning  abandoned  the  Indian  appointment  for 
that  in  the  Ministry.  At  the  same  time  he  exchanged 
his  seat  at  Liverpool  for  Harwich. 


4.  Obv. — Head  of  Canning  to  left :  on  neck,  A.  j.  STOTHAED. 
F.  ;  below,  F.  L.  CHANTEEY  B.A.D.  Leg.  CAN- 

Rev. — The  Muse,  Cleio,  seated  on  low  column,  holding 
stilus  in  right  hand,  and  in  left  scroll  inscribed, 
TO  GREAT  MEN;  below,  on  pedestal,  PUB». 


2-45.     MB.  E. 

This  is  one  of  a  series  of  medals  of  illustrious  men  issued 
in  1826  by  A.  J.  Stothard. 


5.  Obv. — Bust  of  Canning  to  left ;  drapery  over  shoulders. 
BORN  1771. 

Rev  —Inscription,  THE  CABINET  MINISTERS.— 
HON.  G.  CANNING.— APRIL,  1827. 

1-8.  MB.  m. 



This   medal   bears    the   names   of  the   administration 
formed  by  Canning  in  1827. 

MEMORIAL,  1827. 

6.  Ok'. — Bust  of  Canning  to  left ;  drapery  over  shoulders. 

Leg.     R1.       HONBLE.      GEORGE     CANNING 
BORN  1771. 

Jfcv.— Inscription,  DIED  AT  CHISWICK  THE  SEAT 

THE  8TH.  1827. 

1-8.  MB.  m. 

Overwhelmed  with  a  combination  of  difficulties  and 
suffering  from  bodily  sickness,  Canning,  on  Parliament 
being  prorogued  2nd  July,  1827,  went  for  change  of  air 
on  a  visit  to  the  Duke  of  Devonshire  at  Chiswick.  He 
rapidly  got  worse  and  died  on  the  8th  August,  in  the  same 
room  in  which,  twenty-one  years  before,  his  early  friend, 
Charles  Fox,  had  expired. 

MEMORIAL,  1827. 

7.  Obv. — Bust  of  Canning  to  right,  wearing  frock-coat,  &c. ; 

on  truncation  H.  (T.  Halliday).     Leg.  RT.  HON. 

Rev. — Sepulchral  monument,  on  which  Britannia  weeping 
rests  her  arm,  and  holds  in  right  hand  a  scroll 
inscribed  GREEKS  CATHOLICKS.  The  monu- 
ment is  inscribed,  CANNING  DIED  AUG.  8. 
1827  AGED  56.  On  right  is  a  cypress-tree. 

1-5.  MB.  M. 

The  inscription  on  the  scroll  on  the  reverse,  and  also 
the  legend  refer  to  two  popular  movements  advocated  by 

ENGLISH    PERSONAL   MEDALS   FROM    1760.  271 

Canning  just  before  his  death.  One  was  the  obtaining  of 
practical  independence  for  Greece  by  the  Treaty  of 
London,  27th  July,  1827 ;  the  other  his  determined  efforts 
to  relieve  Roman  Catholics  from  the  disabilities  imposed 
upon  them,  and  which  resulted  in  the  passing  of  the 
Roman  Catholic  Emancipation  Act  in  1829.  (See  p.  257.) 

MEMOEIAL,  1827. 

8.  Obv. — Head  of  Canning  to  left ;  below,  GALLE  F.  Leg. 

Rev.— Inscription  in  centre,  LIBERT&  CIVILE  ET  RE- 
LIGIEUSE  DANS  L'UNIVERS.  1827.  Around, 

2.  MB.  N.  M. 

This  medal  by  Andre  Galle,  the  well-known  French 
medallist,  commemorates  the  same  events  as  the  previous 
medal.  It  was  probably  not  made  till  after  Canning's 

MEMORIAL,  1827. 

9  Obv.— Head  of  Canning  to  left.  Leg.  RT.  HONBLE. 

Rev. — Sepulchral  monument,  on  which  Angel  places  laurel 
garland,  and  near  which  kneel  a  woman  and  a 
child  weeping,  holding  shield  of  Great  Britain. 
exergue,  DIED  .  AUG.  8.  1827  AGED  .  57. 

1-45.     MB.  M. 

Canning's  political  views  were  similar  to  those  of  the 
second  Pitt,  modified  by  considerations,  the  outcome  of  the 


French  revolution.  He  upheld  strongly  the  maintenance 
of  the  royal  prerogative,  and  at  the  same  time  advocated 
the  repeal  of  the  Roman  Catholic  disabilities,  and  the 
gradual  removal  of  restrictions  upon  trade  and  commerce. 
Canning  did  not,  however,  share  his  master's  views  on 
the  subject  of  parliamentary  reform,  and  in  consequence 
opposed  it  on  several  occasions,  being  convinced  that  the 
old  system  was  capable  of  being  administered  in  a 
thoroughly  popular  manner,  and  that  any  change,  so  soon 
after  the  effects  caused  by  the  French  revolution,  would 
be  hazardous. 

MEMOKIAL,  1827. 

10.  Obv. — Bust  of  Canning  to  left,  in  frock-coat,   &c.     Leg. 


^.—Inscription,  N£  A  LONDRES  EN  1771.     MORT 
A  CHISWICK  EN  1827. 

1-6.  MB.  M. 

This  is  probably  one  of  the  series  of  medals  of  illus- 
trious men  issued  by  Jean  Henri  Simon,  a  Belgian 

MEMORIAL,  1827. 

11.  Obv. — Bust  of  Canning  to  left,  in  frock-coat,  &c.     Leg. 


Rev. — Funeral  urn  on  base,  inscribed,  BORN  1771 
DIED  AUG  8  1827;  over  all  hangs  a  willow- 

•95.  MB.  m. 

This  and  the  following  three  pieces  were  struck  as  cheap 
memorials  of  Canning  for  sale  in  the  streets.  They  were 
all  made  by  John  Ingram,  a  die  engraver  of  Birmingham. 

ENGLISH    PERSONAL    MEDALS    FROM    1760.  273 

MEMOKIAL,  1827. 
12.  Obv. — Bust  of  Canning  to  left,  &c.,  same  as  the  preceding. 

Rev. — Funeral  urn  on  base,  &c.,  similar  to  the  preceding, 
but  form  of  urn  varied. 

•95.     MB.  JE. 

MEMORIAL,  1827. 

13.   Obv.— Head  of  Canning  to  left,  bare.     Leg.  RT.  HONBLE. 

Rev. — Urn  veiled  on  base  inscribed  CANNING.  Leg. 
the  exergue,  DIED  .  AUGT.  8  .  1827  ^ET.  57. 

•95.  MB.  M. 

MEMORIAL,  1827. 

14.   Obv.— Bust  of  Canning  to  right  in  frock-coat.     Leg.  RT. 

BOT.— Within  oak-wreath,  BORN  1770  DIED  AUG.  8  . 
1827.  Leg.  THE  FRIEND  OF  CIVIL  &  RE- 

•95.  MB.  2B. 


Obv. — Head  of  Capel  to  left ;  below,  s.  CLINT.  F.  Leg. 
BOROUGH  ^>  JUNE  10H.  1826.  •$> 

Eev. — Within  laurel-wreath,  Samuel  Steele  ONE  OF  THE 

1-75.     MB.  JR. 


This  medal  was  apparently  struck  by  order  of  Capel  for 
presentation  to  those  who  had  supported  him  on  the  10th 
June.  The  election  caused  but  little  public  interest,  the 
number  of  voters  being  under  200  ;  Capel  polled  144  votes. 

WILLIAM  CAREY,  1761—1834. 

1.  Obv. — Bust  of  Carey  facing,  wearing  frock-coat  with  high 
collar,    &c.      Leg.    WILLIAM   CAREY.     DAVIS 


^.—Inscription  in  centre,  BAPTIST  MISSION 
E.  INDIES  1793.  W.  INDIES  1813.  W. 
ERS 127.  MEMBERS  UPWARDS  OF  30,000. 
1841  .  85,000.  SLAVERY  ABOLISHED  AUGT. 
1ST.  1838.  DAVIS  .  BIBM.  Around,  EXPECT 

1-7.     MB.  M.     PI.  XI.  9. 

William  Carey,  the  eminent  Oriental  scholar  and 
Baptist  Missionary,  was  born  at  Paulerspury,  in  North- 
amptonshire, in  1761.  In  early  life  he  was  apprenticed 
to  a  shoemaker,  and  in  1786  was  chosen  preacher  of  the 
Baptist  congregation  at  Moulton.  In  1792,  an  association 
of  ministers  settled  at  Kettering  formed  themselves  into 
a  Baptist  Missionary  Society,  and  selected  Carey  as  their 
first  agent.  India  was  the  field  chosen  for  his  labours, 
and  in  1793  he  left  England,  arriving  early  in  the 
following  year  in  Bengal.  Having  a  family  to  support  he 

ENGLISH    PERSONAL   MEDALS    FROM    1760.  275 

could  not  devote  all  his  time  to  his  missionary  duties,  and 
so  took  charge  of  an  indigo  factory  near  Malda.  In  1795, 
he  issued  the  first  Bible  in  the  Bengalee  language,  and 
some  years  later  he  removed  to  the  Danish  settlement  in 
Serampore,  where  he  set  up  a  large  school,  established  a 
printing  press,  and  published  a  number  of  religious  and 
philological  works  in  the  native  language.  In  1801, 
Carey  was  appointed  by  the  Marquis  of  Wellesley, 
Professor  of  Sanskrit,  Bengalee,  &c.,  at  the  newly- 
founded  college  of  Fort  William,  and  for  many  years  he 
was  occupied  with  the  duties  of  that  office  and  in 
promoting  the  society  of  which  he  was  a  founder,  and 
under  the  auspices  of  which  he  issued  a  large  number  of 
grammars,  dictionaries,  philological  and  religious  works 
in  the  various  Indian  languages.  He  also  superintended 
numerous  translations  of  the  Bible.  After  being  weakened 
by  many  attacks  of  fever,  he  was  attacked  with  apoplexy 
in  1833,  and  died  in  the  following  year  on  the  9th  June. 
This  medal  was  struck  in  1842,  on  the  celebration  of  the 
Jubilee  of  the  foundation  of  the  Baptist  Mission. 


2.  Obv. — Within  five  medallions  arranged  around  open  radiate 
Bible  the  busts  of  CAREY,  FULLER,  PEARCE, 
RYLAND,  and  SUTCLIFF.  Around,  the  in- 
scription, NOT  BY  MIGHT,  NOT  BY  POWER, 
ZECH.  c.  4,  v.  6. 

Rev. — View  of  the  facade  of  the  house  at  Kettering  ;  below, 
LEE 1842.  In  the  exergue,  THE  HOUSE  AT 
OCT.  2ND  1792. 
1-5.  MB.  M. 


Those  who  chiefly  supported  Carey  in  his  project  of  the 
Baptist  Mission  were  Andrew  Fuller,  of  Kettering ; 
Samuel  Pearce,  the  zealous  minister  of  the  Cornish  Street 
Chapel,  Birmingham  ;  John  Ryland,  Jun.,  of  North- 
ampton ;  and  John  Sutcliff,  of  Orney. 

NICHOLAS  CARLISLE,  1771—1847. 

Obv. — Bust  of  Carlisle  to  right,  wearing  Doctor's  robes. 
Rev.—  Inscription,  NICHOLAS  CARLISLE  ^ETAT  71. 
2.  MB.  JE.  Lead.     PI.  XL  10. 

Nicholas  Carlisle,  antiquary,  born  at  York  in  1771, 
entered  the  Naval  Service  of  the  East  India  Co.,  but 
left  it  early,  as  in  1806  he  became  a  candidate  for  the 
office  of  Secretary  to  the  Society  of  Antiquaries,  which  he 
obtained  early  in  the  next  year.  In  1812,  he  became 
an  Assistant  Librarian  of  the  Royal  Library,  and  accom- 
panied that  collection  to  the  British  Museum,  where  he 
attended  two  days  in  the  week.  He  was  the  author  of 
several  topographical  dictionaries  of  England,  Ireland, 
Wales  and  Scotland,  of  an  historical  account  of  Charitable 
Commissioners,  of  Foreign  Orders  of  Knighthood,  &c.  He 
died  at  Margate,  27th  August,  1847.  The  above  medal 
was  struck  to  commemorate  his  seventy-first  birthday. 

THOMAS  CARLYLE,  1795—1881. 

1.  Obv. —  Bust  of  Carlyle  to  left,  wearing  frock-coat,  &c.  ; 
on  truncation,  BOEHM.  Leg.  THOMAS  CAR- 

^.—Inscription,  IN  COMMEMORATION  .  DECEM- 
BER 4  . 1875. 

2-2.  MB.  Al. 

ENGLISH    PERSONAL    MEDALS    FROM    1760.  277 

Thomas  Carlyle,  the  well-known  essayist  and  historian, 
was  born  on  the  4th  December,  1795,  at  Ecclefechan,  in 
Annandale,  and  died  at  Chelsea  on  the  4th  February, 
1881.  His  death  being  so  recent,  and  the  chief  events  of 
his  life  being  so  well  known,  it  is  not  necessary  in  this 
instance  to  enter  into  any  details.  This  medal  was  struck 
under  the  direction  of  the  subscribers  to  the  Carlyle 
Birthday  Memorial  Fund  on  his  attaining  his  eightieth 

MEMOKIAL,  1875  ? 

2.   Obv. — Bust  of  Carlyle  to  left,  in  cloak  and  wide-brimmed 
hat.     Leg'  THOMAS  CARLYLE. 

No  reverse. 
4-4.  MB.  M. 

This  medal  is  the  work  of  Professor  A.  Legros.  It  is 
cast  after  the  manner  of  Italian  medals  of  the  fifteenth 
and  sixteenth  centuries. 


Olv. — Britannia  standing  facing,  on  dragon,  and  looking 
up  at  olive-branch  which  she  holds  in  her  left 
hand  ;  her  right  is  placed  on  a  low  column, 
against  which  rests  her  shield.  Leg.  ENG- 
BUONAPARTE,  p.  WYON  .  s : 

Rev. — Inscription  around  and  inside  oak-wreath,  LT.  COL 
RAL PEACE  OF  EUROPE,  24TH.  JUNE,  1814. 

1-95.     MB.  JR. 



In  consequence  of  the  cessation  of  hostilities  with 
France  by  the  Treaty  of  Paris  in  1814,  all  the  Volunteer 
Corps  which  had  been  formed  throughout  the  country  for 
its  defence,  except  the  Bank  Corps,  were  ordered  to  be 
disbanded.  This  general  order  took  effect  on  the  24th 
June  of  the  same  year.  Lieut. -Colonel  Carrick,  who  had 
been  appointed  to  the  chief  command  of  the  Bethnal 
Green  Volunteer  Infantry  upon  its  formation  in  1803, 
retained  the  post  during  the  entire  existence  of  that 
corps ;  and  upon  its  being  disembodied  in  1814,  ordered 
the  above  medal  to  be  struck  and  to  be  presented  to  each 
member  of  the  regiment. 

Died  1842. 


Obv.  Head    of   Carrol    to    left.     Leg.  MAJ.    GEN.    SIR 
W.  P.  CARROL,  Kr.  C.B.  &c.     T.  i.  WELLS  .  p. 

Hev. — Mars  walking  to  right,  armed  with  sword  and  shield. 
Leg.  PENAFLOR  1809.     In  the  exergue,  T.  i. 

WELLS  .  F. 

1-6.  MB.  M.     PI.  XL  11. 

Sir  William  Parker  Carrol  entered  the  army  as  a  volun- 
teer in  1794,  served  in  the  expeditions  against  Holland  and 
Buenos  Ayres,  and  throughout  the  Peninsular  War,  being 
present  at  twenty-eight  battles.  He  was  appointed  a 
Lieut. -Colonel  in  the  British  Army  in  1811,  and  Lieut.- 
General  in  1841  and  a  Major-Gen eral  in  the  Spanish 
Army  in  1814.  He  was  created  a  Knight  Bachelor  in 
1815,  and  Knight  Commander  of  Hanover  in  1832.  He 
died  in  active  service  in  1842. 

ENGLISH    PERSONAL    MEDALS   FROM    1760.  279 

We  have  been  unable  to  trace  the  particular  event  to 
which  this  medal  refers.  Penaflor  is  a  small  place  not 
far  from  Saragoza,  which  was  the  principal  scene  of  the  war 
in  1808  and  1809.  Carrol  was  probably  in  command  of 
a  Spanish  contingent. 


Obv.— Inscription,    ROBERT    OTWAY     CAVE,     ESQR. 
„  Above,  laurel-branches  ;  below,  oak-branches  and 


Rev.— Inscription,  LEICESTER  ELECTION  1826  THE 
centre,  two  branches  of  laurel. 

1-8.     MB.  ST. 

This  medal  commemorates  the  severe  contest  at  Leicester, 
which  lasted  ten  days,  at  the  general  election  of  1826. 
On  the  23rd  June,  the  last  day  of  the  contest,  Sir  Charles 
Hastings  and  Robert  Otway  Cave,  the  ministerial  candi- 
dates, headed  the  poll. 

THOMAS  CHALMERS,  D.D.,  1780—1847. 

SCOTLAND,  18  MAY,  1843. 

Obv. — Bust  of  Chalmers  facing,  in  academical  robes.  Leg. 

Rev.— The  burning  bush;  above,  on  scroll,  NEC  TAMEN 



1843.       J.    TAYLOR    MEDALLIST    BIRMM. 

1-7.  MB.  M.     PL  XI.  12. 

Thomas  Chalmers,  theologian  and  philanthropist,  born 
at  Anstruther,  Fifeshire,  17th  March,  1780,  was  educated 
at  St.  Andrews,  turned  his  attention  chiefly  to  mathematics, 
natural  philosophy  and  theology,  and  at  the  early  age  of 
nineteen,  being  licensed  as  preacher,  was  ordained  minister 
of  the  parish  of  Kilmeny,  in  Fife.  Having  to  prepare  an 
article  on  Christianity  for  Brewster's  Edinburgh  Ency- 
clopaedia, he  commenced  an  extensive  study  of  the 
evidences,  in  the  course  of  which  he  became  firmly  con- 
vinced of  the  entire  truth  of  the  Bible.  In  1815,  he  was 
translated  to  the  Tron  Church  and  parish  in  Glasgow, 
and  finding  his  parishioners  most  ignorant  of  the  first 
tenets  of  Christianity,  he  laboured  hard  to  bring  about  a 
better  state  of  things  by  establishing  schools  and  classes, 
and  dividing  the  parish  into  small  districts.  In  1823,  he 
accepted  the  chair  of  Moral  Philosophy  at  St.  Andrews, 
and  five  years  later  was  transferred  to  that  of  Theology  at 
Edinburgh.  About  this  time  he  was  elected  a  Fellow  of 
the  Royal  Society  of  London,  a  corresponding  member  of 
the  French  Institute,  and  the  University  of  Oxford  con- 
ferred on  him  the  degree  of  D.C.L.  Ten  years  later 
Chalmers  took  a  leading  part  in  what  is  commonly  called 
"  the  non-intrusion  controversy,"  or  the  right  of  the 
State  to  legislate  in  certain  matters  relating  to  the  Church. 
The  parties  were  divided  into  two  sections  called  the 
"  Moderates  "  and  the  "  Evangelicals."  Chalmers  was  of 
the  latter,  and  when  the  courts  of  law  decided  in  the 
"  Auchterarder  case  "  against  the  Veto  law,  a  separation 

ENGLISH    PERSONAL    MEDALS    FROM    1760.  281 

took  place,  and  those  of  the  Evangelical  party,  to  the 
number  of  470  ministers,  threw  up  their  benefices  and 
established  the  "  Free  Church."  The  great  separation 
occurred  on  the  18th  May,  1843,  and  Chalmers  was 
elected  first  Moderator  of  the  Free  Protesting  Church  of 
Scotland.  This  step  of  Chalmers  was  prompted  by  the 
conviction,  that  under  the  fetters  of  the  civil  courts  the 
Church  could  never  grapple  effectually  with  the  great 
work  of  reclaiming  and  elevating  the  whole  population  of 
the  country.  In  his  new  capacity  Chalmers  adopted  in 
Edinburgh  the  scheme  which  he  had  so  successfully 
carried  out  in  Glasgow,  and  it  became  a  great  success 
before  his  death,  which  took  place  on  the  30th  May,  1847. 

SIR  WILLIAM  CHAMBERS,  1725 — 1796. 


Obv, — Head  of  Chambers  to  right ;  on  neck,  B.  WYON  ; 

Rev. — View  of  the  facade  of  Somerset  House.  Below, 

WILLIAM    CHAMBERS     R.A.     ARCHITECT.        On     edge, 

2-15.  MB.  M.     PL  XI.  13. 

This  is  an  Art-Union  medal  executed  by  Benjamin 

Sir  William  Chambers,  the  distinguished  architect,  was 
born  at  Stockholm  of  English  parents  in  1725,  came  to 
England  to  be  educated,  and  being  intended  for  a  com- 
mercial life,  went  to  the  East  Indies.  Having  developed 
at  an  early  period  a  taste  for  architecture,  he  abandoned 
his  commercial  pursuits  and  went  to  Italy  to  study  the 


masterpieces  of  architecture  in  that  country.  Soon  after 
his  return  to  England  he  was  selected  as  instructor  in  the 
study  of  architecture  to  the  Prince  of  Wales,  afterwards 
George  III.,  and  the  royal  pupil  became  so  much  attached 
to  his  instructor  as  to  appoint  him  subsequently  his  chief 
architect.  When  the  Royal  Academy  was  established  in 
London,  Chambers  was  very  instrumental  in  its  formation 
and  was  appointed  treasurer.  His  best  work  as  an 
architect  is  Somerset  House,  which  was  finished  in  1781, 
and  the  erection  of  which  is  commemorated  by  the  above 
medal.  Chambers  died  on  the  8th  March,  1796. 

SIR  FRANCIS  CHANTREY,  1782—1841. 

MEDAL  BY  BAIN,  1825. 
1.  Obv. — Head  of  Chantrey  to  left ;  on  neck,  BAIN.  F. 

Bw.— Inscription,       F.        CHANTREY.       SCULPTOR 

1-95.  MB.  M. 

Sir  Francis  Chantrey,  the  eminent  sculptor,  born  7th 
April,  1782,  at  the  village  of  Norton,  in  Derbyshire,  of 
humble  parents,  was  apprenticed  to  a  carver  and  frame- 
maker,  and  evincing  great  taste  for  painting  came  under 
the  notice  of  John  Raphael  Smith,  a  portrait  painter,  who 
gave  him  some  valuable  instruction.  In  1802,  he  came 
to  London,  and  being  eater ed  as  a  student  at  the  Royal 
Academy,  exhibited  his  first  portrait  in  oil  at  •  the 
exhibition  of  1804.  In  the  following  year  he  turned  his 
attention  to  the  more  congenial  pursuit  of  sculpture,  in 
which  he  was  most  successful,  receiving  in  a  short  time 
numerous  orders.  In  1817,  Chantrey  was  elected  an 

ENGLISH    PERSONAL    MEDALS    FROM    1760.  283 

A.R.A.,  and  an  R.A.  in  1818,  and  in  1835  received  the 
honour  of  knighthood,  but  declined  a  baronetcy.  He  was 
an  honorary  member  of  many  foreign  academies,  a  D.C.L. 
of  Oxford,  and  M.A.  of  Cambridge,  &c.  He  died  at  his 
residence  in  Pimlico,  25th  November,  1841.  This  medal 
was  presented  by  the  artist  Bain  to  the  British  Museum. 

MEMORIAL,  1843. 
2.  Obv.— Head  of  Chantrey  to  right. 

Rev. — Statue  of  Watt ;  he  is  seated  in  a  chair,  and  holds 
compasses  in  right  hand  and  scroll  in  left. 

2-15.     MB.  ST.     PL  XL  14. 

This  medal,  probably  also  by  Bain,  is  said  to  have  been 
made  in  1843.  The  statue  of  Watt  is  a  copy  of  the  one 
made  by  Chantrey  and  placed  in  Westminster  Abbey. 

EARL  OF  CHARLEMONT,  1728 — 1799. 

1.  Obv. — Bust  of  the  Earl  of  Charlemont  to  left,  wearing  coat 
with  epaulettes,  ribbon  and  star  of  the  Order 
of  St.  Patrick ;  on  truncation,  MOSSOP.  Leg. 

Rev. — Hibernia  seated  to  left  on  books,  holding  her  shield 
with  right  hand  and  staff  surmounted  by  cap  in 
left;  behind,  various  scientific  implements,  &c., 
and  before  her,  in  the  distance,  ruins ;  below, 
ARTES.  In  the  exergue,  ACAD  .  REG  .  HIB  . 

2-05.     MB.  M.     PI.  XL  15. 


James  Caulfield,  4th  Viscount  and  1st  Earl  of  Charle- 
mont,  born  at  Dublin,  18th  August,  1728,  was  privately 
educated  and  spent  several  years  in  Holland,  Germany, 
Italy,  Greece  and  Asia  Minor,  studying  art  and 
antiquities.  In  1763,  in  consequence  of  important 
services  in  quelling  an  insurrection  in  Ulster,  he  was 
raised  to  the  earldom  of  Charlemont.  In  1764,  he 
visited  London  and  became  acquainted  with  Johnson, 
Goldsmith,  Reynolds  and  Hogarth,  and  was  chosen 
chairman  of  the  committee  of  the  Dilettanti  Society. 
In  1778,  he  took  the  command  of  the  armed  association 
named  the  Irish  Volunteers,  who  embodied  themselves 
during  the  American  War  for  the  defence  of  the  country, 
and  who  in  1779  numbered  42,000.  To  Lord  Charlemont's 
love  of  letters,  Ireland  owes  the  establishment  of  the 
Royal  Irish  Academy,  which  was  incorporated  by  Royal 
Charter  in  1786,  and  of  which  he  acted  as  President  till 
his  death  on  the  4th  August,  1799.  Lord  Charlemont 
was  a  Knight  of  St.  Patrick. 

MEMORIAL,  1820  ? 

2.  Obv. — Head  of  the  Earl  of  Charlemont  to  left. 
Rev.— Plain. 
1-6.     MB.  ST. 

This  is  a  model  for  a  medal  executed  by  the  medallist 
William  Mossop,  Jun.,  about  seven  years  before  his 
death,  which  occurred  in  1827.  Mossop  commenced  a 
series  of  medals  of  distinguished  Irish  characters,  of 
which  he  only  produced  six  pieces,  the  above  being  one 
of  them. 



The  Zeitsclirift  fur  Numismatik,  Band  XVI.  Parts  I. — II.,  con- 
tain the  following  articles  : — 

1.  A.  v.  Sallet.  Acquisitions  of  the  Berlin  coin  cabinet,  April, 
1887,  to  April,  1888. 

The  Royal  Collection  has  been  increased  during  the  year  by 
99  Greek,  8  Roman,  5  Oriental,  and  658  Mediaeval  and  Modern 

Among  the  Greek  may  be  mentioned  a  unique  tetradrachm 
of  Samothrace,  Obv.  Head  of  Pallas,  Eev.  ZAMO,  seated 
Kybele,  magistrate's  name  MHTPflNA  [KTOC]  circ.  B.C.  300  ; 
a  didrachm  of  Damastium  of  the  usual  types,  but  of  remarkably 
fine  style  ;  an  electrum  coin  of  Ininthimeus,  King  of  Bosporus, 
A.D.  235 — 239  ;  a  rare  silver  stater  of  Heraclea  in  Bithynia, 
circ.  B.C.  302 — 281,  similar  to  Head,  Hist.  Num.,  p.  442;  a 
hitherto  unknown  silver  stater  of  Stratonicea  in  Caria,  Obv. 
Head  of  Zeus,  Eev.  ZTPATONIKEftN,  Hekate  or  Artemis 
standing,  wearing  modius,  surmounted  by  crescent  and  holding 
patera  and  torch,  magistrate's  name  MEAANOIOZ,  second 
cent.  B.C.  ;  an  inscribed  silver  stater  of  Camirus  in  Rhodes  ; 
a  bronze  coin  of  Mostene  in  Lydia,  of  imperial  times,  Obv. 
0EA  PUMH,  Rev.  MOCTHNttN  AYAHN,  tripod;  a 
small  bronze  coin  of  late  style  attributed  to  Etenna  in  Pamphylia, 
under  the  name  Ketenna,  Obv.  Head  of  Artemis,  Rev.  KET,  club, 
found  in  Pamphylia  ;  a  small  bronze  coin,  perhaps  of  Iconium, 
Obv.  Head  of  Zeus,  Rev.  Lion,  Inscr.  KO,  suggesting  the  possible 
occurrence  of  the  form  Koviov  in  addition  to  the  ordinary  form 
'I/cdi/ioi> ;  a  very  rare  coin  of  Dioclea  in  Phrygia,  Obv.  Bust  of 
Elagabalus,  Rev.  AIOKA6ANHN  MOZ6ANHN,  Demeter 
standing  (cf.  Head,  Hist.  Num.,  p.  562). 

The  Berlin  Museum  has  also  been  fortunate  enough  to  acquire 
an  important  selection  of  Indo-Bactrian  silver  staters,  evidently 
from  the  same  find  as  those  recently  purchased  by  the  British 
Museum,  which  have  been  already  described  in  these  pages  by 
Professor  Gardner  (Num.  Chron.,  1881,  p.  181  sqq.).  The 
most  important  among  the  specimens  which  have  found  their 
way  to  Berlin  is  a  stater  bearing  the  two  names  of  Archebius 
and  Philoxenus,  the  former  in  Greek,  the  latter  in  the  Arian  Pali 



Maharajasa  apadihatasa  Philasinasa  (=  BAZIAEQZ  ANI- 
KHTOY  0IAOZENOY).  This  joint  issue  by  Archebius 
and  Philoxenus  proves  that  these  two  kings  reigned  at  the  same 
time  and  in  the  same  district.  The  inference  is  that  they  were 

A  stater  of  King  Diomedes,  of  whom  only  small  coins  were 
known  before  the  present  find,  is  also  worthy  of  mention.  Dr. 
Von  Sallet  concludes  his  report  with  a  description  of  some  in- 
teresting Renaissance  medals,  of  which  he  also  gives  two  auto- 
type plates. 

2.  F.  Kupido.     On  a  Find  of  Mediaeval  Coins  at  Kakwitz,  in 
Southern  Moravia,  comprising  coins  of  the  Dukes  of  Olmiitz, 
Briinn,  Znaim,  and  Jamnitz,  between  A.D.  1055  and  1130. 

3.  Rhousopoulos.     A  Thessalian  bronze  coin  of  the  fourth 
cent.  B.C.,  bearing  the  inscription  PET0AAHN  retrograde. 
Obv.  Head  of  Zeus,  Her.  Forepart  of  horse  springing  from  rock. 

The  name  of  this  people  has  been  recently  discovered  in  a 
Thessalian  inscription  (Miiiheilungen  des  deutschen  arch.  Inst. 
in  At/ten.  Bd.  VII.  64,  67  ;  cf.  Bd.  VIII.  103, 120),  where  it 
occurs  in  the  forms  HertfaAow  and  neT0aAeioi>,  the  former 
being  the  Thessaiian  gen.  plur.,  and  the  latter  the  adjective. 
Professor  Rhousopoulos  doubts  whether  there  was  ever  a  town 
of  Petthalia.  and  thinks  it  more  probable  that  the  Petthali,  like 
many  other  tribes  in  Northern  Greece,  had  no  town  called  after 
them,  and  that  they  were  known  only  by  their  ethnic. 

4.  E.  Bahrfeldt.    Supplement  to  Dr.  Menadier's  paper  on  Finds 
of  German  Mediaeval  Coins  (Zeit.f.  Num.  XV.  p.  97  sqq.). 

5.  H.  Dannenberg.     On  the  Numismatics  of  Pomerania  and 
Mecklenburg,  with  an  autotype  plate. 

6.  E,  Bahrfeldt.     Contributions  to  the  mediaeval  numismatics 
of  Silesia. 

7.  R.  Bergau.     On  sixteenth  cent,  medals,  by  Wenzel  Jam- 
nitzer,  a  famous  goldsmith  of  Nuremberg. 

B.  V.  HEAD. 

Revue  Numismatique,  1888.  Part  II. 

1.  E.  Drouin.  Chronology  and  Numismatics  of  the  Indo- 
Scythians  (conclusion). 

M.  Drouin's  articles  on  the  "  Chronologie  et  Numismatique 
des  Rois  Indo-Scythes  "  in  the  last  two  numbers  of  the  Revue 
Numisniatigue  form  an  excellent  resume,  such  as  was  much 
needed,  of  all  that  we  can  be  said  to  know  of  the  history  of  a 
deeply  interesting  period.  After  briefly  sketching  the  progress 
of  Indo-Scythic  numismatics  since  the  first  notice  of  the  coins 


by  Major  Tod  in  the  year  1827,  M.  Drouin  proceeds  to  sum- 
marize the  historical  results  which  have  been  obtained  from  a 
study  of  all  the  available  sources  of  information — the  works  of 
Greek  topographers,  Chinese  and  Arab  historians,  inscriptions, 
and  coins.  The  greater  portion  of  M.  Drouin's  work  is,  how- 
ever, naturally  devoted  to  a  consideration  of  the  actual  coins 
of  the  six  known  kings,  who  are  included  under  the  term  Indo- 
Scythic,  beginning  with  Kadphises  I.,  who  conquered  Hermaeus, 
the  last  Greek  king  of  Bactria,  about  the  year  25  B.C.,  and 
ending  with  Vasudeva  or  Bazodeo,  who,  as  is  known  from  in- 
scriptions, was  reigning  in  the  year  176  A.D.  These  kings  fall 
naturally  into  two  well-defined  groups,  Kadphises  I.,  Kadaphes, 
and  Kadphises II.,  constituting  the  first, and  Kanishka,  Huvishkti, 
and  Vasudeva,  known  collectively  under  the  name  Turushkas, 
the  second.  To  these  latter  M.  Drouin  devotes  the  whole  of 
his  second  article,  and  rightly,  since  they  suggest  many  pro- 
blems of  the  highest  interest,  and  have  been  quite  recently  the 
subject  of  much  controversy.  It  is  manifestly  impossible  for  a 
writer  to  deal  with  this  period  without  taking  into  full  con- 
sideration the  ingenious  theory  of  Dr.  Aurel  Stein,  who  sees  in 
the  modified  form  of  the  Greek  P  (  t>),  which  first  occurs  on  the 
coins  of  Knnishka,  a  representation  of  the  Persian  sound  sh — 
a  theory  which  leads  him  to  identify  most  of  the  names  occur- 
ring on  these  coins  as  being  those  of  Zoroastrian  deities  After 
a  full  and  impartial  discussion  of  Dr.  Stein's  theory,  M.  Drouin 
decides  absolutely  in  its  favour,  accepting  also  most,  but  not  all, 
of  Dr.  Stem's  identifications. 

In  Professor  Gardner's  catalogue  will  be  found  noted 
(Hooerkes  15,  52.  53,  110,  111),  a  curious  and  interesting 
variant  of  the  name  OOHPKI.  viz.  OYOH  t>KI,  whi;h  brings 
us  a  step  nearer  to  the  proper  Sanskrit  form  Huvishka.  This 
variant  M.  Drouin  refuses  to  acknowledge  on  the  ground  that 
what  has  been  read  as  Y  is  in  reality  nothing  more  than  a  por- 
tion of  the  king's  head-dress — "  Une  sorte  d'ornement  faisant 
partie  du  diademe."  This  ornament  and  the  letter  Y  are,  how- 
ever, quite  distinct,  both  occurring  on  some  of  the  British 
Museum  coins,  e.g.  Hooerkes  53,  where  the  ornament  is  as 
usual  in  the  front  of  the  helmet  and  the  letter  quite  away  from 
the  helmet,  and  at  the  back  of  the  head.  It  was  unfortunate 
that  none  of  these  specimens  were  represented  in  Professor 
Gardner's  Plates. 

M.  Drouin  mentions  with  approbation  the  conjecture  of  Pro- 
fessor Cecil  Bendall,  who  reads  on  certain  copper  coins  of 
Kanishka  OAYOBOY  CAKAMA,  and  regards  this  as 
equivalent  to  the  Sanskrit  "  Advaya  Buddha  Sakyamuni." 


To  obtain  this  reading  it  is,  however,  necessary  to  read  the 
coin  in  two  directions — OAYOBOY  from  the  top  to  the  right 
and  CAKAMA  from  the  top  to  the  left ;  and  as  will  be  seen 
from  Professor  Gardner's  Plate  XXVII.  2,  this  necessitates 
reading  the  B  of  OAYOBOY  backwards.  The  position  of 
the  letters  thus  shows  that  the  reading  of  the  inscription  should 
be  from  left  to  right  continuously,  and,  if  correct,  CAKAMA 
YOBOYAO.  In  this  form  we  may  certainly  recognise  the 
name  Buddha  written  at  length  in  the  last  five  letters,  and  per- 
haps Sakyamuni,  or  some  equivalent  title,  in  the  rest ;  but  the 
reading  is  as  yet  altogether  too  uncertain  to  form  a  firm  basis 
for  further  speculation. 

E.  J.  RAPSON. 

2.  Th.  Reinach.     Essay  on  the  Numismatics  of  the  kings  of 
Pontus  (Dynasty  of  Mithradates),  first  article. 

The  writer  gives  a  clear  account  of  the  origin  of  the  Pontic 
kingdom  under  Mithradates  (KTIO-T^S),  son  of  Mithradates,  a 
dynast  of  Cius,  who  was  put  to  death  by  Antigonus  B.C.  802. 
The  reign  of  this  first  king  of  Pontus  extended  from  B.C.  281 — 
266.  The  only  coin  which  can  be  attributed  to  him  is  a 
unique  gold  stater  of  Alexander  the  Great's  types,  reading 
MIOPAAATOY  BAZIAEHZ  (Waddington  Coll.).  He 
was  succeeded  by  his  son  Ariobarzanes,  B.C.  266 — 250,  of 
whom  no  coins  are  known.  Mithradates  II.,  son  and  successor 
of  Ariobarzanes,  reigned  from  B.C.  250 — 190,  and  has  left  us 
the  realistic  tetradrachms  engraved  in  Head,  Hist.  Num.  Fig. 
263.  The  next  king,  Pharnaces  I.,  B.C.  190—169,  is  repre- 
sented by  the  tetradrachm  (Hist.  Num.  Fig.  264),  having  on 
the  reverse  a  standing  Pantheistic  divinity,  probably  M//»> 
3>apva.Kov.  This  king  was  succeeded  by  his  brother  Mithradates 
Philopator  Philadelphus,  surnamed  Euergetes,  B.C.  169 — 121, 
whose  tetradrachms  bear  on  the  reverse  a  standing  figure  of 
Perseus,  the  reputed  ancestor  of  the  Persian  kings.  On  the 
death  of  Euergetes  his  widow  Laodice  reigned  supreme  for 
seven  years  B.C.  121 — 114.  Of  this  queen  M.  Waddington 
is  the  fortunate  possessor  of  a  unique  tetradrachm,  Obv.  Bust  of 
Queen  veiled,  Rev.  BAZIAIZZHZ  AAOAIKHZ,  standing 
figure  of  Pallas  resting  on  her  spear.  Laodice  was  succeeded 
by  her  son,  Mithradates  the  Great  (Eupator),  whose  reign 
nominally  dates  from  the  death  of  his  father  in  B.C.  121,  but  in 
reality  only  from  that  of  his  mother  in  B.C.  114. 

The  coins  of  Mithradates  the  Great  will  form  the  subject  of 
M.  Reinach's  second  article. 

3.  G.  Schlumberger.     On  Coins  of  Amr  Ghazi,  A.D.  1106, 


Danishmend  Emir  of  Cappadocia,  bearing  on  the  obverse  the  head 
of  Christ,  and  on  the  reverse  the  Greek  legend  O  M6PA(s) 
AMHPA(s)  AMP  PAZ(t). 

4.  N.  Rondot.     Claude  Warm,  engraver  and  medallist.    This 
paper  is   accompanied  by  five  beautifully  executed  Plates   by 
Dujardin  of   medallions    by   or    attributed  to    Claude    Warin. 
Among  the  specimens   selected  for  illustration  are  medals  of 
Thomas  Gary  and  his  wife   Margaret,   1683,   of  William   and 
Anna   Blake,   1684,  of   Sir  William  Ducy,   1636,   of  Richard 
Weston,  Duke  of  Portland,  and  of  Sir  Thomas  Bodley.     The 
writer  points  out  that  Claude  Warin  worked  in  London  from 
1633  to  1642,  and  that  these  English  medals,  although  signed 
simply  Varin  and  not  C.  Warin,  are  nevertheless  probably  by 
his  hand  and  not  by  that  of  Jean  Warin,  the  chief  engraver  of  the 
Paris  Mint,  1646 — 1672.    In  this  opinion  M.  Rondot  differs  from 
Mr.  Franks  and  Mr.  Grueber,  the  editors  of  Hawkins's  Medallic 
Illustrations  of  British  History. 

5.  J.  J.    Guiffrey.     The  Medal  Mint.     Metallic    history  of 
Louis  XIV.  and  Louis  XV. 

B.  V.  HEAD. 

In  the  Bulletin  de  Numismatique,  M.  E.  Caron  contributes  a 
notice  of  some  coins  in  the  cabinet  of  M.  le  Comte  de  Chasteigner 
of  Bordeaux.  Among  these  the  most  interesting  to  English 
collectors  is  a  hoard  consisting  of  618  coins  of  the  Black  Prince 
struck  at  Agen,  Bordeaux,  Figeac  or  Fontenay,  Limoges  or 
Lectoure,  Poitiers,  La  Rochelle  or  La  Reole,  Tarbes,  and  pro- 
bably Dax.  The  last-mentioned  mint  is  new,  and  is  indicated  by 
a  monogram  which  appears  to  consist  of  the  letters  A  and  Q, 
standing  for  Aquis. 

B.  V.  HEAD. 

Repertoire  des  Sources  imprimees  de  la  Numismatique  frangaise, 
Tome  I.,  by  A.  Engel  and  R.  Serriire.  Paris,  1887.  This 
compendium  of  all  that  has  been  written  on  French  numismatics 
reflects  great  credit  upon  the  diligent  compilers.  The  title  in 
fact  hardly  gives  us  a  sufficiently  comprehensive  idea  of  the 
wide  range  of  material  which  is  included  in  the  work.  Part  I. 
contains  a  complete  list  of  all  numismatic  periodicals  classed 
under  the  various  countries  in  which  they  are  published.  Part  II. 
comprises  under  the  authors'  names,  in  alphabetical  order,  all 
works,  papers,  dissertations,  and  eveJi  casual  notes,  which  con- 
tain references  to  the  numismatics  of  France  in  any  period,  and 
many  others  which  can  hardly  be  said  to  have  much  to  do  with 


France  at  all,  such,  for  instance,  as  Head's  Historia  Numorum, 
Imhoof  Blunder's  Portratkopfe,  Dannenberg's  numerous  articles 
on  mediaeval  German  coins,  Cohen's  Monnaies  de  la  Repubhque 
romaine,  and  Babelon's  more  recent  work  on  the  same  subject. 

The  present  volume  takes  us  down  to  the  end  of  the  letter  J, 
and  has  reached  the  prodigious  number  of  3,219  works,  great 
and  small.  We  cannot  help  thinking  that  the  compilers  would 
have  done  better  either  to  have  confined  themselves  more 
strictly  to  the  subject  indicated  by  their  title,  or  to  have  extended 
the  scope  of  their  work  so  as  to  embrace  the  whole  field  of  the 
numismatics  of  Europe,  beginning  with  the  Gaulish  and  British. 

This  Repertoire  will  be  found  very  useful  to  the  ever-widening 
circle  of  French  numismatists. 

B.  V.  HEAD. 


THE  NEW  COINAGE,  1887. 

(From  the  London  Gazette.} 

Whereas  by  an  Act  passed  in  the  thirty-third  year  of  Our 
reign,  intituled  "  An  Act  to  consolidate  and  amend  the  law  re- 
lating to  the  Coinage  and  Her  Majesty's  Mint,"  it  is  among 
other  things  enacted, 

That  We,  by  and  with  the  advice  of  Our  Privy  Council,  shall 
from  time  to  time  by  Proclamation  determine  the  design  for 
any  coin. 

We  have,  therefore,  thought  fit  to  order  that  certain  of  the 
coins  made  at  the  Mint,  mentioned  in  the  first  schedule  to  the 
aforesaid  Act  of  the  weight  and  fineness  specified  in  that 
schedule,  shall  bear  designs  as  follows  : — 

That  every  Five  Pound  Piece  should  have  for  the  obverse 
impression  our  effigy,  with  the  inscription  "Victoria  D.  G. 
Britt :  Reg:  F.  D.,"  and  for  the  reverse  the  image  of  Saint 
George,  armed,  sitting  on  horseback,  attacking  the  Dragon 
with  a  sword,  and  a  broken  spear  upon  the  ground,  and  the 
date  of  the  year,  with  a  graining  upon  the  edge  ;  and  that 
every  Two  Pound  Piece  should  have  the  same  obverse  and 
reverse  impression  and  inscription  in  all  respects-  as  the  Five 
Pound  Piece,  with  a  graining  upon  the  edge ;  and  that  every 


Sovereign  should  have  the  same  obverse  and  reverse  impression 
and  inscription  in  all  respects  as  the  Five  Pound  Piece,  with  a 
graining  upon  the  edge ;  and  that  every  Half  Sovereign  should 
have  for  the  obverse  impression  the  aforesaid  effigy,  with  the 
inscription  "Victoria  Dei  Gratia,"  and  for  the  reverse  the 
ensigns  armorial  of  the  United  Kingdom  contained  in  a  garnished 
shield  surmounted  by  the  Royal  Crown,  with  the  inscription 
"  Britanniarum  Regina  Fid  :  Def:  "  and  the  date  of  the  year, 
with  a  graining  upon  the  edge  ;  and  that  every  crown  should 
have  the  same  obverse  and  reverse  impression  and  inscription 
in  all  respects  as  the  five  pound  piece,  with  a  graining  upon  the 
edge  ;  and  that  every  half-crown  should  have  for  the  obverse 
impression  the  aforesaid  effigy,  with  the  inscription  "  Victoria 
Dei  Gratia,"  and  for  the  reverse  the  ensigns  armorial  of  the 
United  Kingdom  contained  in  a  plain  shield  surrounded  by  the 
Garter,  bearing  the  motto  "  Honi  soit  qui  mal  y  pense,"  and 
the  Collar  of  the  Garter,  with  the  inscription  "  Britanniarum 
Regina  Fid  :  Def  :  "  and  the  date  of  the  year,  with  a  graining 
upon  the  edge  ;  and  that  every  florin  should  have  for  the 
obverse  impression  the  aforesaid  effigy,  with  the  inscription 
kk  Victoria  Dei  Gratia,"  and  for  the  reverse  the  ensigns  armorial 
of  the  United  Kingdom  contained  in  four  shields  arranged  cross- 
wise, each  shield  crowned,  and  between  the  shields  four 
sceptres  surmounted  by  orbs,  a  thistle,  and  a  harp,  and  a  Star 
of  the  Garter  in  the  centre,  with  the  inscription  "  Britt :  Reg  : 
Fid  :  Def:  "  and  the  date  of  the  year,  with  a  graining  upon  the 
edge  ;  and  that  every  shilling  should  have  for  the  obverse  im- 
pression the  aforesaid  effigy  with  the  inscription  "  Victoria  Dei 
Gratia  Britt  :  Regina  F.  D.,"  and  for  the  reverse  the  ensigns 
armorial  of  the  United  Kingdom,  contained  in  a  plain  shield 
surrounded  by  the  garter  bearing  the  motto  "  Honi  soit  qui  mal 
y  pense,"  and  the  date  of  the  year  with  a  graining  upon  the 
edge ;  and  that  every  sixpence  should  have  the  same  obverse 
and  reverse  impression  and  inscription  in  all  respects  as  the 
shilling,  with  a  graining  upon  the  edge ;  and  that  certain  other 
pieces  of  silver  money  called  "  The  Queen's  Maundy  Monies," 
of  fourpence,  threepence,  twopence,  and  one  penny,  should 
have  for  the  obverse  impression  the  aforesaid  effigy,  with  the 
inscription  "  Victoria  Dei  Gratia  Britt :  Regina  F.  D.,"  and  for 
the  reverse  the  respective  figures  "4,"  "3,"  "2,"  "  1 " 
(according  to  the  denomination  or  value  of  the  piece)  in  the 
centre,  with  the  date  of  the  year  placed  across  the  figure,  and 
encircled  by  an  oak  wreath,  surmounted  by  the  Royal  Crown, 
with  a  plain  «dge  : 

And  whereas  by  the  aforesaid  Act  it  is  also  enacted  that  it 


shall  be  lawful  for  Us,  by  and  with  the  advice  of  Our  Privy 
Council,  from  time  to  time,  by  Proclamation,  to  determine  the 
denominations  of  coins  to  be  coined  at  the  Mint,  and  it  is  by 
the  said  Act  provided  that  any  coin  of  gold,  silver,  or  bronze, 
of  any  other  denomination  than  that  of  the  coins  mentioned  in 
the  first  schedule  to  the  aforesaid  Act,  which  is  hereafter  coined 
at  the  Mint  shall  be  of  a  weight  and  fineness  bearing  the  same 
proportion  to  the  weight  and  fineness  specified  in  that  schedule 
as  the  denomination  of  such  coin  bears  to  the  denominations 
mentioned  in  that  schedule  : 

We  have  therefore  further  thought  fit  to  order  that  a  new 
coin,  to  be  called  a  double-florin,  should  be  coined,  of  the 
standard  weight  of  349*09090  grains,  and  of  the  fineness  of 
thirty- seven-fortieths  fine  silver  and  three-fortieths  alloy,  and 
should  pass  and  be  received  as  current  and  lawful  money  of  the 
United  Kingdom  of  Great  Britain  and  Ireland  at  the  rate  of 
four  shillings,  or  one-fifth  of  a  pound  ;  and  that  every  such 
coin  should  have  the  same  obverse  and  reverse  impression 
and  inscription  in  all  respects  as  the  florin,  with  a  graining 
upon  the  edge. 

And  whereas,  pieces  of  money  of  the  above  descriptions 
respectively  have  been  coined  at  Our  Mint,  and  will  be  coined 
there,  in  pursuance  of  which  orders  We  have  given  for  that 
purpose,  We  have,  therefore,  by  and  with  the  advice  of  Our 
Privy  Council,  thought  fit  to  issue  this  Our  Royal  Proclamation  ; 
and  We  do  hereby  ordain,  declare,  and  command  that  the  said 
pieces  of  money  respectively  so  coined  and  to  be  coined  as 
aforesaid  shall  be  current  and  lawful  money  of  the  United 
Kingdom  of  Great  Britain  and  Ireland,  and  that  this,  Our 
Royal  Proclamation,  shall  come  into  operation  on  the  date 

Given   at   our  Court    at   Windsor,    this  thirteenth    day   of 
May,  in  the  year  of  our  Lord  one  thousand  eight  hundred  and 
eighty-seven,  and  in  the  fiftieth  year  of  Our  reign. 
GOD  save  the  QUEEN. 

Num.  Chron.  Ser.  III.,  Vol.  VI1L  PI.  VI. 


Mm.  Chrori.Ser.ll!MWLPL  Vll. 



vn  ix 


11  Mmteless 


12  Guduphama. 




Num.  Chron.,  SEE.  III.  VOL.  VIII.  PL  VIII. 

1.  Eajatirajasa  mahatasa  MO  ASA. 

2.  Maharaja-bhrata  dhramikasa  SPALAHOEASA. 

3.  Spalahora-putrasa  dhramiasa  SPALAGADAMASA. 

4.  Maharaja -bhrada  dliramiasa  SPALIEISASA. 

5.  Maharajasa  maliatakasa  SPALIEISASA. 

6.  Eajatirajasa  mahatasa  AYASA. 

7.  Maharajasa  maliatakasa  AYASA. 

8.  Maharajasa  rajarajasa  AYASA. 

9.  Maharajasa  mahatasa  dhramikasa  rajatirajasa  AYASA. 

10.  Maharajasa  rajarajasa  AYILISHASA. 

11.  Maharajasa  rajatirajasa  mahatasa  tradatasa. 

12.  Maharajasa  tradatasa  GUDUPHAENASA. 

13.  Maharajasa  dhramikasa  apratihatasa  devahadasa  GUDUPHAEASA. 

14.  Maharajasa  rajatirajasa  Gudupharasa  GUDANASA. 

15.  Maharajasa  mahatasa  GUDANASA. 

16.  Maharajasa  HAEADAGASASA  tradatasa. 

17.  Maharajasa  AVADAGASASA  tradatasa. 

18.  Guduphara  bhrata-putrasa  maharajasa  tradatasa  AVADAGASASA. 

19.  Maharajasa  mahatasa  tradatasa  devahadasa  Gudupharasa  SASASA  CO. 

20.  Maharajasa  rajatirajasa  mahatasa. 

21.  Maharajasa  rajarajasa  mahatasa  AESHAKASA. 

22.  Maharajasa  rajatirajasa  mahatasa  PAKUEASA. 

23.  Kushana  yavugasa  KUYULA  KAPSASA  sacha  dharma  thidasa. 

24.  Yauasa  Khushanasa  KUYULA  KAPHSASA  sacha  dharma  thidasa. 

25.  Maharajasa  rajatirajasa  devaputrasa  KUYULA-KAEA-KAPASA. 

26.  Maharajasa    rajadirajasa    sarvaloga-iswarasa    mahiswarasa    HIMA- 

KATHPISASA  tradata. 

27.  Indra-varma  putrasa  ASPA-VAEMASA  strategasa  jayantasa. 

28.  Manigulasa  Chhatrapasa  putrasa  Chhatrapasa  JIHONIASA. 

29.  Chhatrapasa  apratihatachhakrasa  EANJUBULASA. 

30.  Mahakhatapasa  EAJUBULASA. 

Nam  Chron.  Ser.lll  Vol.  Vlll.R  II. 

*  .  K 





5  A 

*    Ifl 






















1   t  d 









ya/  .    a/ 


J)h        \ 

symbol    CQNOOPHAKE& 

coins  oC 

Symbol   NAMELESS 

of          KING 

Ccfuvs  of 


later  Symbol 

Num.  Chm.Ser.lll  Vol.  V11LPLX. 






I  WOULD  ask  for  a  little  room  in  the  Numismatic  Chronicle 
for  a  short  communication,  in  which  I  venture  upon  some 
new  conclusions  based  upon  the  famous  find  of  coins  made 
a  few  years  ago  beyond  the  Oxus,  and  about  which  you 
have  had  more  than  one  paper  from  Professor  Gardner 
marked,  as  usual,  by  learning  and  sobriety.      I   cannot 
agree,  however,  with  all  of  his  conclusions.     The  hoard, 
so  far  as  we  have  evidence,  comprised  coins  of  the  early 
Seleucidan  kings,  of  the  Parthian  satrap  Andragoras,  of  a 
king  whose   name  Professor   Gardner   reads   Phahaspes, 
and  also  tetradrachms  of  Alexander  the  Great,  imitations 
of  the  coins  of  Athens,  and  lastly  coins  of  Lysimachus, 
Tarsus,  Sinope,   Aspendus,  and  Ephesus.      In  regard  to 
these  last  coins,  Professor  Gardner  suggests  that  they  were 
possibly  purchased  en  route  by  the  traders  who  brought 
down  the  Oxus  coins.     I  cannot  think  it  possible  that  coins 
of  these  various  cities  are  to  be  met  with  in  the  bazaars  of 
Afghanistan,  and  it  seems  to  me  much  more  probable  that 
all  the  coins  named,  as  the  report  alleges,  were  found 
together,  and  formed  the  motley  gathering  of  some  adven- 
turous soldier,  or  were  the  result  of  some  raid  into  the 
West,  and  are  thus  a  parallel  to  the  varied  hoard  of  gold 
ornaments  from  the  same  district,  many  of  which  have 
come  into  the  hands  of  Mr.  Franks. 



The  question  is  only  of  importance  as  affecting  the  con- 
clusion which  I  would  draw  from  it,  namely,  that  the  coins 
were  not  struck  in  the  neighbourhood,  and  that  they  did 
not  even  belong  to  it,  but  were  imported,  just  as  the  coins 
of  Ethelred  and  of  the  Samani  princes  were  imported  into 
Sweden.  Sogdiana  at  this  time,  in  my  view,  was  largely 
occupied  by  Scythic  races  incapable  of  such  artistic  work 
as  the  gold  coins  of  the  early  Seleucidae  from  this  find. 
Nor  do  I  believe  they  were  brought  from  Bactria.  A 
number  of  them  are  Western  coins,  and  were  brought  from 
the  West ;  and  of  those  struck  in  the  East  it  is  very  impro- 
bable any  were  struck  in  Bactria.  There  is  no  evidence 
that  the  first  successors  of  Alexander  struck  coins  in  Bac- 
tria at  all.  If  they  had  had  a  mint  there  turning  out 
such  beautiful  coins  as  these  specimens,  we  should  assuredly 
have  had  numbers  of  them  found  with  the  well-known 
Bactrian  coins  of  Diodotus  and  his  successors,  but,  so  far 
as  I  know,  the  only  coins  of  this  class  which  have  come  from 
India  are  traceable  to  this  find.  Let  us  now  examine  these 
coins  a  little  more  closely.  There  can  be  no  doubt  that 
some  of  them  were  struck  in  the  East.  The  type  of  the 
horned  Bucephalus,  as  Mr.  Gardner  says,  is  unknown 
among  the  coins  of  the  Seleucidse  in  the  West,  nor  are  the 
monograms  found  on  these  coins  like  those  found  on  the 
coins  from  the  western  part  of  their  dominion.  The  ques- 
tion is,  where  were  they  struck  ? 

One  remarkable  fact  about  the  monograms  upon  them 
is,  that  they  are  nearly  all  alike,  or  represent  the  same 
meaning.  As  Prof.  Gardner  says,  "  It  is  very  noteworthy 
that  the  mint-marks  of  almost  all  the  coins  which  can  be 
traced  to  the  Oxus  find  have  a  A  in  them.  They  are  Q 
A  ®  A  I,  and  so  forth."  Prof.  Gardner  goes  on  to 
conjecture  that  the  letters  indicate  the  mint  of  Dionyso- 


polls  or  Nysa,  "a  city  of  Paropamisus,  identified  by 
Greneral  Cunningham  with  the  modern  Begram,  near 

In  this  conjecture  I  cannot  at  all  agree.  The  very  fact 
of  the  coins  all  being  struck  at  one  place,  and  being  of 
excellent  fabric,  goes  to  prove  that  they  were  issued  at  the 
capital  city  of  the  eastern  dominions  of  the  Seleucidae.  It 
is  most  unlikely  that  this  capital  was  situated  south  of  the 
Hindu  Kush,  which  would  have  been  a  most  inconvenient 
position  for  it.  Besides,  it  is  probable  that  this  area  was 
made  over  to  Chandra  Gupta  in  the  famous  treaty  he  made 
with  Seleucus,  and  was  therefore  not  subject  to  the  early 
Seleucidans  at  all.  Secondly,  if  the  chief  mint- town  of 
the  early  Seleucidae  had  been  in  the  district  south  of  the 
Hindu  Kush  some  of  their  coins  would  no  doubt  have 
occurred  there  in  large  numbers,  whereas  they  do  not 
occur  at  all  in  that  district,  where  the  fresh  coins  of  the 
so-called  Bactrian  series  are  so  abundant.  Lastly,  and 
most  important  of  all,  the  monograms  just  referred  to  are 
quite  unknown  among  the  so-called  Bactrian  and  Indo- 
Scythic  coins,  showing  the  Bactrian  and  Indo-Scythic 
kings  had  no  such  mint  within  their  dominions.  All 
these  facts  concur  in  making  it  most  improbable,  if  not 
impossible,  that  these  coins  were  struck,  or  were  generally 
current,  either  in  Bactria,  or  Aria,  or  the  country  imme- 
diately west  of  the  Indus,  and  make  it  very  probable  that, 
like  the  other  coins  found  with  them,  they  were  brought 
to  their  hiding-place  from  farther  west. 

Whence,  then,  did  they  come?  I  am  only  going  to 
offer  a  tentative  solution,  since  at  present  no  other  solution 
is  possible. 

We  have  hardly  any  notices  of  what  took  place  in  the 
eastern  portion  of  Alexander's  conquest  from  his  death 


to  the  battle  of  Ipsus  in  302,  which  finally  placed  Seleu- 
cus  on  the  throne,  and,  as  I  shall  endeavour  to  show  in 
another  communication,  it  is  probable  that  there  was  a 
good  deal  of  confusion  there  unnoticed  by  his  historians, 
and  that  Seleucus's  eastern  journey  involved  a  reconquest, 
and  not  merely  an  assertion  of  his  right  as  successor  to 

When  by  his  victory  over  Antigonus  the  position  of 
Seleucus  was  definitely  secured,  and  he  became  the  master 
of  Asia  from  the  Mediterranean  to  the  Pamir  Steppes,  he 
appointed  his  son  Antiochus  governor  of  the  eastern  por- 
tion of  his  dominions,  and  it  is  from  this  date  that  their 
definite  organization  began.  Antiochus,  like  other  mem- 
bers of  his  dynasty,  was  a  founder  of  towns,  and  this  in 
the  east  as  well  as  the  west.  We  are  told  by  Pliny  that 
he  refounded  a  city  of  Alexandria  in  Margiana,  which  had 
been  first  planted  by  Alexander  the  Great,  and  been  after- 
wards destroyed  by  the  barbarians,  and  which  he  renamed 
Antiocheia.  (Nat.  Hist.,  vi.  18.)  This  fact  is  also  men- 
tioned by  Ptolemy.  Strabo  (Book  xi.  ch.  x.)  says  that 
Antiochus  admired  the  fertility  of  the  place,  and  he 
enclosed  a  circuit  of  1,500  stadia  with  a  wall.  Stephen  of 
Byzantium  tells  us  that  Antiochus  also  founded  a  city  in 
Aria,  the  modern  province  of  Herat,  which  he  called 
Soteira  (vide  sub  wee).  Pliny  describes  Artacabene  as  a 
very  ancient  and  beautiful  city,  which  was  strengthened 
by  Antiochus.  This  is  the  Artakoana  of  Arrian.  General 
Cunningham  identifies  it  with  the  Alexandreia  of  other 
writers,  and  urges  that  here,  as  in  the  case  of  the  capital 
of  Margiana,  Antiochus  renamed  the  city  already  founded 
by  Alexander  with  his  own  name.  It  was  probably  Herat. 
It  would  seem,  therefore,  that  Antiochus  refounded  and 
re-named  the  capitals  of  Margiana  and  Aria,  but  neither 


Margiana  nor  Aria  was,  in  my  view,  the  focus  and  centre 
of  the  Seleucidan  Empire  in  the  East  at  this  time.  If 
we  take  analogy  as  our  guide — and  it  is  very  useful 
indeed  in  Eastern  history,  which  is  very  conservative — we 
must  conclude  that  Khorasan  was  in  those  days  what  it 
was  in  the  time  of  the  Seljuks  and  other  great  Eastern 
dynasties,  the  kernel  of  this  part  of  the  empire,  its  richest 
and  most  prosperous  portion.  It  also  occupied  a  central 
and  strategical  position,  not  only  towards  the  rest  of  the 
empire,  hut  also  towards  its  most  dangerous  enemies,  the 
Parthians  and  other  nomads  on  the  north ;  and  I  have 
very  little  doubt  that  it  was  in  Khorasan  that  the  seat  of 
the  Eastern  government  of  the  empire  was  situated. 
What,  then,  was  the  capital  of  Khorasan  ?  Khorasan,  in 
the  earliest  notice  we  have,  namely,  in  the  Vendidad,  is 
called  Nisaya.  The  famous  sacred  horses  of  Nyssa  are 
referred  to  by  Herodotus,  and,  according  to  Isidore  of 
Charax,  a  very  good  authority,  in  the  Parthian  times  its 
chief  town  was  Parthaynisa,  which,  he  says,  the  Greeks  call 
JNisaea.  This  is  also  no  doubt  the  "  regio  Nisisea  Parthyenis 
nobilis  "  of  Pliny.  Isidore  tells  us  that  the  Parthian  kings 
were  buried  there,  which  doubtless  means  that  it  was  their 
first  capital  after  they  had  attacked  and  secured  their  first 
province  of  Parthia,  whose  limits  were  very  nearly  those 
of  Khorasan. 

It  is  exceedingly  probable  that  when  the  Parthians 
overthrew  the  Greeks  they  fixed  upon  the  old  Greek 
capital  as  their  capital  also,  and  thus  there  is  a  converg- 
ence of  evidence  going  to  make  Nissa  the  chief  town  of 
the  Seleucidae  in  the  East.  Some  have  identified  the 
town  of  Nissa  with  Nishapur,  which  tradition  distinctly 
points  to  as  having  been  founded  by  the  Sassanian  king, 
Sapor.  It  is  possible,  however,  that  this  view  may  be  a 


mistaken  one,  and  that  the  real  Nissa  still  remains  under 
its  old  name,  overlooking  the  Karakum  desert,  and  situ- 
ated west  of  Merv-ur-rud,  the  site  of  the  capital  of  the 
ancient  and  adjoining  province  of  Margiana.  This  town 
of  Nissa  is  a  very  famous  place,  and  was  more  than  once 
ravaged.  Sultan  Takish,  the  Seljukian,  we  are  told,  razed 
its  citadel  and  ploughed  over  its  site.  The  founder  of  the 
Ottoman  royal  stock  originally  migrated  thence,  and  it 
was  destroyed  by  the  Mongols.  According  to  a  contem- 
porary, who  was  a  native  of  the  place,  Muhammed  of 
Nissa,  70,000  of  its  inhabitants  were  then  destroyed. 

I  believe  that  in  all  probability  it  was  the  capital  of 
Parthiene  or  Khorasan  in  the  days  we  are  writing  about, 
and  that  it  was  here  that  Antiochus  fixed  the  seat  of  his 

Now  it  is  a  curious  fact  that,  almost  without  exception, 
wherever  the  Seleucidse  either  founded  a  new  city  or 
gave  an  old  one  some  importance  they  changed  its  name 
and  gave  it  a  new  Greek  name.  This  is  so  general  a  rule 
that  we  may  take  it  as  exceedingly  probable,  in  the  absence 
of  definite  information  on  the  subject,  that  they  did  so  in 
the  case  of  Nissa.  Can  we  make  a  guess  as  to  what  this 
name  was  ? 

It  is  singular  that  generally  when  we  meet  with  this 
name  it  is  in  connection  with  Dionysus.  Thus  Homer 
connects  Nysa  in  Thrace  with  him  (//.  vi.  132).  Sophocles 
does  the  same,  "  A  city  Nysa,  between  the  Indus  and  the 
Kaubul  River,  is  said  to  have  been  built  by  Dionysus,  who 
planted  the  ivy  there  "  (see  Strabo,  book  xv.  c.  1 ;  Diodorus, 
i.  2).  Ptolemy,  who  refers  to  it,  tells  us  the  place  was 
also  called  Dionysopolis,  and  Arrian  has  a  long  story 
about  it  in  connection  with  Dionysus  (Vit.  Alex.,  lib.  v.). 
Herodotus  says  that  Dionysus  was  no  sooner  born  than  he 


was  sewn  up  in  Jupiter's  thigh  and  carried  off  to  Nysa, 
above  Egypt  in  Ethiopia  (ii.  c.  146).  Diodorus  tells  us 
Osiris,  whom  some  of  the  Greeks  called  Dionysus,  was 
brought  up  in  Nysa,  a  town  of  Arabia  Felix,  near  to 
Egypt,  and  there  he  learnt  the  use  of  the  vine.  He  says 
further  that  he  received  his  name  from  his  father  and 
the  place  (lib.  1,  c.  i. ;  lib.  3,  c.  iv.).  He  also  describes 
how  Lycurgus,  King  of  Thrace,  set  upon  him  and  his  fol- 
lowers at  a  place  called  Nisius,  in  Thrace.  Elsewhere  he 
connects  him  with  Nysa,  an  island  of  the  river  Triton,  in 
Libya  (id.  3,  iv.). 

This  very  curious  fact,  of  the  intimate  connection 
of  Nysa  and  Dionysus,  makes  it  not  improbable  that 
the  Nissa  or  Nysa  of  Parthia  should  have  been  called 
Dionysopolis  by  Antiochus,  just  as  the  Indian  Nysa  was 
so  called  by  the  Greeks.  In  both  cases  the  name  lends 
itself  very  easily  to  the  change.  Of  course  this  is  a  mere 
conjecture,  but  it  is  one  with  a  good  deal  of  probability 
.about  it,  and  if  it  be  well  founded  it  at  once  accounts  for 
the  monograms  A,  Al,  &c.,  which  occur  on  the  coins  of 
the  Seleucidans  which  we  have  been  discussing,  and  which, 
I  would  urge,  were  struck  and  issued  in  the  Eastern 
capital  of  the  dominions  of  Seleucus,  which  was  Nissa  or 
Dionysopolis,  the  capital  of  Parthiene  or  Parthia. 

I  have  not  exhausted  what  I  have  to  say  about  this 
very  interesting  find  of  coins,  but  will  reserve  the  rest  for 
another  communication. 




THE  British  Museum  lias  recently  acquired  an  interesting 
little  bronze  coin  which,  as  I  believe  it  to  be  unpublished, 
may  be  worth  a  short  notice  in  the  pages  of  the  Numis- 
matic Chronicle.  It  may  be  thus  described  : — 

Obv.— PAIOZ  KAIZAP     Head  of  Caligula,  r. ;  behind 
neck,  star. 

Rev. — Two  beardless  heads  jugate,  of  which  the  nearest  (and 
perhaps  the  other  also)  is  laureate  ;  in  front,  [ZA] 
N00ZIEPEYZ  [TE]PMANIK;  behind,  <J>IA 
AAEA<!>.     ^B.    Size  -65. 

It  is  evident  both  from  the  style  and  fabric  of  this  coin 
that  it  belongs  to  the  Cilician  Germanicopolis,  and  not  to 
the  Paphlagonian  city  of  the  same  name ;  but  in  addition 
to  the  name  of  Germanicopolis  it  bears  that  of  another 
Cilician  city,  viz.,  Philadelphia.  "We  may  note  in  the 
outset  that  Germanicopolis,  Philadelphia,  and  Olba,  were 
in  all  probability  within  a  short  distance  of  one  another, 
and  all  situate  about, the  middle  of  the  valley  of  the  river 
Calycadnus,  in  the  district  which  went  by  the  name  of  Cetis, 
above  and  below  the  junction  of  the  main  stream  with  its 
largest  northern  arm.  Olba  is  called  on  coins  MHT.  KH. 
(MrjTpoiroXis  Krjrtios,  Hist.  Num.  610). 

Of  Philadelphia  two  coins   only   are   known,  one  of 


Trajan  and  one  of  Maximinus  (Rev.  Num.  1858,  173,  and 
Longperier,  CEuvres  ii.  10).  Both  of  these  read  <|>IAA- 
AEA4>EttN  (or  4>IAAAEA<J>,nN)  KHTIAOZ. 

Of  Germanicopolis,  the  site  of  which  is  fixed  at  the 
modern  Ermenek,  in  the  upper  valley  of  the  Calycadnus, 
the  only  coin  hitherto  published  belongs  to  the  reign  of 
Hadrian  (Hist.  Num.  p.  603).  On  the  reverse  is  a  laureate 
bust  of  Apollo  with  hair  arranged  in  three  formal  curls  ; 
the  inscription  is  AAPIANH  TEPMANIKOnOAI- 

The  coin  of  Caligula  which  I  now  publish  is  therefore 
of  importance,  not  only  as  the  earliest  known  coin  both  of 
Germanicopolis  and  of  Philadelphia,  but  as  showing  that 
these  two  cities  were  at  one  time  closely  connected  with 
one  another. 

Philadelphia,  as  its  name  implies,  was  perhaps  founded 
either  by  one  of  the  later  Seleucidee  bearing  the  surname 
Philadelphos,  or,  as  is  far  more  probable,  by  Antiochus  IV 
of  Commagene,  and  his  queen,  lotape,  the  latter  of  whom 
bore  the  title  Philadelphos,  perhaps  because  she  was  sister 
as  well  as  wife  of  Antiochus  IV.  To  this  prince,  as  is 
well  known,  Caligula  presented  Cilicia  Tracheia,  and  part 
of  Lycaonia,  A.D.  38,  and  coins  prove  that  his  dominion 
extended  from  Elaeusa-Sebaste  in  the  east,  to  Anemurium 
in  the  west,  and  to  Lycaonia  in  the  north.  There  was 
also  a  town  in  Cilicia  Tracheia,  in  the  district  called  Seli- 
nitis,  which  was  called  after  lotape. 

If  this  conjecture  be  well  founded  the  heads  on  the 
coin  may  be  intended  to  represent  Antiochus  and  lotape 
as  the  founders  of  the  city  of  Philadelphia,  an  event  which 
must  in  this  case  have  taken  place  after  A.D.  38,  the  year 
of  their  accession. 

As  another  alternative,  we  may  suppose  the  heads  to 

VOL.    VIII.    THIRD    SERIES.  R  R 


stand  for  Germanfcus  and  Agrippina,  the  father  and 
mother  of  Caligula,  whose  head  appears  on  the  obverse  ; 
or,  again,  they  may  be  merely  intended  for  the  Dioscuri. 

The  sister  city,  Germanicopolis,  may  have  been  founded 
somewhat  earlier,  while  Germanicus  held  command  in  the 
East,  A.D.  18 — 19 ;  or  the  two  towns  may  have  been 
founded  simultaneously  in  the  reign  of  Caligula  (who 
also  bore  the  surname  Germanicus),  A.D.  37 — 41  ;  Ger* 
manicopolis  by  Caligula,  and  Philadelphia  by  Antiochus 
and  lotape. 

From  the  occurrence  of  the  title  *lepevs  on  our  little 
coin,  we  may  infer  that  under  Caligula  the  district  of 
Cetis,  in  which  Philadelphia  and  Germanicopolis  were 
situated,  maintained  a  kind  of  quasi- autonomy,  and  that 
the  magistrate  or  dynast  Xanthus,  entitled  *\.epevs,  was 
permitted  to  exercise  a  limited  authority  over  the  terri- 
tory of  the  two  cities;  an  authority  similar,  perhaps, 
to  that  which  was  exercised  by  the  'Ap-^tepev^  under 
Augustus  and  Tiberius  at  the  neighbouring  city  of  Olba, 
which,  as  M.  Waddington  has  pointed  out  (Melanges  de 
Numismatique,  ii.  109  sqq.t  had  been  allowed  by  the 
Romans  to  remain  under  the  government  of  its  native 

1  On  this  question  Professor  W.  M.  Ramsay  writes  to  me  as 
follows:  "I  am  unable  to  accept  your  suggestion  that  Antio- 
chus permitted  a  local  Hiereus  to  retain  a  limited  authority 
and  strike  coins,  as  that  would  be  tantamount  to  giving  up  the 
royal  rights  in  the  district.  I  think  it  is  necessary  to  separate 
between  the  rule  of  Antiochus  and  that  of  Xanthus."  Professor 
Ramsay  thinks  that  this  coin  must  have  been  struck  between 
A.D.  88  and  41,  during  which  time  Antiochus,  having  lost 
favour,  was  temporarily  deprived  of  his  kingdom.  The  coin 
shows  that  the  rule  over  part  at  least  of  Cilicia  Tracheia  was 
permitted  by  Caligula  to  a  dynast  who  ruled  in  the  hereditary 
Olbian  fashion  as  'lepcv's.  This  dynast  perhaps  imitated  the 


Of  these  rulers  we  know  from  coins  the  names  of  two 
only— Polemon,  B.C.  39—29,  or  later,  and  Ajax,  the  son 
of  Teucer,  A.D.  11—15,  or  later.  Polemon  styles  himself, 
9Afy%iepevs  Svvdarrp  'O\/3eW  rjjs  iepas  Kevvdrwv  ical 
AaXaavewv,  and  Ajax  'Ap^iepevs  TOTTC^O?  Kevvdrwv  Kal 
Aa\a<T(TeW.  They  appear  to  have  been  descendants  of  a 
famous  princely  family,  who  maintained  under  Roman 
protection  their  local  independence  as  hereditary  High 
Priests  of  the  Temple  of  Zeus,  Dynasts  of  Olba,  and 
Toparchs  of  the  neighbouring  regions  Cennatis  and 
Lalassis.  Whether  Ajax  was  the  last  of  these  rulers,  or 
whether  he  had  successors  during  the  twenty-six  years 
which  elapsed  between  A.D.  15,  the  date  of  his  last  known 
coin,  and  A.D.  41,  we  cannot  say.  The  history  of  Olba  is 
a  complete  blank  during  this  period.  We  next  hear  of  it 
A.D.  41,  when  the  Emperor  Claudius  conferred  the  prin- 
cipality of  Olba  upon  Polemon  II,  King  of  Pontus,  in 
exchange  for  his  kingdom  of  Bosporus. 

It  is  by  no  means  improbable  that  before  this  country 
was  handed  over  to  the  King  of  Pontus,  and  perhaps  on 
the  occasion  of  the  foundation  of  Germanicopolis  and 
Philadelphia  (A.D.  38?),  these  towns  were  placed  by  the 
reigning  dynast  of  Olba,  with  the  sanction  of  Caligula, 
under  the  government  of  some  scion  of  his  own  priestly 
family,  and  if  so,  that  Xanthus  may  be  the  last  of  the 
race  of  the  Teucridae. 

But  this,  of  course,  is  mere  conjecture,  and  all  that  we 
are  able  to  affirm  with  certainty  on  the  evidence  of  the 

coins  of  his  predecessor,  who  associated  his  wife  lotape  with 
himself  on  his  coins.  In  A.D.  41  Claudius  again  restored  the 
kingdom  to  Antiochus  and  lotape,  who  ruled  until  A.D.  72,  not, 
however,  over  the  whole  of  Cilicia  Tracheia,  for  a  part  of  it, 
including  Kennatis  and  Lalassis,  was  bestowed  upon  Polemon 
of  Pontus  in  exchange  for  his  own  kingdom. 


coin  now  before  us  is  that  in  the  reign  of  Caligula  the 
neighbouring  towns  of  Germanicopolis  and  Philadelphia 
in  Cilicia  struck  money  in  the  name  and  by  the  authority 
of  one  Xanthus,  who  bore  the  title  *lepevs.  This  specimen 
is  thus  the  earliest  coin  of  these  little  known  cities.  Sub- 
sequently we  possess  a  coin  of  Germanicopolis  struck  under 
Hadrian,  and  coins  of  Philadelphia  struck  by  Trajan  (A.D. 
98—117)  and  Maximinus  (A.D.  235—238)  respectively. 

But  though  our  numismatic  records  are  unfortunately 
at  present  so  incomplete  there  is  reason  to  hope  that  the 
series  of  coins  may  be  increased  by  future  discoveries,  for 
we  know,  on  the  authority  of  the  geographer  Ptolemy, 
A.D.  150,  of  the  grammarian  Hierocles,  A.D.  530,  the  author 
of  the  Syve/rB^jLtos-,  or  The  Travelliny  Companion,  as  well 
as  on  that  of  the  Acta  Conciliorum  and  of  the  Byzantine 
NotiticB  Episcopatuum,  that  the  three  towns  of  Olba,  Ger- 
manicopolis, and  Philadelphia  continued  to  exist  side  by 
side  as  independent  cities  and  bishoprics  at  least  down  to 
the  tenth  century  A.D. 

The  following  is  the  order  in  which  these  and  the  other 
towns  of  this  part  of  Cilicia  are  mentioned  in  Ptolemy, 
Hierocles,  the  Notitice,  &c. 

PTOLEMY,  A.D.  circ.  150. 

Me<7o'yetoi  Se  cicrt  TroXets  ev  rr)  Ki\i/aa  rrjs  /uev 

37°  10' 
37°  5' 
37°  25' 
37°  55' 
37°  10' 


.     64°  45' 

Ao/UTlOTToAlS  . 

.     65°  25' 

<J>iXa8eX0eia  . 

.     66° 

^eXevKeta  Tpa^cta  . 

.     66°  10' 

AtoKuwapeia  . 

.     66°  20' 

K^rtSos  Se 



.     64°  30' 

.        .     37°  30' 
(Lib.  V.  cap.  8,  §  5,  6.) 



It  is  needless  to  remark  that  Ptolemy's  latitudes  and 
longitudes,  calculated  from  distances  in  stadia  given  in 
itineraries  to  which  he  had  access,  and  which  probably 
contained  many  errors,  afford  no  trustworthy  indication  of 
the  exact  positions  of  the  places  he  mentions. 

CONCILIUM  CHALCEDONENSE  (p.  659),  A.D.  451. 

In  the  list  of  bishops  present  at  this  council  are  the 
names  of  those  both  of  Germanicopolis  and  of  Philadel- 
phia, viz.  :  Tvpavvos  YeppaviKovTroXews  and  Meyers 

HIEROCLIS  SYNECDEMUS  (§  45),  A.D.  530. 



Notitia  I. 
AD.  883. 



Notitia  III.  Notitia  X. 

A.D.  10th  cent. 

6  AioKaicrapems  6 

o  KAavotovTroAecos  6  KAavStoinroAeajs 

6  NeaTToAcws  6  NeaTroAews 

6  AaAtcrav^ov  6 
6  'ASpao-ov 



6  'ASpacrov 
6  MeA.or/5 

CONSTANTINK    PoRPHYROGENITUS,    A.D-    911  -  959. 

De  Thematwm,  I.  p.  15. 

To.  8e  tti/w  ^e/XeuKetas  /cat  /xeo-oyata  fcaXetrat  AeKaTroAt?  KCU,  ta-rt 

oeurepa  oe  TiriO7r7roA.cs 
6y$6rj  Katcrapeta 

In  the  accompanying  sketch  map  of  Cilicia  Tracheia  I 
have  inserted  the  names  of  Philadelphia,  Diocaesarea, 
Olba,  and  Coropissus  conjecturally.  Domitiopolis  and 
Zenopolis  I  have  placed  at  the  modern  Dindebol  and  Isne- 
bol  (see  map  in  Sterrett's  "  Wolfe  Expedition  to  Asia 
Minor  "  in  the  Papers  of  the  American  School  of  Classical 
Studies  at  Athens,  vol.  iii.).  The  site  of  Eirenopolis  at 
Irnebol,  on  the  southern  side  of  the  river,  may  also  be 
considered  as  fixed.  Leake's  conjecture  (Num.  Hell.  Asia, 
p.  61),  that  Eirenopolis  stood  near  the  promontory  of 
Zephyrium,  must  now  be  definitely  abandoned.  It  rested 
solely  on  a  coin  which  was  supposed  to  read  EIPHNO- 
nOAEITON  ZE^YPinTON  (Vaillant,  Num.  Gr.y  and 
Banduri,  i.  p.  68),  the  true  legend  of  which  was  doubtless 
p.  618),  and  it  belongs,  not  to  Eirenopolis,  but  to  Adri- 
ana-Zephyrium,  on  the  coast  of  Cilicia  Campestris,  be- 
tween Tarsus  and  Soli.  But  whether  the  coins  reading 
EIPHNOnOAEITflN,  dating  from  an  era  commencing 
A.D.  52,  belong  to  the  Eirenopolis  in  the  Calycadnus 
valley,  or  to  another  Eirenopolis,  which  Professor  Ramsay 
believes  to  have  been  situated  on  the  upper  course  of  the 
Pyramus,  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Anazarbus,  is  not  quite 
c}ear.  BARCLAY  V.  HEAD. 


THE  type  of  Carausius  described  below  appears  to  be 
unpublished — it  is  at  any  rate  unknown  to  the  British 
Museum,  and  does  not  appear  in  the  second  edition  of 
Cohen,  or  in  the  Monumenta  Historica  Britannica — and  may 
be  regarded  as  of  some  interest. 

M3.  Obv.  IMP.  C.  CARAVSIVS  AVG.    Draped  bust 
of  Carausius  to  right,  with  radiated  crown. 

Rev.  HERC  •  DEVSENIENSI.  Hercules  standing 
to  left,  leaning  his  right  hand  on  his  club,  and 
holding  out  in  his  extended  left  hand  a  patera, 
from  which  he  pours  a  libation. 

The  inscription  reads  backwards,  but  every  letter  is 
perfectly  distinct. 

The  type  of  Hercules  Deusoniensis  is  one  which  has 
hitherto  been  found  on  the  coins  of  Postumus  alone.  It 
is  of  a  distinctly  Gallic  character,  the  title  Deusoniensis 
being  given  to  Hercules  either  from  some  unknown  Gallic 
town  Deuso,  or  as  being  the  name  of  a  Celtic  god  identified 
with  him,  just  as  Sul  was  identified  with  Minerva,  or 
Belatucadrus  with  Mars.  On  the  coins  of  Postumus, 
Hercules  Deusoniensis  and  Hercules  Magusanus  are  both 
commemorated.  The  latter  god  was  certainly  worshipped 
in  Britain,  as  an  altar  dedicated  to  him  by  a  Tungrian 
cohort  has  been  dug  up  at  Mumerills,  near  Falkirk 

A    NEW    TYPE    OF    CARAUSIUS.  30') 

(Corpus  Inscr.  Britann.,  1090).  But  I  am  not  aware  that 
any  similar  dedication  to  Hercules  Deusoniensis  has  been 

The  type  of  this  coin  is  not  a  servile  copy  of  that  found 
on  the  money  of  Postumus.  It  does  not  exactly  resemble 
any  of  the  three  main  varieties  of  the  earlier  reign,  which 
give  respectively  a  bust  of  the  god,  and  his  figure  placed 
in  a  tetrastyle  temple,  or  standing  full  face  with  the  club 
resting  on  a  rock.  The  type  is,  therefore,  an  original  one, 
witnessing  to  the  worship  of  Hercules  Deusoniensis  in 
Britain,  probably  by  the  Gallic  troops  stationed  in  this 

It  will  be  observed  that  on  this  coin  one  letter  of  the 
god's  title  is  mis-spelt,  Deuseniensi  appearing  instead  of 

The  coin,  which  is  in  excellent  preservation,  was  pur- 
chased, along  with  several  other  coins  of  Carausius,  in  a 
miscellaneous  lot  of  late  Roman  bronze  sold  at  Messrs. 
Sotheby's  in  August  last. 

C.  OMAN. 




THE  gold  coinage  of  Edward  III.  has  been  very  properly 
divided  under  four  heads.  The  first  coinage  was  that  of 
the  florin,  half-florin,  and  quarter-florin,  in  1343.  All 
these  pieces  are  of  excessive  rarity.  The  second  coinage 
was  in  1344,  and  consisted  of  the  noble,  weighing  138T%th 
grains,  and  its  divisions,  the  half  (or  maille)  and  quarter 
(or  ferling)  noble.  The  noble  and  quarter-noble  have  L, 
for  London,  in  the  centre  of  the  reverse,  but  it  is  said  that 
one  of  the  latter  in  the  possession  of  Mr.  Rashleigh,  and 
weighing  34J  grains,  has  €f  instead  of  L.  I  have  not 
had  the  advantage  of  seeing  this  piece,  and  should  be 
slow  to  form  any  conclusion  as  to  its  attribution  simply 
on  the  ground  of  its  weight.  At  the  same  time  I  do  not 
doubt  the  statement  made,  as  it  is  very  probable  that  im- 
mediately before  the  third  coinage  the  one  letter  may 
have  been  substituted  for  the  other.  No  specimen  of  the 
half- noble  is  known,  but  it  may  fairly  be  assumed  to  have 
existed,  and  one  may  yet  be  discovered.  The  third  coin- 
age, generally  known  as  that  of  the  twentieth  year,  was 
authorised  in  1346,  and  likewise  consisted  of  the  noble 
and  its  divisions.  The  noble  of  this  coinage,  which  is 

HALF-NOBLE    OF    EDWARD    III.  31 1 

very  rare,  was  128f  th  grains  only  in  weight ;  the  quarter 
noble  is  not  of  uncommon  occurrence. 

As  to  the  half-noble,  which  is  the  fons  et  origo  of  this 
short  note,  I  postpone  my  observations  in  order  to  refer 
here  more  conveniently  to  the  fourth  and  last  coinage. 
This,  issued  in  1351,  again  consisted  of  the  noble  and  its 
divisions.  There  is  a  considerable  variation  in  the  smaller 
details  of  the  type  and  legends  on  these,  and  particularly 
in  connection  with  the  titles  of  the  king,  who  was  desig- 
nated King  of  France  on  coins  struck  before  the  Treaty 
of  Bretigny,  and  not  afterwards  until  the  year  1369,  when 
that  treaty  was  broken  by  Charles  V.  The  noble  of  this 
issue  was  further  reduced  to  the  weight  of  120  grains, 
which  continued  to  be  the  standard  weight  until  1412,  the 
thirteenth  year  of  Henry  TV. 

Now  with  regard  to  the  half-noble  of  the  third  coinage, 
no  specimen  was  ever  said  to  exist,  nor  was  any  example 
pretended  to  be  described  or  figured,  until  Mr.  Kenyon, 
in  his  Gold  Coins  of  England  (1884),  described  and  gave 
an  illustration  of  a  half-noble  in  the  national  collection, 
which  he  unhesitatingly  attributed  to  this  coinage.  With 
great  submission  I  cannot  accept  this  attribution.  The 
half-noble  referred  to  is  clearly  one  of  the  fourth  coin- 
age. It  is  true  that  the  weight,  although  the  flan  is 
somewhat  clipped,  is  as  much  as  60J  grains,  but  in  deal- 
ing with  the  smaller  pieces,  both  of  the  gold  and  silver 
coinage  of  this  country,  it  is  eminently  unsafe  to  be 
guided  by  considerations  of  weight  only.  In  connection 
with  other  characteristics  the  question  of  weight  is,  of 
course,  very  often  of  great  importance,  and  more  so  in  some 
series  than  in  others,  but  as  I  have  before  had  occasion 
to  assert  in  these  pages,  the  type  and  style  of  workman- 
ship are  much  more  trustworthy  guides,  and,  in  fact,  very 


often  the  only  safe  ones.  The  workmanship  and  lettering 
of  the  noble  and  quarter-noble  of  the  third  coinage  are 
very  peculiar,  and  differ  in  essential  respects  from  those 
of  the  coins  of  the  fourth  issue.  This  is  apparent  even 
to  an  unpractised  eye,  which  could  scarcely  fail  to  detect 
the  more  careful  work,  coupled  nevertheless  with  the  freer 
and  bolder  rendering  of  the  letters,  which  are  also  always 
larger  and  more  distinct  than  on  the  pieces  of  the  fourth 
coinage.  The  &  in  the  centre  of  the  reverse  is  always 
large  and  conspicuous  and  never  small,  as  on  the  coin 
figured  by  Mr.  Kenyon,  and  the  R's  are  of  the  Lombardic 
and  not  of  the  Roman  shape,  as  on  that  coin.  A  dis- 
tinguishing feature  also  is  the  form  of  the  A's  and  'F's, 
which  differs  from  that  on  any  pieces  that  I  have  ever 
seen  of  the  subsequent  coinage,  but  resembles  the  form  of 
the  same  letters  on  coins  of  the  previous  issue ;  although 
on  this  .point  I  may  observe  that  the  noble  of  the  second 
coinage  in  the  national  collection  has  the  same  kind  of  &, 
though  my  example  of  the  same  coin  has  the  simple  barred 
7T.  In  addition  to  the  characteristics  mentioned,  the 
coins  of  this  issue  are  wider  spread,  and  the  gold  has  the 
appearance  of  being  less  alloyed. 

On  a  noble  of  the  third  coinage  in  Mr.  Evans's  collec- 
tion the  form  K  occurs  on  the  obverse,  while  on  the 
reverse  it  is  71. 

A  keen  numismatist  is  always  on  the  watch  for  a  desi- 
derated rarity,  and  the  late  Mr.  William  Brice,  who  was 
well  versed  in  all  the  subtleties  of  our  English  coinage, 
thought  that  he  had  at  last  obtained  a  half-noble  of  the 
third  issue  when,  at  the  sale  of  the  coins  of  the  late  Rev. 
E.  J.  Shepherd  (Lot  134),  he  secured  a  piece  of  this  denomi- 
nation which  weighed  over  61 J  grains.  His  manuscript 
note  is  as  follows  :  "  This  very  rare  half-noble  is  of  the 


twentieth  year,  and  it  is  of  the  same  type  as  lot  130.  Re- 
verse, m.m.  cross  patee.  Legend,  DOMIR^  IR  FVEOE^ 
TVO  7TE6VTVS  (sic)  SUQ,  omitting  R3.  Though  slightly 
clipped,  the  weight  is  over  62  grains.  In  centre  of  reverse 
is  a  large  3  as  on  the  noble.  W.  B." 

This  piece  was  purchased  by  Mr.  Shepherd  at  Forster's 
.sale  (lot  17),  and  was  described  in  that  catalogue  as  being 
"  a  very  rare  variety,  and  of  the  weight  of  61 J  grains." 
It  certainly  has  the  large  3  in  the  centre  of  the  reverse, 
but  here  again  an  excessive  reliance  upon  mere  weight 
caused  Mr.  Brice  to  err  in  his  judgment.  I  have  two  other 
specimens  identical  in  type  with  his  coin,  both  weighing 
more  than  60  grains,  and  I  have  seen  several  other 
examples,  all  being  of  the  so-called  "  cursing  "  type,  i.e. 
omitting  the  H^  in  the  reverse  legend.  It  is  clear  that 
they  must  all  be  referred  to  the  fourth  coinage,  not  only 
for  the  considerations  already  urged  by  me,  but  also  be- 
cause the  king's  title  as  King  of  France  is  omitted ;  a 
fatal  omission,  proving  that  they  must  have  been  struck 
after  the  Treaty  of  Bretigny. 

Was  then  any  half -noble  of  the  third  coinage  issued,  and 
does  any  example  still  exist  ?  This  question  I  venture  to 
answer  in  the  affirmative  on  the  strength  of  a  piece  in  my 
possession,  which  I  now  describe,  and  of  which  an  illus- 
tration accompanies  this  paper.  Obv. — The  usual  type, 
but  of  the  same  careful  work  and  free  and  bold  character 
as  on  the  noble,  the  shield  of  the  king  being  in  like 
manner  large  and  with  large  bearings  ;  four  ropes  from 
the  stern  and  two  to  the  prow,  a  (sic)  DWBBD*D*6BB* 
E^X  *  &R6L  *  -^-  *^EAR(1  DRS  f]YB.  Rev. — Same  type 
as  the  noble,  m.m.  cross,  slightly  patee,  and  in  that 
respect  similar  to  the  m.m.  on  the  noble  and  quarter  noble  ; 
R3  **  IR  *  *VEOE3  *  TVO  * 


large  3  in  centre  of  the  reverse.  It  will  be  seen  that  the 
S's  and  F's  are  of  the  peculiar  formation  before  referred 
to.  There  is,  moreover,  another  important  peculiarity 
that  must  be  mentioned — the  shape  of  the  central  com- 
partment enclosing  the  letter  €C  on  the  reverse.  On  all 
the  nobles  and  half-nobles  of  Edward  III.  the  shape  of 
this  compartment  or  frame  is  that  of  a  quaterfoil,  with 
four  projecting  angles  or  points  between  the  foils.  On 
all  the  half-nobles  of  the  fourth  coinage  of  Edward  III. 
at  present  known,  there  are  close  to  each  of  these  four 
points  either  three  small  pellets  arranged  as  a  trefoil  or  else 
an  annulet.  It  is  probable  that  some  may  also  exist  with 
a  single  large  pellet  at  each  of  these  points,  as  nobles 
with  this  peculiarity  occur  ;  and  there  are  corresponding 
quarter- nobles  with  a  pellet  in  each  of  the  angles  of  the 
central  cross  on  the  reverse.  In  the  half-noble  to  which 
I  am  calling  attention  there  are  no  ornaments  whatever 
at  the  points  of  the  compartment,  so  that  in  this  respect 
also  there  is  a  marked  distinction  between  my  coin  and 
those  of  the  fourth  coinage.  The  coin  is  of  a  wide- 
spread module,  and  I  should  be  glad  to  be  able  to  add 
that  the  weight  is,  or  should  be,  64  grains  or  there- 
abouts. I  am,  however,  bound  to  admit  that  the  piece 
which,  though  cracked,  is  in  very  good  condition,  weighs 
but  54  grains.  This  forms,  of  course,  a  powerful  argu- 
ment, if  weight  alone  be  relied  upon,  against  the  accuracy 
of  my  attribution,  but  it  must  be  pointed  out  that  this 
weight  is  also  very  abnormal  for  a  half-noble  of  even  the 
fourth  coinage,  and  I  can  only  explain  it  by  suggesting 
that  it  was  either  struck  as  a  specimen  (the  gold  being 
certainly  in  appearance  of  a  finer  quality  than  that  of  the 
last  coinage)  or  in  error,  on  a  flan  of  less  than  the  proper 
weight,  or  that  all  the  half-nobles  of  this  coinage  which 

HALF-NOBLE    OF    EDWARD    III.  315 

were  issued  were  of  too  light  a  weight,  and  were  for  that 
reason  withdrawn.  This  would  account  for  the  excessive 
rarity  of  this  coin,  and  in  fact  for  its  total  absence  from 
our  cabinets,  unless  it  be  agreed  that  my  piece  supplies 
the  gap.  I  have  very  little  doubt  myself  but  that  it  does, 
both  for  the  reasons  stated  and  on  account  of  the  general 
appearance  of  the  coin,  which  is  an  important  feature  to 
the  student  of  the  varied  types  of  our  third  Edward. 

If,  however,  I  fail  to  satisfy  others  on  this  point,  I 
think  they  will  be  disposed  to  agree  that  the  coin  is,  in 
any  event,  struck  from  dies  prepared  for  the  half-noble 
of  the  third  coinage  ;  as  the  half-noble  of  that  coinage 
must  certainly  have  been  struck  in  accordance  with  the 
express  terms  of  the  king's  indenture  and  proclamation, 
although  it  would  appear  that  pieces  of  that  denomination 
of  all  the  coinages  were  probably  issued  in  less  quantities 
than  either  the  noble  or  quarter-noble,  and  are  therefore 
considerably  scarcer  to  this  day. 




SINCE  the  publication  of  my  Catalogue  of  the  Medak  of 
Scotland,  many  specimens  not  known  to  me  at  the  time 
of  the  issue  of  that  work  have  come  under  my  notice.  I 
have  thought  that  it  might  be  of  some  interest  from  time 
to  time  to  record  them,  in  the  hope  that  at  some  future 
day  a  complete  catalogue  may  be  possible. 

To  the  historical  medals  not  much  can  be  added.  The 
medals  of  the  earlier  kings  of  Scotland  noticed  as  probably 
the  work  of  Tassie,  may  now  certainly  be  ascribed  to  that 
artist.  At  a  recent  sale  I  acquired  a  complete  set  from 
David  II.  to  James  VI.,  and  including  one,  hitherto  unde- 
scribed,  of  Mary  Queen  of  Scots,  from  a  much  younger 
portrait  than  the  one  described  at  page  15.  The 
following  medals  are  additions  to  the  Catalogue,  and 
the  references  are  to  the  pages  of  that  work. 

490,  page  116.— BARCLAY  DE  TOLLY,  1759—1818. 

Prince  Michael  Barclay  de  Tolly  was  descended  from 
the  Barclays  of  Tolly  or  Towie,  in  Aberdeenshire,  and 
became  one  of  the  most  distinguished  of  Russian  generals. 

Obv. — His  head  to  the  left  in  a  wreath  of  laurels.  Above 
it,  BARCLAY  DE  TOLLI:  below,  in  small 
letters,  LOOS. 

Rev. — His  arms  on  mantle,  crowned. 

Size,  lA-  in.,  29  m.    Metal,  *JR.  *jB.    PL  XII.  1. 


,  page  125. 
Of  Sir  James  Wylie  the  following  rare  medal  exists  :— 

.The  obverse  bears  his  bust  bareheaded,  to  the  left,  in  court 
dress,  with  orders  and  decorations  ;  below  it,  IACOB  WYLIE 
ORDD  EQUES.  Across  the  arm,  |.  A  51  AHHb  (I.  Lialen): 
with  the  legend  (in  two  circles)  IMPERAT  ROS  A 

^•/S?*    PRTROP-    ET-    MOSQ.    XXX.      A.   PR^S. 

The  reverse  bears  within  a  wreath  of  laurel  the  following 
inscription  ;  viz. 











Size,  2-iV  in,,  54  m.     Metal,  M*.     PI.  XII.  2. 

3*,  page  131. 

Of  Law,  of  Lauriston,  the  following  medals  have  been 
added  to  my  cabinet : — 

On  the  obverse,  a  man,  partially  undressed,  lighting  his 
pipe  and  emitting  coins,  some  of  which  are  flying  away.  Above 
is  the  inscription  :  NVMMVS  VBI  LOQUITVE.  [Money,  when  he 
speaks.]  The  legend  (chronogrammatic)  is :  BEETER  IN  DE 
wYDE  WERELT  ALs  IN  DE  NAUE  sU-YK  of  K!ST.  [Better  is 
the  wide  world,  than  in  the  narrow  stomach  or  chest. — 1613.] 
In  the  exergue :  NOO!T  BREEKT  YSER.  22  PRO.  CENT.  [Neces- 
sity breaks  iron.  22  per  cent. — 101.] 



The  reverse  has  an  inscription  (chronogrammatic)  in  seven 
QVESTVs.  [Behold,  the  renowned  Law,  by  usury  of  gain,  gives 
great  wealth. — 1720.]  And  the  legend  :  KoMT  SEHT  DAS  FRANTZ- 

VoLcK    AN  !    HERE    LAW    TfiVT    GROSSE    THATTEN  !        [Come,    S66 

the  people  of  France;  Mr.  Law  doeth  great  things.— 1720. "j 
Size,  1$  in.,  33  m.     Metal,  <ffi*. 

4*,  page  131. 

Another  has  on  the  obverse  a  man  blowing  script  or  bank- 
notes from  a  pair  of  bellows,  and  calling  out  WER  KAVFT 
ACTIEN  ?  [Who  will  buy  shares  ?]  with  the  legend,  WER 
SET  FVHREN.  [Who  in  his  desire  for  money  will  allow  himself 
to  be  led  by  this  wind?]  In  the  exergue,  SEY  KLVG  V. 
WIZIG  IN  VERKEHREN.  [Be  prudent  and  cautious  in 
your  transactions.] 

The  reverse  shows  a  dog  crossing  a  bridge  over  a  stream 
and  dropping  a  bundle  of  script,  the  shadow  of  which  is  seen  in 
the  water  below.  The  legend  is,  DER  KAN  VERWIRRVNGS 
VOLL  SEIN  HAAB  .  V.  GVTH  VERLIEREN.  [Full  of  con- 
fusion he  may  lose  his  goods  and  possessions.]  In  the  exergue 
[Will  you  not  learn  a  lesson  from  the  dog  of  JSsop  ?] 

Size,  l^V  in.,  44  m.     Metal,  M*.     PL  XII.  3. 

5*,  page  131. 
Another  has  — 

On  the  obverse  :  Law  standing  looking  through  a  magni- 
fying glass  at  bank-notes  on  a  table  to  his  right  ;  at  left,  a 
money-chest.  The  legend,  in  three  lines,  is— 





[The  magnifying  glass  makes  here  and  there  so  many  sides 
that  the  wisest  are  blinded  in  their  greed  for  money.]  In  the 
exergue,  in  two  lines  — 

[The  deceit  and  fraud  of  the  bonds.] 


On  the  reverse  :  a  figure  hanging  on  a  tree,  another  running 
off  to  the  right,  a  third  walks  to  the  edge  of  the  water-pool, 
into  which  a  fourth  has  just  fallen.  The  legend,  in  two  lines— 
SCHRECKENVOLLES  END.  [The  game  is  now  discovered, 
the  tables  now  are  turned,  and  so  the  fraud  comes  to  a  fearful 
end.]  In  the  exergue,  in  three  lines— 


[A  warning  (lit.  a  memorial)  to  the  whole  world.] 

Size,  H  in.,  40  m.     Metal,  M.     PI.  XII.  4. 

15%  page  139. 

A  medal  of  the  High  School,  Edinburgh,  bears  on  the  obverse 
the  arms  of  the  school,  and  on  the  reverse  a  long  engraved  in- 
scription in  Latin.  Awarded  to  Matthew  Kinnaird  in  1855.  In 
a  gilt  rim,  with  loop  for  suspension. 

.Size,  2-110-  in.,  54  m.     Metal,  &*. 
[For  description  of  PI.  XII.  5,  see  page  131,  Scot.  Med.] 

16*0,  page  139. 

A  medal  to  commemorate  the  Centenary  of  the  S.  S.  C., 
bears  on  the  obverse  a  figure  of  Justice  in  the  clouds,  with  the 
Sword  and  Scales,  surrounded  by  the  legend,  IN  COMME- 

The  reverse  has  the  arms  and  motto  of  the  Society,  with  the 
legend,  in  two  lines,  SOCIETY  OF  SOLICITOES  IN  THE  SUPREME 
CHARTER  20  FEE  1797.  INCOR.  BY  ACT  OF  PARL.  13  JULY 
1871.  Below,  ADMITTED  MEMBER. 

Size,  2-iV  in.,  54  m.     Metal,  JR*. 

The  following  additional  engraved  tickets  have  been 

acquired : — 

33%  page  144. 

On  the  obverse,  the  Castle  of  Edinburgh  engraved  on  one 
side,  with  the  legend,  RUNNING  STATIONER. 


The  reverse  has  ALEXR  CALLENDER  2  JANEY  1802,  engraved 
in  four  lines. 

33*6,  page  144. 

Another  has  CORRIS    NEW    ROOMS   No.  4.      N.    COB. 
engraved  in  three  lines. 
Reverse  plain. 

33*c,  page  144. 

Another  circular  has  ROYAL  INSTITUTION  1819. 
And  on  the  reverse,  LORD  HERMAND,  engraved. 

15*#,  page  154. 

In  the  University  of  Glasgow  a  new  medal  has  been 

The  obverse  bears  the  figure  of  S.  Kentigern,  and  the 
legend,  on  a  raised  rim,  THE  CUNNINGHAMS  MEDAL 

The  reverse,  the  bust  of  Professor  Sirason,  with  the  legend, 
ROB.  SIMSON.  MATH.  PROF.  GLASG.  1711.  1761.  In 
the  exergue,  — 1746 — .  Below  the  bust  (on  the  shoulder)  in 
spiral  letters,  A.  KIRKWOOD,  sc. 

Size,  lf§-  in.,  48  m.     Metal,  M. 

This  medal  was  founded  in  1886,  by  the  late  Andrew 
Cunningbame,  who  was  a  native  of  Irvine  and  Depute 
Town  Clerk  of  Glasgow.  The  portrait  of  Simson  is  from 
the  Opera  Reliqua  published  with  bis  portrait  under  the 
superintendence  of  bis  friend  and  colleague,  Clow,  shortly 
after  bis  death.  The  sum  of  £8  a  year  goes  to  the 
medallist.  It  is  given  annually  for  proficiency  in  mathe- 

6*,  page  162. 

A  new  medal  has  also  been  given  to  the  University  of 


The  obverse  bears  a  bust  of  Principal  Bain  to  the  left,  with 
the  legend,  BAIN  MEDAL  •  FOR  PHILOSOPHY 
M-DCCC-LXXXIII-  In  small  letters,  below  the  bust,  A.  KIRK- 
WOOD  &  SON  SC. 

The  reverse  has  the  arms  and  motto  of  the  university,  with 
the  legend,  UNIVERSITY.  OF.  ABERDEEN. 

Size,  If  in.,  45  m.     Metal,  N.  &*.     PI.  XII.  6. 

7*,  page  162. 
The  following  local  Aberdeen  pieces  are  also  new  : — 

A  small  silver  circular  medal,  with  loop  and  ribbon,  having 
on  the  obverse  the  arms,  with  supporters  and  motto,  of  the 
town  of  Aberdeen. 

On  the  reverse,  engraved,  HER  MAJESTY  QUEEN  VICTORIA, 
LANDED  AT  ABERDEEN.  8th  September,  1848.  HONORARY  GUARD 
OF  CITIZENS  &  FOOT  DEE  QUARTER.  Round  the  edge,  ARTHUR 

Size,  l-i0-  in.,  29  m.     Metal,  M*. 

8*,  page  162. 
An  oval  silver  badge  having  on  the  one  side  engraved,  FROM 


On  the  other  side,  REWARD  OF  MERIT  1799.     To 

4*,  page  163. — PERTH  GOLFING  CLUB. 

The  obverse  bears  the  thistle  imposed  on  golf  clubs  within 
a  wreath,  and  crowned.  Below,  the  date  1838,  with  the 

The  reverse  has  a  group  of  golfers  engaged  in  the  national 
game.  Below,  in  small  letters,  B.  WYON,  sc. 

Size,  2f  in.,  63  m.     Metal,  N.  M.  M*. 

Mr.  Wyon  informs  me  (July,  1888)  that  this  medal  is 
very  rare.  The  dies  were  destroyed  immediately  after 
the  gold  specimen  was  struck.  One  specimen  in  silver 


was  struck  for  Mr.  Wyon's  own  collection,  and  one  or  two 
in  bronze  have  been  seen. 

9*,  page  186. 
Of  curling  medals  the  following  is  new  : — 

On  the  obverse  a  curler,  bearded,  in  the  act  of  delivering 
a  stone  ;  another  stone  and  broom  on  the  ice.  Trees  and  hills 
in  the  distance.  Below,  in  small  letters,  KIRKWOOD  AND  SON 

Size,  If  in.,  41  m.     Metal,  M*. 


1*,  page  187. — BOWLING. 

The  obverse  bears  four  figures  on  a  bowling-green,  with  trees 
and  cottage  in  the  background.  One  is  in  the  act  of  delivering 
the  bowl.  Below,  in  small  letters,  KIRKWOOD  AND  SON  •  EDIN- 

Size,  If  in.,  41  m.     Metal,  M*. 





IT  occurred  to  me  that  the  series  which  I  exhibit  to-day, 
of  what  I  suppose  ought  properly  to  he  called  silver 
medals,  might  offer  some  interest,  as  at  the  time  of  their 
issue  they  also  partook  of  the  nature  of  coins.  They  were 
issued  in  Switzerland,  from  1842  to  1885,  as  prizes  to 
marksmen  at  the  well-known  federal  rifle  shooting  meet- 
ings, which  take  place  approximately  every  other  year  in 
one  or  other  of  the  cantons,  and  which  commenced  in 
1824 ;  but,  although  struck  as  medals  for  the  above  pur- 
pose, there  was  this  peculiarity  about  them,  that  they 
passed  as  money  during  the  meetings,  and  were  then 
called  "  ecus/'  say  crowns.  Tip  to  1855  there  was  some 
irregularity  in  their  weight :  the  first  struck  in  1842  had  its 
value,  four  Swiss  francs — equivalent  to  six  modern  ones — 
stamped  upon  it ;  another,  that  of  1847,  had  forty  batz, 
being  the  same  value,  whilst  others  were  of  slightly  dif- 
ferent weights  ;  but  during  the  thirty  "years  from  1855  to 
1885  inclusive,  they  were  all  struck  at  the  Swiss  Govern- 
ment Mint,  were  of  the  weight  of  the  modern  five-franc 
piece,  and  passed  as  such,  "  5  francs "  being  actually 
stamped  upon  them,  except  in  two  cases  (1861  and  1874). 
The  1855  coin,  the  first  of  this  new  series,  was  identical 
with  the  current  five-franc  piece,  excepting  the  edge, 
which,  instead  of  being  milled,  had  upon  it  the  name  of 


the  canton  and  town  Solothurn  (Soleure)  where  the  meet- 
ing then  took  place,  and  the  date. 

These  medals  or  coins,  many  of  which  have  considerable 
artistic  merit,  several  bearing  the  name  of  the  well-known 
medallist,  Bovy,  for  instance,  record  various  historical 
or  traditional  events.  For  instance,  the  Schaffhausen 
"ecu"  of  1865  has  on  its  obverse  the  town  of  Schaff- 
hausen, represented  as  a  female  figure  with  a  mural 
crown,  guarding  the  son  of  William  Tell,  who  holds  in 
his  hand  an  arrow  which  has  pierced  the  traditional 
apple.  Again,  the  1883  ecu,  struck  for  the  meeting  at 
Lugano,  the  capital  of  the  Italian  canton  of  Tessin,  repre- 
sents the  Swiss  Confederation,  in  her  female  form,  seated 
with  the  above-mentioned  canton  on  the  St.  Gothard 
Mountain,  and  a  railway  train  just  emerging  beneath 
them  from  that  magnificent  engineering  work,  the  St. 
Gothard  Tunnel,  which  had  not  been  long  completed. 

These  crowns  continued  to  be  coined  until  1885,  but 
the  Federal  Government  refused  to  sanction  any  more 
being  issued  for  the  next  meeting  at  Geneva  in  1887  or 
thereafter,  very  properly  considering  that  this  interfered 
with  its  monopoly  of  coinage,  for  as  many  as  twenty-five 
thousand  were  struck  for  the  Bern  meeting  of  1885,  and 
thirty  thousand  for  each  of  the  previous  meetings  at  Bale, 
Fribpurg,  and  Lugano,  in  1879,  1881,  and  1883. 

The  medals  (bronze  or  silver)  offered  at  Geneva  last 
year  had  no  pretence  to  being  coins. 

An  interesting  pamphlet  appeared  on  this  ^subject 
during  the  last  meeting  at  Geneva,  written  by  Mr. 
Eugene  Demole,  the  chief  of  the  coin  department  of  the 
Geneva  Museum,  and  by  another  gentleman  of  that 
city,  from  whom  I  have  gleaned  some^of  the  above 




THE  object  of  this  paper  is  to  give  an  account  of  the 
coinage  of  the  kings  of  the  Durrani  Dynasty,  who  reigned 
in  Khorasan  and  North-west  India  until  they  were 
superseded  by  the  Barakzai  family,  the  Sikhs,  the  Kajar 
kings  of  Persia,  and  the  Amirs  of  Sindh.  The  coins  of 
Ahmad  Shah,  the  founder  of  the  dynasty,  have  been 
described  by  Mr.  C.  J.  Rodgers  (J.  A.  S.  Bengal,  1885, 
pt.  i.),  and  I  shall  now  deal  only  with  the  coinage  of  his 
successors  from  the  date  of  Taimur  Shah's  accession  in 
A.D.  1773,  to  their  final  expulsion  from  Kabul  by  the 
Barakzais  in  A.D.  1842.  The  coins  of  the  Barakzais  will 
not  be  described  in  this  paper. 

On  the  death  of  Ahmad  Shah  in  June,  1773  (A.H.  1187), 
Taimur  succeeded  to  a  widespread  but  unstable  kingdom, 
including  Kashmir  and  Multan  on  the  east,  Khorasan  on 
the  west,  and  the  nominal  suzerainty  over  Kalat  on  the 
south.  During  his  life  he  was  able  to  keep  together  the 
majority  of  the  dominions  he  inherited,  and  it  was  reserved 
for  his  sons  to  see  the  kingdom  fall  to  pieces  on  account 
of  their  intestine  feuds.  The  Khanat  of  Kalat  became 
practically  independent  during  .Zaman  Shah's  reign. 
Western  Khorasan,  where  Shah-Rukh,  Nadir  Shah's  grand- 
son, had  been  maintained  in  a  nominal  sovereignty  by 



Ahmad  Shah  and  Taimur  Shah,  was  seized  by  Agha 
Muhammad  Kajar  (1796=A.H.  1211).  Kashmir  rebelled 
immediately  on  Taimur  Shah's  death,  and,  although 
conquered,  it  became  a  perfect  hotbed  of  rebels  and 
pretenders,  until  finally  taken  possession  of  by  the  Sikhs 
in  A.D.  1819. 

Multan  was  a  precarious  possession  even  in  Taimur 
Shah's  reign.  It  was  taken  by  the  Sikhs  in  1781  (A.H. 
1195),  and  Taimur  Shah  was  himself  forced  to  lead  an 
army  to  its  recovery.  It  finally  fell  into  the  hands  of  the 
Sikhs  in  1818  (A.H.  1234).  This  was  followed  by  the 
conquest  of  Dera  GhazI  Khan  and  the  whole  of  the 
Southern  Derajat  in  1819  (A.H.  1235),  and  Dera  Isma'il 
Khan  with  the  Northern  Derajat  in  1821  (A.H.  1237). 
Dera  Isma'il  Khan  was  however  administered  up  to  1836 
(A.H.  1252)  by  the  Saddozai  Nawabs,  Hafiz  Ahmad  and 
Sher  Muhammad,  who  continued  to  strike  coins  in 
Mahmiid  Shah's  name,  even  after  his  death.  In  1836 
Nannibal  Singh  took  formal  possession  on  behalf  of  Ranjlt 

Peshawar  was  stoutly  contested  by  the  Barakzai  Sardars, 
who  upheld  the  puppet  king  Ayyfib  Shah,  but  it  too  fell 
into  Ranjlt  Singh's  hands  in  1834  (A.H.  1250). 

Northern  Sindh  was  also  in  frequent  rebellion  from  the 
time  of  Taimur  Shah's  succession,  but  was  nominally  re- 
tained till  Mahmud  Shah's  second  reign,  1809  (A.H.  1224), 
when  it  fell  into  the  hands  of  the  Baloch  Amirs  and  of 
Ranjlt  Singh.  Bahawalpur,  under  its  Daudpotra  Chiefs, 
also  threw  off  its  nominal  allegiance  about  this  time. 

The  province  of  Turkistan  lying  south  of  the  Oxus 
became  independent,  but  was  afterwards  reconquered  by 
the  Barakzais.  This  province,  with  Herat  and  Sistan, 
are  the  only  outlying  provinces-  attached  to  the  Afghan 

COINS    OF    THE    DURRANIS.  327 

kingdom  which  are  still  retained  by  the  Barakzai 
dynasty.  Herat  was  retained  by  Mahmud  Shah  after 
he  had  lost  the  rest  of  his  dominions  till  1829  (A.H. 
1245),  and  his  son  Kamran  maintained  himself  there  till 
1842  (A.H.*  1258).  In  1839  Sh5h  Shuja'-ul-mulk  again 
obtained  possession  of  Kabul  with  British  assistance,  and 
was  killed  there  in  February,  1842.  His  son  Fath  Jang 
nominally  succeeded  him,  and  was  for  a  short  time 
maintained  by  Muhammad  Akbar  Khan,  son  of  Dost 
Muhammad,  but  he  had  to  leave  the  country  the  same 
year,  and  the  Durrani  Dynasty  came  to  an  end  in  Kabul 
in  name  as  well  as  in  reality.  Kamran,  the  son  of 
Mahmud  Shah,  who  had  maintained  .himself  at  Herat 
since  his  father's  death  in  1829,  was  also  murdered  by 
his  Wazlr,  Yar  Muhammad  Khan,  in  1842,  shortly  after 
Shah  Shuja'-ul-mulk's  death,  and  thus  the  last  remaining 
trace  of  the  family's  power  disappeared. 

The  history  of  the  Durranls  is  an  almost  unparalleled 
series  of  treasons,  rebellions,  plots,  and  murders,  and  it 
would  be  impossible  to  go  into  it  with  any  fulness  in 
such  a  limited  space.  The  Chronological  Table  appended 
will  suffice  to  mark  a  few  of  the  more  important  dates, 
and  to  illustrate  the  bearing  of  the  course  of  events  upon 
the  coinage.1 

1  The  following  are  among  the  more  accessible  works  referring 
to  this  period : 

Elphinstone's  Caubool,  2  vols.  London,  1839. 

Ferrier's  History  of  the  Afghans,  1  vol.  London,  1858. 

Mohan  Lai's  Life  of  Dost  Muhammad  Khan,  2  vols.  London,  1846. 

Shahamat  All,  Sikhs  and  Afghans,  London. 

Shahamat  All,  Picturesque  Sketches  in  India,  London,  1843. 

"Waki'at-i-Durrani  (in  Urdu). 

Tarikh-i-Sultam,  by  Sultan  Muhammad  Khan. 



The  mints  of  the  Durrani  kings  were  situated  at  the 
following  places  : 



Ahmadshahl  (Qandahar). 







Derajat  (Dera  Isma'il  Khan). 

Dera  (Dera  GhazI  Khan). 

Dera  Path  Khan. 




Kabul  always  bears  the  title  of  Dar-us-saltanat,  *  The 
Capital/  and  this  is  also  usually  borne  by  Herat. 
Kashmir  is  described  on  the  coins  as  Khita-i  Kashmir, 
'the  province  of  Kashmir/  and  on  a  coin  of  Zaman 
Shah's  it  is  called  Dar-us-saltanat.  Ahmadshahl  is  the 
name  given  to  Ahmad  Shah's  new  foundation  at  Qan- 
dahar.  It  always  bears  the  prefix  of  Ashraf-ul-bilad  '  the 
most  illustrious  of  cities/  This  name  was  dropped  by 
the  Amir  Dost  Muhammad  after  the  expulsion  of  Ahmad 
Shah's  descendants,  and  he  reverted  to  the  old  name 
Qandahar.  The  Amir  Abd-ur-rahman,  however,  has 
again  introduced  the  name  Ahmadshahl  on  his  coins. 

Meshhed  is  described,  as  on  the  coins  of  the  Safavis  and 
Afsharls,  by  the  title  of  Meshhed-i-muqaddas.  Taimur 

COINS    OF    THE    DURRANlS.  329 

Shah,  following  the  example  of  his  father,  struck  coins 
at  this  place  which  bear  a  strong  resemblance  to  those 
struck  by  Shah-Rukh,  Nadir  Shah's  grandson,  whom  they 
maintained  there.  This  mint  does  not  appear  after 
Taimur  Shah's  death. 

Khoi  (in  Adharbaijan)  also  appears  in  Taimiir  Shah's 
reign  only.  It  is  not  included  in  the  series  here 
described,  but  Mr.  Leggett2  has  a  coin  of  Taimur  Shah's 
struck  there  in  A.H.  1198. 

At  this  time  Southern  Persia  was  still  under  the  rule 
of  'All  Murad  Khan  Zendl,  and  Agha  Muhammad  Kajar 
was  establishing  his  independence  in  Mazandaran.  He 
was  soon  to  reunite  Adharbaijan  and  Khorasan  to  the 
Persian  kingdom. 

Multan  retains  its  old  appellation  of  Dar-ul-aman,  but 
none  of  the  other  mints  have  any  distinctive  title. 

The  accompanying  table  of  mints  shows  the  dates  and 
the  kings  found  under  each.  The  fluctuations  of  power 
are  faithfully  reflected  in  the  coinage.  This  is  clearly 
shown  in  the  very  full  series  of  rupees  of  the  Derajat 
mint,  where  the  alternations  of  power  between  Mahmud  Shah 
and  Shuja'-ul-mulk  Shah  may  all  be  traced.  The  Peshawar 
mint  also  illustrates  these  fluctuations,  and  shows  the 
establishment  of  the  puppet  king  Ayyub  Shah,  under  the 
control  of  Muhammad  'Azlm  Khan  Barakzai,  as  a  rival 
to  Mahmud  Shah,  from  1817  (A.H.  1233)  until  the 
capture  of  Peshawar  by  the  Sikhs.  The  Kashmir  series 
also  possesses  many  points  of  interest,  commencing  with 
the  posthumous  coin  of  Taimur  Shah  which  marks  the 
revolt  of  the  province  on  his  death,  with  difficulty  sup- 

2  Notes  on  the  mint-towns  and  coins  of  the  Mohamedans.  By 
E.  Leggett.  London:  Stevens  and  Sons,  1885.  p.  51,«.y.  Khoi. 


pressed  by  Zaman  Shah.  Again,  the  coins  of  Qaisar  Shah, 
son  of  Sha"h  Zaman,  dated  1221  and  1223  (A.D.  1808), 
mark  the  revolt  of  that  prince  against  his  uncle  Shuja'- 
ul-mulk  Shah  at  the  instigation  of  the  Wazlr  Fath  Khan. 
After  him,  during  the  years  1223 — 1225,  the  governors 
of  Kashmir,  Nur-ud-dm,  and  Muhammad  Shah,3  struck  in 
their  own  names,  and  afterwards,  in  1233,  Ayyub  Shah's 
coins  were  struck  in  Kashmir,  as  well  as  at  Peshawar. 
Possibly  the  couplet  on  these  coins  (Nos.  148,  149,  150) 
bears  some  allusion  to  the  name  of  his  protector,  Muhammad 
'Azlm  Khan.  It  runs  : 

Sikka-i  Ayyub  Shah  ba-zar  o  sim 
Shud  ba-hukm-i  Yadgar-i  'Azim. 

Mahmud  Shah's  coins  of  the  Kabul  and  some  of  the 
Peshawar  mint  bear  the  title  Sultan  Mahmud,  and  on  these 
he  appears  to  reckon  the  year  of  his  accession  as  1224  or 
1225,  the  year  he  drove  out  Shuja'-ul-mulk,  and  not  as 
1216,  the  date  of  the  commencement  of  his  first  reign.4 
These  Sultan  Mahmud  coins  have  a  Persian  couplet 
differing  from  that  on  his  other  coins,  although  he  keeps 
the  title  of  Khusrau.  Mahmud  Shah's  coins  of  the  Herat 
mint  are  most  abundant,  and  they  seem  to  have  sufficed 
for  the  needs  of  the  currency  during  Kamran's  reign.  As 
far  as  I  am  aware,  no  coins  struck  in  Kamran's  name  have 
yet  been  met  with.  In  the  Derajat  mint,  Mahmud  Shah's 
name  was  continued  on  the  coins  by  the  Saddozai  Nawabs 

3  Muhammad  'Azim  Khan  was  Governor  of  Kashmir  from 
1811—1816  (A.H.  1227—1232),  and  the  coins  bearing  the  name 
Muhammad  Shah  must  have   been   struck   by  him  (see  Nos. 

4  See  also  No.  94  of  the  Derajat  mint,  which  is  dated  1224, 
year  1  (ahd),  although  coins  of  an  earlier  date  had  been  struck 
at  the  same  mint  in  Mahmud  Shah's  name. 

COINS    OF    THE    DURRANlS.  331 

even  after  his  death,  till  A.H.  1250  (1834),  after  which 
date  the  Sikhs,  having  taken  over  the  administration, 
began  to  strike  in  the  name  of  Guru  Govind  Singh.  I 
have  a  coin  of  this  mint  dated  Sambat  1906  (1849),  when 
the  Khalsa  army  was  making  its  last  struggle  against  the 
British  Government.5 

The  Lahore  mint,  so  common  on  the  coins  of  Ahmad 
Shah,  is  found  on  those  of  Taimur  Shah,  as  his  father's 
Nizam  in  A.H.  1170  (1756),  but  never  after  his  accession 
to  the  throne.  The  Sikh  power  was  then  too  firmly 
established  to  admit  of  any  such  coins  being  struck  at 

At  the  Multan  mint  gold  and  silver  were  struck  by 
Taimur  Shah  as  Nizam,  and  he  and  his  successors  con- 
tinued to  use  the  mint.  Copper  was  extensively  struck 
in  the  names  of  Taimur  Shah,  Zaman  Shah  and  Mahmud 
Shah.  Some  in  Mahmud  Shah's  name  were  struck  long 
after  the  Sikh  conquest,  as  is  shown  by  No.  Ill,  A.H. 
1244  (1828).  A  very  fine  series  in  gold  and  silver  was 
struck  at  the  Bahawalpur  mint  in  Shuja'-ul-mulk's  first 
year,  and  the  fine  double  mohar  of  MahmQd  (No.  79, 
pi.  xiii.  No.  11)  was  struck  also  in  his  first  year. 

The  mint  at  Dera  (Dera  GhazI  Khan)  seems  to  have 
struck  gold  and  silver  during  the  reigns  of  Ahmad  Shah 
and  Taimur  Shah,  but  afterwards  to  have  been  confined  to 
copper.  There  is  also  a  very  curious  series  struck  at  Dera 
Eath  Khan,  bearing  on  one  side  a  sort  of  monogram  of 
the  words  Dera  Fath,  and  on  the  other  the  figure  of  an 
animal,  popularly  supposed  to  be  a  cat,  from  which  these 

6  Sikh  coins  of  the  Derajat  mint  are  figured  in  Mr.  C.  J. 
Rodgers's  paper  on  the  Coins  of  the  Sikhs  (J.A.S.  Bengal,  1881, 
pt.  i.  pi.  viii.  Nos.  49,  50). 


coins  are  known  in  the  Derajat  as  "  Billshahl  paisa." 
These  continued  into  the  Sikh  times,  as  the  dates  (up  to 
A.H.  1267)  show.  They  seem  to  have  been  imitated  from 
the  copper  coinage  of  the  Safavi  kings,  of  which  many 
specimens  bearing  figures  of  lions  and  other  animals  are 
found  in  the  Derajat.  There  is  also  a  small  square  coin, 
dated  118#  (No.  55),  bearing  on  one  side  the  figure  of 
a  peacock,  which  is  locally  stated  to  have  been  struck 
at  Fazilpur,  a  small  town  in  the  Southern  Derajat. 


The  standard  followed  by  the  Durrani  gold  and  silver 
coinages  seems  to  have  been  the  same  as  the  Indian 
system  of  the  Mughals.  Five  gold  pieces  give  an  average 
of  170  grains  each.  The  silver  coin  is  a  rupee,  and  may 
be  considered  as  aiming  at  a  standard  of  180  grains.  A 
Kabul  rupee  of  Taimur  Shah's  actually  reaches  that 
weight,  and  a  double  rupee  of  Zaman  Shah's,  though 
rubbed  at  the  edges,  still  weighs  365  grains.  This  re- 
mark applies  to  the  issues  of  the  Kabul,  Peshawar, 
Qandahar,  Herat,  Meshhed,  Multan  and  Bhakhar  mints 
through  the  reigns  of  Taimur  Shah  and  Zaman  Shah,  to 
the  early  issues  of  Shah  Shuja*  at  Bahawalpur,  Ahmadshahl 
and  Peshawar,  and  Mahmud  Shah's  Herat,  Peshawar,  and 
Qandahar  coinage.  Twenty-six  coins  of  this  period  show 
an  average  weight  of  177  grains. 

The  Derajat  coins  throughout  the  series  are  subject  to 
another  and  lower  standard.  Ahmad  Shah's  coins  at  the 
beginning  of  the  period  weigh  only  165  grains ;  and  the 
heaviest  in  the  series  is  one  of  Taimur  Shah's  of  172 
grains.  The  average  weight  of  26  specimens  ranging 
from  A.D.  1770  to  1849  is  168  grains. 

COINS    OF    THE    DURRANIS.  333 

The  Peshawar  coinage  of  Sultan  Mahmud  and  Ayyub 
Shah  shows  a  still  lower  standard,  5  specimens  averaging 
161  grains.  The  Kashmir  rupees  described  average  167 
grains.  Mahmud  Shah's  Bhakhar  rupee  is  only  150 
grains,  but  this  is  an  isolated  specimen. 

Leaving  the  Derajat  and  late  Peshawar  and  Kashmir 
issues  out  of  consideration,  the  standard  was  well  main- 
tained at  all  the  mints  till  the  Durrani  kingdom  began 
to  go  to  pieces.  The  Barakzais  degraded  the  coinage 
considerably.  Their  rupees  struck  immediately  before 
and  after  the  British  occupation  of  1839-91  (see  Nos. 
154  and  155)  average  only  140  grains,  and  Shah  Shuja's 
rupees  struck  during  that  occupation  (Nos.  129  and  130) 
weigh  only  143  and  144  grains.  The  rupees  of  Dost 
Muhammad,  Sher  'All,  Muhammad  Ya'qub,  and  the 
present  Amir  'Abd-ur-rahman  average  only  142  grains, 
though  Sher  'All  was  careful  to  put  the  legend  <*-£•/£ 
yak-rupia  in  the  centre  of  his  coins,  and  nlm-rupia  on 
the  half  rupees,  which  barely  weigh  70  grains. 

Silver  coins  averaging  85  grains  have  also  been  struck 
at  Qandahar,  of  which  No.  156  is  a  specimen.  These 
still  continue  to  be  struck,  and  may  perhaps  be  referred  to 
the  Persian  type  known  as  'abbasl.  The  nearest  approach 
to  the  depreciated  rupee  is  the  coin  occasionally  struck 
under  the  Safavls  known  as  an  "  'abbasi  of  five  shahis" 
(Marsden,  vol.  ii.  No.  DLX.).  Marsden's  specimen 
weighed  134J  grains.  Mr.  E.  E.  Oliver  gives  others 
of  141,  138,  135,  and  147  ;6  the  average  of  these 
specimens  being  139  grains,  or  nearly  the  same  as  the 
Barakzai  rupee. 

6  The  Safavi  Dynasty  of  Persia.     By  E.  E.  Oliver.     J.A.S. 
Bengal,  vol.  i.  part  i.  1887. 



The  style  and  execution  of  the  coins  vary  considerably. 
Those  struck  at  Kabul  and  in  Kashmir  are  the  best.  The 
double  rupee  of  Zaman  Shah  (No.  61,  PL  xiii.  No.  8)  and 
the  double  mohar  of  Nur-ud-dm  (No.  135,  PI.  xiii.  No.  16) 
are  fine  and  artistic  coins,  worthy  of  the  palmy  days  of  the 
Mughal  Empire.  The  Bahawalpur  mohar  and  rupee  of 
Shuja'-ul-mulk  Shah  (Nos.  112,  114)  are  clearly  struck  and 
handsome  coins,  with  milled  edges,  and  are  apparently 
imitated  from  the  Farrukhabad  Sikka  rupees  of  the  East 
India  Company.  The  double  mohar  of  Mahmud  Shah  of 
the  same  mint  (No.  79)  is  also  a  beautiful  coin.  The 
Peshawar  coins  are  also  of  a  good  style,  as  are  some  of 
those  of  Herat  and  Qandahar,  but  the  Derajat  issues  are 
poor,  and  show  signs  of  having  been  struck  in  a  backward 
and  uncivilized  province. 

The  coins  described  here  are,  when  not  otherwise 
specified,  from  my  own  cabinet.  Some  are  in  the  Lahore 
Museum,  and  some  from  the  cabinets  of  Mrs.  Stoker, 
Mr.  C.  J.  Eodgers,  and  Mr.  W.  Theobald,  to  whom  I  am 
much  indebted  for  assistance  received  and  for  permission 
to  describe  their  coins. 


COINS    OF    THE    DURRANIS.  335 


The  Durrani  kings,  following  the  example  of  the 
Mughal  emperors  of  India  and  the  kings  of  Persia,  made 
use  of  Persian  couplets  or  baits  on  their  coins,  each  king 
adopting  a  new  one  on  his  accession,  and  usually  adhering 
to  it  throughout  his  coinage  in  gold  'and  silver.  The 
following  are  the  couplets  which  have  been  observed  on 
the  Durrani  coins.  Ahmad  Shah's  well-known  verse  is 
added  to  complete  the  series. 

1.     Ahmad  Shah. 

"  The  order  proceeded  from  the  Incomparable  Creator  to 
Ahmad  the  King."  Strike  coins  in  silver  and  gold  from  the 
Ascension  of  Pisces  up  to  the  Moon. 

Mr.  Rodgers  also  gives  the  following  couplet  of  Ahmad 
Shah's  from  a  Kashmir  rupee.  It  will  be  noticed  that  the 
Kashmir  coinage  frequently  shows  a  variation  from  that 
of  the  other  mints. 

The  world-protecting  king  Ahmad  Shah  struck  coins  in  gold 
by  God's  grace. 


2.  Taimur  Shah,  as  Nizam,  under  his  father. 

Jl    jjj «i)  ^     ] J. >.      fc      v      ^ 



The  latter  reading  is  given  by  Mr.  Rodgers,7  with  the 
following  translation  : 

"  The  coin  of  Taimur  Shah  got  curreftt  in  the  world  by  the 
order  of  God  and  the  Prophet  of  the  people." 

There  is  here  evidently  a  pun  upon  the  word  Nizam, 
which  means  both  "  Governor"  and  "currency." 

3.  Taimur  Shah  as  king. 
The  usual  couplet  is 

The  revolution  (of  the  heavens)  brings  gold  and  silver  from 
the  sun  and  moon,  that  it  may  make  on  its  face  the  impression 
of  the  coinage  of  Taimur  Shah. 

In  the  Kashmir  coinage  this  is  varied  by  the  substitution 
of  the  word  Joj  "may  strike,"  for  J^  "may  make." 
The  Tarlkh-i-Durram  gives  this  version  as  the  usual  form 
of  the  couplet,  but  I  have  only  found  it  on  the  Kashmir 

7  Couplets  of  Kings  after  the   time  of  Jahangir.     By  C.  J. 
Rodgers,  J.  A.  S.  B.  No.  1,  1888. 

COINS    OF    THE    DURRANIS.  337 

4.  Zaman  Shah. 

The  currency  of  the  coin  of  the  realm  in  the  name  of  Shah 
Zaman  obtained  permanency  by  the  order  of  the  Lord  of  both 

The  following  line  is  added  on  some  coins  as  a  marginal 
inscription,  and  in  others  occurs  by  itself. 

He  has  struck  coins  in  silver  and  gold  by  the  order  of  the 
God  of  the  age  ;  or,  Zaman  has  struck  coins  in  silver  and  gold 
by  God's  order. 

5.  Mahmud  Shah.     The  usual  couplet  is  : 

The  world-conquering  Khusrau  Mahmud  Shah  struck  coins 
in  gold  through  God's  support. 

On  the  coins  struck  by  Mahmud  Shah,  under  the  title 
of  Sultan  Mahmud,  the  following  appears  : 

Sultan  Mahmud,  the  second  Khusrau,  increased  the  coinage 
of  the  realm  in  gold  and  silver. 


6.    Shuja'-ul-mulk  Shah.      The  couplet  usually  found 
on  his  coins  is  : 

The  religious  King,  Shuja'-ul-mulk  Shah,  struck  coins  in 
silver  and  gold  like  the  sun  and  moon. 

The  author  of  the  Tarlkh-i-Sultam  (quoted  by  Mr. 
Bodgers  in  the  paper  mentioned  above)  gives  the  following 
as  occurring  on  the  coins  of  Shah  Shuja',  but  I  have  never 
met  with  it  on  any  coin. 

The  light  of  the  eyes,  the  pearl  of  pearls  (or,  of  the  Durranis) 
King  Shuja'-ul-mulk  Shah,  struck  in  gold  and  silver  coins  more 
brilliant  than  the  sun  and  moon. 

7.  Qaisar  Shah.  I  have  not  seen  enough  coins  to  be 
certain  of  the  reading  of  the  couplet  on  Qaisar  Shah's 
coins,  but  it  appears  to  read  as  follows  : 

The  coinage  in  gold  and  silver  in  the  name  of  Qaisar  Shah  (is) 
current  in  the  world  by  God's  grace. 

8.  Nur-ud-din.     The  only  silver  coin  of  Nur-ud-dm's 
which  I  have  seen  gives  the  couplet  in  a  very  fragmentary 


form,  which  I  am  unable  to  read.     On  his  double  gold 
mohar  here  described  the  following  occur  : 

The  world  is  carrion,  and  the  seekers  thereafter  are  dogs. 
And  in  the  margins  : 

&\p*~  +)&^*  V.  (ji^  J?  *\~*  V. 
Oh  king  Nuru'd-dm,  Oh  (thou)  served  by  the  world. 

9.     Ayyub  Shah.  The  couplet  on  the  Peshawar  coins  is: 

In  the  world  the  sun  and  moon  were   illuminated  by  the 
darting  forth  of  the  rays  of  the  coinage  of  Ayyub  Shah. 

On  the  Kashmir  coins  the  following  is  found  : 

The   coinage  of  Ayyub  Shah  in  gold  and  silver  came  into 
existence  by  the  order  of  the  Exalted  Creator. 



A.D.  A.H. 

Accession  of  Ahmad  Shah 1747  1 160 

Appointment  of  Taimur  Shah  as  Nizam  of  Lahore 

andMultan 1756  1170 

Accession  of  Taimur  Shah 1773  1187 

Multan  taken  hy  Sikhs  and  retaken  by  Taimur  Shah  1781  1196 

Death  of  Taimur  Shah  and  accession  of  Zaman  Shah  1793  1207 

Zaman  Shah's  first  invasion  of  Punjab     1795  1209 

Agha  Muhammad  Kajar  seizes  Persian  Khorasan  1796  1210 

Murder  of  Painda  Khan  Barakzai  by  Zaman  Shah  1799  1214 
Zaman  Shah  dethroned  and  blinded  by  Mahmud 

Shah    1800  1215 

Mahmud  Shah  proclaimed  King  at  Kabul,  Shah 

Shuja'  at  Peshawar   1800  1215 

Shah  Shuj a'  expelled  from  Peshawar 1801  1216 

Meshhed  taken  by  Persians 1802  1217 

Shah  Shuja'  takes  Kabul 1803  1218 

Sindh  invaded  by  Shah  Shuja' 1804  1219 

Qandahar  taken  by  Kamran,  retaken  by  Shuja'.  .  1806  1221 

Qaisar  Shah  proclaimed  King  by  Path  Khan 1807  1222 

Defeat  of  Shah  Shuja'  by  Mahmud  at  Nimla 1809  1224 

Invasion  of  Kashmir  by  Path  Khan,  Muhammad 

'Azim  becomes  Governor   1812  1227 

Path  Khan  defeated  by  Sikhs  at  Chach 1812  1227 

Path  Khan  joins  Piroz  Shah  at  Herat 1816  1232 

Path  Khan  murdered  by  Kamran,  Multan  taken 

by  the  Sikhs   1818  1233 

Sultan  'All  Shah  proclaimed  King  by  Dost  Mu- 
hammad   1819  1234 

Ay  yub  Shah  proclaimed  by  Muhammad  'Azirn  Khan  1819  1234 

Kashmir  conquered  by  the  Sikhs 1819  1234 

Dera  Ghazi  Khan  conquered  by  the  Sikhs 1819  1235 

COINS    OF    THE    DURRANTs.  341 

A.D.  A.H. 

Dera  Isma'il  Khan  conquered  by  the  Sikhs  ....  1821  1236 

Mahmud  flees  to  Herat 1821  1236 

Battle  of  Naushehra 1822  1238 

Dost  Muhammad  established  at  Kabul,  Sultan 

Muhammad  at  Peshawar 1822  1238 

Death  of  Mahmud  Shah  1829  1245 

Dost  Muhammad  takes  title  of  Amir  1834  1250 

Peshawar  taken  by  the  Sikhs  1834  1250 

Shah  Shuja'  unsuccessfully  attacks  Qandahar. . .  .  1834  1250 

Shah  Shuja'  restored  by  British  intervention 1839  1255 

Shah  Shuja'  killed.  His  sons  expelled  from  Kabul. 

Kamran  killed  near  Herat  by  Yar  Muhammad  1842  1258 


Date  of  Accession. 

A.H.  A.D. 

I.  Ahmad  Shah 1160  1747 

II.  Taimur  Shah  . . , 1187  1773 

III.  Zaman  Shah   1207  1793 

IY.  Shuja'-ul-mulk  Shah.     First  reign 1216  1801 

Y.  Mahmud  Shah.     First  reign 1216  1801 

Shuja'-ul-mulk.    Second  reign 1218  1803 

Mahmud  Shah.    Second  reign 1224  1809 

to 1245  1829 

YI.  Qaisar  Shah  (in  Kashmir) 1221  1806 

to             1223  1808 

VII.  Sultan  'All  Shah  (at  Kabul) 1233  1817 

VIII.  Ayyub  Shah  (Kashmir  and  Peshawar). . . .  1233  1817 

IX.  Kamran  (at  Herat) 1245  1829 

to             1258  1842 

Shuja'-ul-mulk  Shah  (Third  reign) 1255  1839 

X.  FathJang  1258  1842 
















(1)   As  Nizam  under  Ahmad  Shah. 


Mint  and  Date. 


1  tvi 



fliaJ   *l&jj«wJ    AC   L^Jb    Jl*J 



A\j\    J^~>J  ^   lA>-    f^7 


^laU  ^U\,b  c^y  ^1 

^.  -75.     Wt.  170. 




but  date  1  1  v*. 





but  date  1  1  VA. 


N  -76.    Wt.  170. 





but  date  1  1  Af  t  and  <U-> 






but  date  1  1  v  •  .    j^  ^^> 


(Mr.  C.  J".  Rodgers.) 




but  date  it  ve.  jjl^L*  ^W^J  ^-y* 


^R.    -9.     Wt.  176. 

(2)  As  King. 




Obv.  i 

^  JLJ^  j!  ^  j  &  jjT  ^  ^^ 


1                                          /                  A    "  •                                            »  .  ^1  " 

^Li»  »%'*-^  Ax~s  ^j^-W  Xjj^>-ji  &£  *J 


Jl  Jj\?  toLUIjb  c^y 

^".    (Lahore  Museum.) 




As  on  7.     Date  xxx*. 



,.Uxj  (—  ^  ^^y  U  c^^-*^  i  j^r/^r 

jV.    '8.     Wt.  167. 




Mint  and  Date. 



Obv.     As  on  7.     Date  1  r-f. 


Rev.     As  on  8.     Year  tv. 

N.    -8.     Wt.  169. 



Obv.     As  on  7.     Date  x^  r. 



Rev.     *JJ  (—Jj*a  <U~s 

N.    -75.     Wt.  170. 



Obv.     As  on  7.     Date  t  r  •  v. 


Rev.     Circular  area  surrounded  by  dots 

rr  j^jj  S-y-z  (Lotus-flower  ornament). 

N.  "'76.     Wt.  170.     PI.  xiii.     No.  1. 



Obv.     As  on  7. 


1  1  <iv 

Rev.   CL?U>  ^y  U  L^:**~«  u*jW-  <-^ 

AT.    -75.     Wt.  168. 



The  same.     No  date. 

N.    -75.     Wt.  168. 



Obv.     As  on  7. 

Rev.       JbU.Jc4.sJ  jLJt  cJ^-ll  L-j«e 

N.    (Lahore  Museum.) 



Kashmir.     Date  t  r  •  •.     Year  t  r. 


N.    (Mr.  C.  J.  Rodgers.) 



Kashmir.     Dateir*r.     Year  to. 


N.    (Mr.  C.  J.  Rodgers.) 




Obv.     As  on  7. 


Rev.      Circular  area   surrounded  by  line 

and  dots. 

M.    -85.     Wt.  174. 



The  same.      HAV.     j^l  <U-o. 


yR.   (Mr.  C.  J.  Rodgers.) 



Obv.     As  on  7.     Date  tin. 



Rev.     Jjli  4-l2LJ\  j)J  c_->r^  ^i—  ». 

^51.    -95.    Wt.  180.     PI.  xiii.    No.  2. 




Mint  and  Date. 



Obv.  As  on  7. 


Rev.     As  on  19.     Year  f  . 

JR.    (Lahore  Museum.) 



Obv.     As  on  7. 



JR.  (Mr.  C.  J.  Rodgers.) 



Obv.     As  on  7. 


Rev.     Circular  area  surrounded  by  double 

line  enclosing  line  of  dots. 

1  1  IA  ci?y>  ^y  U  L^CS^,  u^j^r  <-r>> 

JR.    -8.     Wt.  174- 



Herat.     Date  t  r  •  I  . 


^R.  (Mr.  C.  J.  Rodgers.) 



Herat.     Date  t  r«v. 


^R.  (Mr.  C.  J.  Rodgers.) 



Obv.     As  on  7. 


I  r  »A 

Rev.  CuLfc  &Ja3uJ|^4)  ^-^ 

^R.    -85.     Wt.  178.     PI.  xiii.     No.  3. 



Obv.     As  on  7. 


Rev.  jjjliJ  (-.jJ  U  C^*~*  (J*jL>-  '  r  <rrir* 

JR,.  (Mr.  C.  J.  Rodgers.) 



Obv.     As  on  7.     Date  n  Sv. 


Rev.      Circular  area  surrounded  by   line 

and  dots.                               ,  , 

^           "^R".  -85.     Wt.  176. 



Obv.              tU\  J^yj  ^jjj^  *« 

Rev.     Centre,  in  a  heart-shaped  arabesque 

surrounded  by  dots. 

JR.  '9.     Wt.  176.     PI.  xiii.     No.  4. 



Obv.     As  on  7.     Date  xx^. 


\  \ 

Rev.     l  **^  ^~  r*     ^—  "^7*^  ^•***}» 

^R.  -85."  Wt.  171.     PL  xiii.    No.  5. 




Mint  and  Date. 



The  same.     Date  xx\*.     Year  t  r. 


JR.  -8.     Wt.  168-5. 



The  same.     Date  t  m  .     Year  1  r. 


JR.  -8.     Wt.  170. 



Obv.     As  on  7.     Date  til  A. 



Rev.     te~o  jjjj  t-rV^' 

JR.  (Mr.  C.  J.  Rodgers.) 



Obv.     As  on  7.     Date  t  nr. 


-p                1  1       ••   •                 \  i-,             • 

Jb  U*>  <X4»£h-  1    J-LJl     U—J.-ll 

;R.  -8.     Wt.  171. 



The  same.     No  date. 

JR.  '8.     Wt.  175. 



Obv.     As  on  7.     No  date. 

Rev.     ^tol^Js^-l  jLS!   uJ^-1  c-^J 

"   (enclosed  in  double  circle). 

^l.  -85.     Wt.  176. 



The  same.     Date  t  no. 


^R.  (Mr.  C.  J.  Rodgers.) 



The  same.     Date  t  r«i. 


^R.  (Mr.  C.  J.  Rodgers.) 



Obv.     As  on  7,  with  flower-ornament. 


Rev.      Area  surrounded  by  circular  line 

and  dots.                           f  ,  A  ^ 

^R.  -85.     Wt.  176.     PI.  xiii.     No.  6. 



Obv.  Margin  : 


»U,  ^j*  jl  *jSj  ti**Jif  tj°- 

Centre,  in  sixfoil                       &\£  \]+*i 

Rev.     In  sixfoil  : 

ll^  jjmijjU  C^^*-,^  (jMJ^-j^L^  C-^J 

^R.  -9.     Wt.  176. 



Date  1  1  IA. 


^R.  (Mr.  C.  J.  Rodgers.) 




Mint  and  Date. 



Date  tm. 

Year  e. 


^R.  (Mr.  C.  J.  Rodgers.) 






*U  j  s^tij 

jrL  \\  Xj&  j  No  Jjl  ^  £>r>- 

t  r  •  t 

*\£  Jf 

«-J  *L>  /AAJ  y^>.  j  &£  to* 

Rev.     In  an  arabesque  :  (  ^ 


(j*yu»  *z^ 

Jwi±^i  L/^y^  it^**J>;*'4>^  ^-r-V^ 

^R.   '9.     Wt.  168. 



The  same. 

Date  'Mo.     Year  A. 


^R,.  (Mr.  C.  J.  Rodgers.) 



The  same. 

Date  !Hv.     Year  1  •. 


^R.  (Mr.  C.  J.  Rodgers.) 



The  same. 

Date  t  r-r.     Year  ie. 


^R.  (Mr.  C.  J.  Rodgers.) 



The  same. 

Date  I  r  •  r.     Year  1  1  . 


^R.   (Lahore  Museum.) 



The  same. 

Date  i  r«A.     Year  r». 



•95.    Wt.  166.    Pl.xiii.    No.  7. 



Obv.     As 

on  7.     Date  ir-F. 


t  A 


<!U«J  (^uL«  10^**'  J'1^  t^ir9j*a 

j&.  (Mr.  C.  J.  Rodgers.) 



The  same. 

Date  t  r«a.     Year  tl. 
^R.   (Mr.  C.  J.  Rodgers.) 





tr»t  ,j\j£  *L!*jy*-J  (j»y^ 


A  x           •  >., 


•^^xwJ        .  _^/*^ 

^.  -9.     Wt.  272. 



Obv.     In 

an  arabesque  : 




KJ  j  (j-^  ^r^ 

M.  '85. 




Mint  and  Date. 



The  same.     No  date. 

M.  -8. 



Obv.     An  animal,  probably  intended  for  a 

(Fath  Khan) 

lion,  with  the  date  I  r  •  r  reversed 

over  its  back,  thus  "I'll. 

Rev.     A   monogram   or    tughra   probably 

meant  for  -^  \  ->  J. 

M.  '7. 



Obv.                              t  r»f  al2>jbj^*.J 

(Fath  Khan) 

Rev.     As  on  53.     Year  M. 


M.  -75. 


Fazilpur  (?) 

Obv.     The  figure  of  a  peacock. 


1  !A 

Rev.     ^V9  ....  (juwjU 

JE.  (square).  P7. 




Obv.     <SWUMO  


Rev.     CuV>-  .  . 

M.  -7. 





1  1  *)P  .    .    .  -J  1  «t)    «t)  iwJiiU    #U*J    tiA^J   LJ"Ji 

Rev.                 ^\ixL/«  C—  ?,*?  c^SiLs^i  ^jw»i.>- 

J3.  -8. 



Obv.                       i  r«c  .xl^ijlj  i  wi  «*^M«J 


Rev.                    ^uxL«  S-V^  t  ^  (j**y^r 






Obv.    uVr  j<^  ^^  j-X*:  ur-^lj  jly 

^WJ   *U*j    j*UJ   C^J^t)   <O»«J  ^U^ 


Rev.                   &.-J  J.jl^  ^ilaLJl  ^,M  u-J.*? 

j^.  (Lahore  Museum.) 




Mint  and  Date. 



Obv.    As  on  59. 


Eev.    Centre  :                  f  n  c 

Margin  illegible;  probably  the  line 
given  in  the  Obv.  Margin  No.  59. 
-AT.     '75.     Wt.  168. 

(Marsden's  Numismata  Orientalia,  vol.  ii. 
p.  Ivii.  No.  MCCCXXVIII.) 




Obv.     Centre  : 


oVrrV*  ^^-  (&*?  ^V.j!/ 

^,U»j  &\£i  |*bo  e^JjJ  4x«j  _.'jj 
Margin  : 

Rev.    U  ^K}  J^11ui>'L> 

^R.  1-1.    Wt.  356.    Pl.xiii.    No.  8. 



The  same.     Date  f  rn.    Year  *. 



^R.  (Mr.  C.  J.  Eodgers). 
Obv.     As  on  61. 


Obv.  Margin  divided  into  sections. 

Eev.          v  ^l-iaJk^^l  jLJ!  <-Jj-$j!  <r-^ 

^R.  1-15.    Wt.348.    PLxiii.    No.  9. 



Obv.     As  on  59. 



Eev.           r  jjfculxXfcs*-'  jLJi  4_^-i»i  ^-^/^ 

^R.  -85.     Wt.  178. 



Obv.     As  on  59.     Date  xx*v. 


Eev.    ^c^dc^Lr 

^R.  -9.     Wt.  177. 



Peshawar.     Date  t  *xx.     Year  f  . 
^R.  (Mr.  C.  J.  Eodgers.) 

VOT..   VITT.    THIRD  SERIES.                                                                  Z   Z 




Mint  and  Date. 



Obv.    Area  and  margin,  as  on  61  .  Date  t  r  t  c 


Rev.     A^yU(^~*^^^lAJL.^ 

JR.  -95.     Wt.  177. 



Obv.  trio  (jl*j  ,c-^  f^^'j)  )  f?*3^  ^}  ^**J 


Rev.    As  on  67.  "  Imperfect. 

JR.  -95.     Wt.  177. 



Obv.     As  on  59. 



"  JR.  -85.     Wt.  175. 



Obv.                                  alfcjb  all  ^Uj 


(i)    j   L_5"r     v*^*  JJ  5   (*^*>^S'   ^J   &**> 

Rev.              t  rt  r  L  **  *\  N  (ti^juuuji   «it}  e-_  ->  pff 

JR.  (Mrs.  Stoker.) 



Obv.     As  on  59. 



Rev.     <Uw-j  CL?lsj-  yb  j  J  S-^ 

"^R.'-85.     Wt.  169. 



The  same.     Date  t  rt  r.     Year  1. 


^l.  -85.     Wt.  166-5. 



The  same.     Year  v. 


^R.  -85.     Wt.  169-5. 



The  same.     Year  A. 


^R.  -85.     Wt.  169.     PI.  xiii.     No.  10. 



Obv.     As  on  59. 


XvGV«                                    1  r  *    (      «^^4<JUU^      Alrti^r  »W»)  1  «l^    ^^^  +*& 

JR.  (Lahore  Museum.) 




Obv.      f  r  •  «.  ^\j6j£  ill  ^Uj 



Rev.                    <!j»**}  $Jt)  c.-?-ttf 

JE.  -8. 



Obv.     As  on  76.     Date  trip. 


Rev.     A  jo^*L*  ^***i'  ^-V^ 
-SI.   -9. 




Mint  and  Date. 



The  same.     Date  trie. 


M.  '9. 


(a)    With  the  title  Mahmud  Shah. 




Obv.                   &JJ)  ^*i*2j  .\  j  J>j  <Jj 




t  rtv  *[£  jy^^l^  jsJfjf* 



Rev.            <^U  ^^^  e^U  <L 

»—  ' 

^.1-1.     Wt.  344.     PL  xiii.     No 

.  11. 

(Two  other  specimens  examined  show  tho 
date  1217  on  the  Obverse,  but  the  years 
11  and  12  on  the  reverse.) 

(b)   With  the  title  Sultan  Mahmud. 



Obv.             tyj     ft!*"4  3  JJ  J^  v"~"  ^  ^ 



t  r  rf  t>y4.^^  (^UaL-j  Jo  J  •.***, 



Rev.              Jjl^"  ^ulaLJ^  j\4  <-Jj*  & 


N.  -9.     Wt. 



(a)    With  the  title  Mahmud  Shah. 



Obv.     As  on  79.     Date  ?rtv. 


Rev.     »«ui*->  <*—Jj&  &»+> 
M.  -85.     Wt. 




Obv.     As  on  79.     No  date. 

Rev.        JbiJbJ^*.!  jLJl  uJ^  <—>;*> 

M.  '85.     Wt. 





Mint  and  Date. 




The  same.     Date  t  r  rf  . 


JR.  (Lahore  Museum.) 



Obv.     As  on  79. 


t  rt  i 

Rev.     CU^fc  <LdaLJljb  c-^J 

JR.  '65.     Wt.  176. 



The  same.     Date  t  HA. 


JR.  (Mr.  C.  J.  Rodgers.) 



The  same.     Date  t  r  r  •  . 


JR.  "75.     Wt.  178. 



The  same.     Date  trn. 


M.  -75.     Wt.  178. 



The  same.     Date  t  r  r  r. 


JR.  -75.     Wt.  178. 



The  same.     Date  t  rrr. 


JR.  -75.     Wt.  178. 



The  same.     Date  t  rre. 


JR.  -65.     Wt.  174. 



The  same.     No  date. 

JR.  *7.    Wt.  172. 



Obv.     As  on  79.                    f 


Rev.      C^b-ajJ  *_  y*  <U**a 

JR.  -75.     Wt.  170. 



The  same.     Date  I  m. 


M.  -75.     Wt.  170. 



The  same.     Date  t  rrf.     Year  J^l. 


A  new  date  of  accession  1  224,  referring  to 

Mahmiid  Shah's  second  reign.     See  also 

the  coins  with  the  title  Sultan  Mahmud. 

M.  -75.     Wt.  169. 



The  same.     Date  trn. 


M.  -75.     Wt.  169. 



The  same.     Date  trrv  (?) 


M.  -75.     Wt.  170.     PI.  xiii.     No.  12. 



The  same.     Date  t  rft. 


Cross  of  flower  ornaments  on  Obverse. 

M.  -8.     Wt.  168. 




Mint  and  Date. 



The  same.     Date  t  rf  f  . 
JR.  -8.    Wt.  167. 



The  same.     Date  trfi. 
M.  -75.     Wt.  166. 



The  same.     Date  irc«. 
JR.  '75.     Wt.  166. 

(These  four  rupees  were  struck  under  Sikh 
influence.     On  the  Obv.  of  No.  100  there 

is  an  ornament  resembling  the  arisi  of 
Mora,  as  found  on  the  Sikh  coins.     The 
paper  on  the  Coins  of  the  Sikhs  by  C.  J. 
Rodgers,  J.A.S.B.  1881,  pi.  v.  No.  16.) 



Obv.     As  on  79.     Date  in  A. 


Rev.     Centre  in  a  small  arabesque  (as  in 
the  Meshhed  mint). 

"jR.  -8.     Wt.  166. 



Obv.     As  on  79.                   v 


1222  (?) 

'     JR.  (Mrs.  Stoker.) 
Obv.     Margin,  illegible. 

Centre                             *^»  ^<*^» 

Rev.     <j-j«3l«  e^»X4~«  u^^Tj^^  ^j* 

JR.  -8.     Wt.  151. 

(b)  With  the  title  Sultan  Mahmud. 



Obv.     Margin,  in  four  compartments. 


|    X>  J«/**S»-    I   ^Jj*\    \    ^  jjjj*.     \  ^^^  ^~* 

Centre,  in  quatrefoil. 

i  rrr  j^s^  ^UaLo 

Rev.     Octagonal    area,     surrounded     by 
arrow-head   pattern. 

^jl£j  L-Jje  L/T^  *"~* 
JR.  '9.     Wt.  164.  V  PL  xiii.     No.  13. 



The  same.     Date  trr.v.     Year  r. 
JR.  (Mr.  C.  J.  Rodgers.) 




Mint  and  Date. 



The  same.     Date  t  rrr.     Year  A. 


M.  (Mr.  C.  J.  Rodgers.) 


i  rn 



Obv.                                aLljlj  *Li>  <J>j^ 



Rev.                                J^i  U"^  *-: 






Obv.        t  IT*  .J\j3j&  *Lit3b  *L2»  ^ 



Rev.                               (jlsl*  (j*^J  <- 






The  same.     Date  t  rn. 






The  same.     Date  I  rn. 






The  same.     Date  t  rf  f  . 




(The  last  two  were  struck  under  Sikh  rule.) 


[Abbreviated  form,  Shah  Shuja'.] 




Obv.        ^^^j^jy 



1  MA  A&  ujUl  jls^   tjift  ^ 


Key.       ^yU  c^^,  ^^r  ^1 


N.  -99.     "Wt.  172.     PL  xiii.     No 

.  14. 



Obv.     As  on  112.     Date  irrf. 


Rev.                         A  ^l^L§  ^jILiSi^iJ  c 


^.  -7.     Wt. 





Mint  and  Date. 




Obv.     As  on  112. 


Rev.     As  on  112.     Date  j^-1. 

M.  '99. 

Wt.  178. 



Obv.     As  on  112.     Date  irrr. 



Eev.                ^yU  i^i*-*  (j 

*jLr  ^ 

M.  -8. 

m.  ne. 



Obv.     As  on  112. 


Eev.     In  an  arabesque. 

t  r  r  • 

•  M 

M.   '8. 

Wt.  178. 



The  same.     Date  I  r  rf  . 
M.  (Lahore 




Obv.     As  on  112. 

Eev.     ^U»«X4^1  <—  ^  •     No 


JR.  (Lahore 




Obv.     As  on  112.     Date  triA. 


'JP"        \ 

.          . 

Eev.                         ^^  <—  ?V5T* 

/r.      •  .r^ 

^R.  '75. 

Wt.  168. 



The  same.     Date  IMA.     Year 
M.  '8. 


m.  no. 



The  same.     Date  ml. 
M.  '8. 

Wt.  168. 



The  same.     Date  I  r  r  • 
M.  -75. 

Wt.  168. 



The  same.     irn.     Year  e. 
/R.  -8. 

Wt.  170. 





Mint  and  Date. 



The  same,      t  r  TX.     Year  ^  . 


JR.  '75.     Wt.  169. 



With  name  Shah  Shuja'.     Date  1  n  A 


JR.   (Mr.  W.  Theobald.) 



With  name  Shuja'ul-mulk  Shah.   Date  t  r  r  • 


JR.  (Mr.  W.  Theobald.) 



The  same.     Date  t  rrr. 


JR.  (Mr.  W.  Theobald.) 



The  same.     Date  t  rrr. 


JR.  (Mr.  W.  Theobald.) 



Obv.             #rcc>  $Ls,  i    (\*\\  clsA    .  IkLo 


Rev.     In  a  "  mehrabi"  area. 

JR.  -9     Wt.  144.     PL  xiii.  No.  15. 



The  same.     Date  t  rc#. 


JR.  -8.     Wt.  144. 



Obv.                                   djfy'*  ?^^  ^ 

Rev.     As  on  129. 

JR.  (Mr.  C.  J.  Rodgers.) 




Obv.    Illegible,  except  the  word    ^^ 

Counterstruck  t_xL*Jl  ?W^ 

Rev.                                          J*£*£  ^j^ 

M.  1-0. 





Obv.     ^Lyj  j*&+3  (*   •  JJ  J  (*^**i^  ^)  ^^**J 


t  rrr  <dli  /UoJ  \\  1^^'^  ^^j 


Rev.                     k~i  rt*£i  tb~*~  c_^? 

JR.  (Mrs.  Stoker.) 




Mint  and  Date. 



The  same.     Date  t  r  r  i  . 
JR.  (Mr.  W.  Theobald.) 

VI.     NtJR-UD-DIN. 




Obv.     Centre,  in  square  : 


Margin,  in  four  segments  : 



Eev          t  r  r  $  <_  _di.£  \&*\  lb  *  <UL»^-  w  Jo  i 
N.  -85.     Wt.  338.     PL  xiii.     No.  16. 
Another  double  mohar  of  different  types 
and  treatment  to  the  above.    Date  I  rro. 

Year  3. 
N.  (Mr.  C.  J.  Eodgers.) 





Obv.     i  rrr  *li  ^^1  •  •  •  ^•^'J'  f[j 

Eev.                ^^^  ^j++££  d*£-  <-*j* 
JR.  (Mrs.  Stoker.) 

The  same.     Date  i  rrf.     Year  J^-l 
JR.  (Mr.  C.  J.  Eodgers.) 





Eupees  of  the  Kashmir  mint,  dated  t  rrv, 
irrA    irr«    trrr. 
JR.  (Mr.  W.  Theobald.) 







Mint  and  Date. 





Obv.    *UjJ^^*Jui^wl^J 


t  rrf 


JR.  -95.     Wt.  164.     PI.  xiii.     No.  17. 



The  same.     Year  A. 
JR.  -9.     Wt.  163. 




The  same.     Date  t  rfi. 
JR.  (Mr.  W.  Theobald.) 
The  same.     Year  t  1  . 
JR.  -95.     Wt.  163. 




The  same.     Year  t  rfA. 
JR.  (Lahore  Museum.) 

1233  (?) 


Rev.             j^l  t**j+*££  *k>-  c-,y5 

JR.  -9.     Wt.  168. 



The  same.     Date  i  rrf. 
JR.  (Mr.  W.  Theobald.) 
The  same.     Date  1  rro. 
JR.  (Mr.  W.  Theobald.) 




Obv.              ^jU  *luV  ^  ^ 


xv6V«                                            t  •  »*i-^O   /  juwftX3  ^^^  •*& 

M.  '9. 



1  rr 
Obv.     t^jlc  iub  Ju  il-i>  UJ^i'  u^u/«  AX«J 


Rev.                               ^"^  cr^  <-r>* 

^?       .0  e 
-/-I  j  •      oO  • 




Mint  and  Date. 











^l.  -85X-75.     Oval.     Wt.  141 


Eev.     In  an  arabesque  : 
t  ref 

"  ^R.  '9.     Wt.  138. 
Obv.     Not  deciphered.  Possibly  Path  Jang. 

Eev.     t  roA  J^  <ukU^b  c-^J 

^R.  -9X-8.     Oval.     Wt.  140. 


"^R.  '75.     Wt.  85, 












Taimur  Shah. 


Ahmad  shahi 



Taimur  Shah. 







jLJI    u-JnM 





1             \ 


Zaman  Shah. 













Mahmud  Shah. 






Shah  Shuja* 













Shah  Shuja'. 


\  Uj 





Jff  j^t 


Mahmud  Shah. 




Taimur  Shah. 
















Zaman  Shah. 




Mahmud  Shah. 





Taimur  Shah. 
















Zaman  Shah. 


Derajat  (Derahjat 



Taimur  Shah. 










Zaman  Shah. 


/•vjU^jj,  j'!o 





•  >  JT. 

















Mahmud  Shah. 








Shah  Shuja'. 
















Mahmud  Shah. 




Shah  Shuja'. 



Mahmud  Shah. 






7  7 






7  7 











Taimur  Shah. 


Dera  Path  Khan. 








Taimur  Shah. 




















Zaman  Shah. 



Mahmud  Shah. 







5  J 






>  > 









7  7 






Taimur  Shah. 












Zaman  Shah. 










Sultan  Mahmud. 











Shah  Shuja'. 




Altai  Jang. 








Shah  Shuja'. 





Taimur  Shah. 






\£  (Ak.Q 






















Zaman  Shah. 




Shah  Shuja'. 



Mahmud  Shah. 




Shah  Shuja'. 



Qaisar  Shah. 




Shah  Shuja'. 







Mahmud  Shah. 



Qaisar  Shah. 
















Muhammad  Shah. 















Ayyub  Shah. 















Taimur  Shah. 







Taimur  Shah  Nizam. 







Taimur  Shah. 












Taimur  Shah  Nizam. 







lllL             \^\    ta 




U     *  cJ      J 



Taimur  Shah  Nizam. 



















j  > 


Zaman  Shah. 



>  j 




Shah  Shuja'. 




Mahmud  Shah. 















Taimur  Shah. 


JJ     v 











Zaman  Shah. 


5  » 








Mahmud  Shah. 







Shah  Shuja'. 



Sultan  Mahmud. 










Ayyub  Shah. 












9  5 









Trois  royaumes  de  VAsie  Mineure :  Cappadoce,  Bithynie,  Pont. 
Par  Theodore  Reinach.     Paris,  1888. 

The  three  valuable  monographs  here  collected  into  a  single, 
handsome  volume,  illustrated  by  12  plates,  have  already  been 
separately  noticed  in  the  Numismatic  Chronicle  (1886,  p.  240  ; 
1887,  pp.  174,  352,  854;  and  1888,  pp.  158,  288).  On  the 
present  occasion  we  have,  therefore,  only  to  congratulate  the 
author  on  the  completion  of  his  work,  which  will  be  indis- 
pensable, not  only  to  numismatists,  but  to  students  of  history, 
who,  as  the  writer  justly  remarks  in  his  preface,  usually  make 
far  too  little  use  of  numismatic  documents  as  thoroughly  trust- 
worthy data  for  the  reconstruction  of  obscure  periods  of  history. 
We  cannot  but  hope  that  this  interesting  volume,  which  contains 
fully  as  much  historical  as  numismatic  matter,  will  contribute  in 
no  small  degree  to  break  down  the  barrier  which  unfortunately 
still  exists  between  the  Science  of  History  and  her  handmaid 

B.  V.  HEAD. 

OF  THE  BRITISH  EMPIRE.  By  James  Atkins.  1  vol.  8vo. — 
This  book,  published  by  Mr.  Quaritch,  uniform  with  those  of 
Hawkins  and  Kenyon  on  the  silver  and  gold  coinage  of  England, 
supplies,  as  it  claims  to  do,  a  want  long  felt  by  collectors,  and 
gives  a  very  good  view  of  the  coins  and  tokens  of  all  the  British 
possessions  abroad. 

The  work  is  divided  into  sections  geographically,  with  short 
accounts  of  the  British  possessions  in  and  money  struck  for  each 
country,  followed  by  lists  of  the  coins  and  tokens  arranged 
according  to  their  metal  and  their  dates.  The  illustrations  are 
numerous  and  distributed  in  the  letter-press,  and  the  descrip- 
tions are  concise  and  generally  plain  and  good. 

A  very  full  list  is  given  of  the  Anglo-Hanoverian  coinage, 
which  occupies  nearly  one  hundred  pages.  In  the  Asiatic  sec- 
tion of  one  hundred  pages,  a  fairly  correct  sketch  is  given  of 
that  difficult  subject,  the  British  Indian  coinage,  with  some 
accounts  of  the  Hindu  and  Musalman  systems  adopted  in  the 


early  times  of  it.  It  would  have  been  useful  to  have  added  to 
the  tables  on  p.  131  the  relative  value  of  the  coins  of  the  two 
systems  viz.:  3£  rupees=l  pagoda;  12  fanam=l  rupee;  75 

(al8'  too>  should  be  §iven  ^  a  division  of 
the  Musalman  rupee  instead  of  the  Hindu  fanam,  it  being  the 
same  com  as  was  afterwards  called  a  paisd,  and  at  one  time  a 
pie  Sikha.  A  transcript  of  the  Persian  legend  on  the  Madras 
copper  coins  of  1803  bearing  on  this,  viz.  that  20  kas  make  4 
fals,  is  omitted  in  the  notice  of  them  (No.  131  Madras).  The  list 
of  the  coins  in  this  section  is  a  good  one,  but  sadly  marred  by 
numerous  errors  in  the  copying  of  the  Oriental  inscriptions  and 
the  translations  of  them  ;  for  example,  Nos.  49,  50,  52,  and  54 
of  Bengal;  <£&;  on  the  first  of  these  is  read 

of  which  the   translation  is  fortunately  not  attempted,  and  on 
the  last         ^     ^Jb  is  read  ^        and  translated  "The 

Emperor  Shah  Aulum."  Even  the  Hindustani  jcjy.  .  ^  so 
familiar  to  Indians,  on  the  rupees  of  her  Majesty,  is  read  ^£, 
t  _  fj  No  mention  is  made  of  ashrafi,  which  was  a  nameV  for 
the  gold  coin  as  well  as  mohur,  and  is  inscribed  on  some  of 
them,  notably  on  the  Lion  and  Palm-tree  gold  coin  (No.  9  India, 
general).  Of  course  there  are  many  difficulties  in  reading  Oriental 
coins  even  to  those  familiar  with  the  written  languages,  owing 
to  the  proper  positions  of  words  and  letters  being  altered  to  suit 
the  taste  of  the  designer  for  appearances,  and  to  the  errors 
made  by  a  die-cutter  who  could  not  read  what  he  was  trying  to 
copy.  But  there  are  persons  who  can  read  them,  and  it  is  a  pity 
this  part  of  the  work  was  not  revised  by  such  an  one.  Excep- 
tion has  been  taken  to  the  relative  rareness  of  coins  and  tokens 
not  being  given  in  the  work,  but  probably  that  is  much  better 
entirely  left  out  of  a  book  of  this  kind,  for  it  is  a  question  on 
which  there  must  be  several  opinions  ;  for  instance,  some  may 
not  see  why  the  Tasmanian  Saw-mill  token  (page  337)  should 
be  mentioned  as  a  very  rare  piece,  whilst  nothing  is  said  of  the 
rarity  of  some  of  the  Hog  money  (page  315). 

The  sections  on  American  and  Australasian  coins  and  tokens 
are  very  good,  and  full  lists  are  given.  The  work  is  well  got  up 
and  has  a  fair  index. 


VOL.    VIII.    THIRD   SERIES.  3  B 



On  Oct.  2nd,  1888,  a  small  find  of  English  coins  was  made 
at  Denby,  by  a  farmer  named  James  Slater.  The  specimens 
consisted  of  9  Groats  of  Mary  I. ;  1  shilling  and  10  six- 
pences of  Elizabeth ;  4  shillings  and  2  sixpences  of  James  I., 
and  10  other  coins  not  identified.  Most  of  the  coins  were  in 
bad  preservation,  and  many  of  them  fell  to  pieces  when  being 
cleaned  by  the  finder.  The  coins  were  found  just  below  the 
surface  of  the  earth  in  the  bottom  of  a  hedge.  There  was  no 
trace  of  any  jar  or  other  receptacle  that  might  have  enclosed 
them.  It  will  be  remembered  that  there  was  also  a  find  at 
Denby  last  year,  consisting  of  fifty-one  silver  coins  of  Philip  and 
Mary,  Elizabeth,  James  I.  and  Charles  I.  (See  Numismatic 
Chronicle,  1887,  p.  340.) 




Aberdeen  medals,  320,  321 
Abydos  (Troad),  coin  of,  18 
Achaean  League,  coin  of,  9 
JEnus  (Thrace),  coin  of,  2 
Aeropus,  King  of  Macedonia,  coin 

of,  1 

Alea  (Arcadia),  coins  of,  11 
Altaf  Jang,  coins  of,  359 
Anglo-Gallic  coins,  hoard  of,  289 
Anglo-Saxons  and  their  Mints,  138 
Antiochus  IX.,  coin  of,  20 
Arcadians,  the  coins  of,  10 
Argos,  coins  of,  10 
Arian  Alphabet,  the,  201 
Athens,  coins  of,  7,  8 
Atkins,   James,  his  Colonial  coins 

noticed,  364 

Axus  (Crete),  coins  of,  1 1 
Ayyub  Shah,  coins  of,  358 


Baalmelek  II.,  coins  of,  125 
Baalram,  coins  of,  123,  126 
Bactria,  coin  of,  21 
Bain  medal,  the,  321 
Barclay  de  Tolly,  medal  of,  316 
Bell,  John,  medal  of,  59 
Bellingham,  John,  medal  of,  75 
Belzoni,  medals  of,  60 
Benthani,  Jeremy,  medals  of,  63 
Bentinck,  Lord  George,  medals  of, 


Beresford,  Lord,  medals  of,  65, 
Bergami,  Count  B.,  medals  of,  66 
Berlin  Museum,  Catalogue  of  Coins 

in,  noticed,  154 

Betty,  W.  H.  W.,  medals  of,  67 
Birch,  Joseph,  medal  of,  70 
Birch,  Samuel,  medal  of,  71 
Bliicher,  Marshal,  medals  of,  72 

Bolton,  Colonel,  medal  of,  78 
Bolton,  J.,  medal  of,  79 
Borneo,  North,  the  coinage  of,  96 
Bosset,  C.  P.  de,  medals  of,  80 
Bottield,  Beriah,  medals  of,  82 
Boulton,  Matthew,  medals  of,  83 
Bowling  medal,  322 
Bridgewater,  F.  H.  Earl  of,  medal 

of,  87 

Bright,  John,  Free  trade  medal  of,  SS 
British  Museum,   Greek   coins  ac- 
quired by,  1 

Brock,  D.  de  Lisle,  medal  of,  89 
Brock,  Sir  Isaac,  medal  of,  90 
Brodie,  Sir  Benjamin,  medal  of,  91 
Brodie,  Lieut. -Col.  William,  medal 

of,  92 

Brooker,  Charles,  medal  of,  93 
Brougham,  Lord, medals  of,  93—249 
Brown,  Thomas,  medal  of,  250 
Browne,  Sir  William,  medal  of,  251 
Brunei,  Sir  M.  I.,  medals  of,  252 
Bulletin  de  Numismatique  noticed, 


Burdett,  Sir  Francis,  medals  of,  254 
Byron,  Lord,  medals  of,  258 


Caligula,  coin  of,  300 
Callista,  coins  of,  9 
Calvert,  Charles,  medal  of,  261 
Cambridge,  Duke  of,  medal  of,  262 
Camden,  Earl  of,  medals  of,  263 
Camdtn,  Marquis  of,  medals  of,  265 
Canning,  George,  medals  of,  266 
Capel,  John,  medal  of,  273 
Carausius,  coins  of,  163,  308 
Carey,  William,  medals  of,  274 
Carlisle,  Nicholas,  medal  of,  276 
Garlyle,  Thomas,  mednls  of,  276 
Carrick,  Lieut. -Col.   John,   medal 
of,  277 



Carrol,  Sir  W.  P.,  medal  of,  278 
Cave,  R.  Otway,  medal  of,  279 
Chalmers,  Dr.  Thomas,  medal  of, 


Chambers,  Sir  W.,  medal  of,  281 
Chantrey,  Sir  F.,  medals  of,  282 
Charlemont,  Earl  of,  medals  of,  283 
Cilicia,  mints  in,  305 
Citium,  coin  of,  123 
CODRINGTON,    DR.    O.,    notice    of 

Atkins's  Colonial  Coinage,  364 
Commonwealth  coins,  rare,  96 
Constans,  coins  of,  33,  38 
Constantina,  the  mint  of,  29 
Constantino  the  Great,  coins  of,  33. 


Constantius  II.,  coins  of,  34 — 39 
Crete,  coins  of,  11 

"  Coins    of    the    Indo-Scythian 
King  Miaiis  or  Heraus,"  47 

"  Coins  of  the  ludo-Scythians," 


Cunninghame  medal,  the,  320 
Curling  medal,  322 
Cyprus,  coins  of,  121 
Cyzicus,  coins  of,  16 


The  coins  of  the  Durranis,  325 
Decentius,  coins  of,  34,  40 
Delphi,  coin  of,  7 
Dionysopolis,  the  mint  of,  294 
Durranis,  coins  of  the,  325 


Edinburgh  High  School,  medal  of, 

Edward  III.,  half-noble  of  his  third 

coinage,  310 
Elis,  coins  of,  9 
English  personal  medals  from  1760, 

by  H.  A.  Grueber,  F.S.A.,  59 
Erman,  Mr.  A.,  On  German  medals, 


EVANS,    JOHN,     D.C.L.,    F.R.S., 
P.S.A.  :— 

Hoard  of  Roman  coins  found  at 
East  Harptree,  near  Bristol,  22 

Finds  of  coins  : — 

Denby,  near  Barnsley, Yorkshire, 


East  Harptree,  near  Bristol,  22 
Great  Orme's  Head,  163 


Gallienus,  coin  of,  163 
Gargara  (Mysia),  coins  of,  16 
Germanicopolis,  coin  of,  300 
Giel,    Chr.,    Antike    Numismatik 

Siidrusslands  noticed,  156 
Glasgow  University  medal,  320 
Gortyna  (Crete),  coins  of,  12 
Graetz,  Dr.,  On  Jewish  coins,  165 
Gratianus,  coins  of,  36,  46 
Greek  coins  acquired  by  the  British 

Museum  in  1887,  by  W.  Wroth, 

Esq.,  1 

Greek  coins,  unpublished,  97 

German  medallists   of  the    six- 
teenth and  seventeenth  cen- 
turies, 145 
GRUEBER,  HERBERT  A.,  F.S.A.  : — 

English    personal    medals    from 
1760,  59,  249 


Harptree,  near  Bristol,   hoard  of 

coins  found  at,  22 
HEAD,  B.  V.,  D.C.L.,  Ph.D.  :  — 
"Notice    of    the    Berlin    Cata- 
logue," 154 
"  Find  of  Roma  a  coins  on  Great 

Orme's  Head,"  163 
"  Germanicopolis  and  Philadel- 
phia in  Cilicia,"  300 
"  Notice  of  Reinach's  Trots  roy- 
aumes  de  V Asie  Minettre,"  364 
Heraiis  or  Miaiis,  coins  of,  47 
Hercules  Deusoniensis,  30l> 

On  a  find  of  Stycas,  95 
HOWORTH,  H.  H.,  F.S.A.  :— 
The  Eastern  capital  of  the  Seleu- 
cidse,  293 


lasos,  coins  of,  IOC 
Indo-Scythian  coins,  47,  199,  286 
Issos,  coins  of,  114 

Jewish  coins  with  the  "  Lulab  " 

and  "Portal,"  165 
Jewish  shekel  of  year  5,  21 
Jovianus,  coins  of,  35,  43 
Jubilee  coinage  proclamation,  290 
Julianus  II.,  coins  of,  35,  40 


Kettlewell,    W.    W.,   Esq.,    sends 
hoard  of  coins  for  examination,  24 


Khorasan,  coins  of,  325 
Kushans,  the,  48 


Lampsacus,  coins  of,  110 

Latus  (Crete),  coins  of,  13 

Law  of  Lauriston,  medals  of,  317 

Lesbos,  coin  of,  19 

Lincoln,  on  a  Danish  coin,  138 

Lisus  (Crete),  coin  of,  13 

"  Lulab,"  the,  on  Jewish  coins,  166 


Macedonian  coins,  1 
Magnus  the  Good,  pennies  of,  138 
Mahmud  Shah,  coins  of,  351 
Maronea  (Thrace),  2 
Maues  of  Bactria,  coin  of,  21 
Medallists,  German,  145 
Medals,  English  personal,  59,  249 
Medals  of  Scotland,  316 
Miaiis  or  Heraiis,  coins  of,  47 
Mint-marks,  Roman,  28 
Mints  of  Durrani  coins,  360 
Monetary   standard   of    Indo-Scy- 

thian  coins,  216 
Monograms     on     Indo  -  Scythian 

coins,  204 
MONTAGU,  H.,  ESQ.,  F.S.A.  : — 

On    the    Jewish   "Lulab"   and 

"Portal"  coins,  by  Dr.  Graetz, 

Rare  and  unpublished  Common- 
wealth coins,  96 

On  the  half -noble  of  the  third 

coinage  of  Edward  III..  310 
Muhammad  Shah,  coins  of,  357 

Nissa,  the  capital  of  the  Seleucidae, 

Nur-ud-din,  coins  of,  357 


Olbia,  coin  of,  5 
OMAN,  C.,  F.S.A.  :— 

A  new  type  of  Carausius,  308 
Orontes,  coins  of,  106 


Pandosia,  coin  of,  6 
Panjab,  the  Sakas  in  the,  240 
Patrje  (Achaia),  coin  of,  8 

Medals  of  Scotland,  316 
Pelinna,  coin  of,  5 


Persian  couplets  on  coii-s,  335 
Perth  Golfing  Club  medal,  321 
Pewter  vessel  in  which  Roman 

coins  were  found,  25 
Pheneus,  coins  of,  102 
Philadelphia  in  Cilicia,  coin  of, 


Phlius,  coins  of,  97 
PIXLEY,  F.  W.,  ESQ.  :  - 

The  North  Borneo  coinage,  96 
Polemo  II.,  coin,  of,  15 
"  Portal,"  the,  on  Jewish  coins,  160 
PKEVOST.  A.,  ESQ.  :— 

On  Swiss  Tir  medals,  323 
Proclamation  as  to  new  coinage  in 

1887,  290 


Qaisar  Shah,  coins  of,  356 


Reinach,  T.  •    Trois  royaumes    de 

1'Asie  Mineure  noticed,  364 
Repertoire  des  sources  imprimees  de 
la  Num.  fran9aise,  par  A.  Engel 
et  R.  Serrure,  noticed,  289 
Revue  numismatique  noticed,  15S, 


Ring,  Roman,  from  Harptree,  26 
Roman  coins  found  at  Harptree,  22 
Russian  numismatics,  ancient,  156 

Sabaces,  coins  of,  132 

Sakas,  the,  47,  229 

Sauromates  L,  coins  of,  16 

Scottish  medals,  316 

Seleucidse,  the  Eastern  capital  of, 


Seleucis  and  Pieria,  coin  of,  20 
Shuja-ul-Mulk,  coins  of,  354 
Sind,  Kings  of,  237 
Siphnos,  coin  of,  14 
Six,  M.  J.  P.  :- 

Monnaies   grecquea    medites    et 

incertaines,  97 
SMITH,  SAMUBL  J.,  ESQ.  :— 

Were  Anglo-Saxon  coins  always 

struck  at  the  towns  named  on 

them?  138 
Society  of  Solicitors  of  Scotland, 

-medal  of,  317 
Spithridates,  coin  of,  17 
Stycas,  find  of,  95 
Swiss  Tir  medals,  323 
Syracuse,  coin  of,  1 

3  c 




Taimur  Shah,  coins  of,  343 
Tegea  (Arcadia),  coin  of,  11 
Tetricus,  coin  of,  163 
Tnaliadse,  coin  of,  102 
Thebes  (Boeotia),  coin  of,  7 
Th^bas  (Thessaly,  coin  of,  6 
Ticket   engraved  "  Running    Sta- 
tioner," &c.,  317,  318 
Tissaphernes,  coins  of,  106 
Tryphsena  of  Pontus,  15 
Tyana  (Cappadocia),  coin  of,  19 


Yalens,  coins  of,  36,  45 
Valentinianus  I.,  coins  of,  36,  43 

Victormus,  coins  of,  163 
Vigmund,  styca  of,  95 


Waterloo  medals,  76 
"Weights  of  Durrani  coins,  332 

Greek    coins    acquired    by    the 

British  Museum  in  1887,  1 
Notice  of  Giel's  Antike  Numis- 

matik  Sudriisslauds,  156 

Find  of  coins  at  Denby,  366 

Wylie,  Sir  James,  medal  of,  317 


Zaman  Shah,  coins  of,  348 
Zeitschrift    fur    Numismatik    no- 
ticed, 160,  285 

END    OF    VOL.    VIII. 






The  Numismatic  chronicle 
and  journal  of  the  Royal 
Numismatic  Society